EART 2 Study Guide Midterm 1
EART 2 Study Guide Midterm 1 Econ 2-01
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nolan Shapiro on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Econ 2-01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Aaron Meininger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Intro to Macroeconomic in Economcs at University of California - Santa Cruz.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Lecture 1 925 httpesucsceduthorneEART2 last year39s powerpointswebsite No required sections Required Text EART 2 Earth catastrophes excerpted from Patrick L about natural disasters 9th disasters Uniformitarianism vs Catastrophism uniformitarianism Charles Lyell 17971875 Doctrine that processes observed today operating ver great spans of time give rise to largescale changes in earth Catastrophism Georges Cuvier 17691832 Doctrine that changes in the Earth have often involved sudden events caused by physical forces operating in ways not routinely observed today Uniformitarianism Uniformity of law Natural laws are invariant in space and time Uniformity of process past results are outcomes of causes in operation today Uniformity of rate Ordinary process working for a long time yields dramatic changes Uniformity of conditions No progress or direction in the system equilibrium exists quotThe most incomprehensible thing about the universe that is that it is comprehensiblequot AEinstein Catastrophe Katos over down very Strephen to turn quotA momentous tragic usually sudden event marked by effects ranging from extreme misfortune to utter overthrow or ruin Lecture 2 From Rocks and Minerals to the Big Bang Lecture Outline scientific method not a linear procedure particulate nature of matter 0 minerals atoms 0 periodic table of the elements Earth39s cosmological context 0 planet solar system galaxy o spectroscopy abundances First evidence for the big bang o doppler red shift of the galaxies and the creation of the universe Scientific Method formulate question make observations hypothesis to explain observations test hypothesis with future observations If necessary replace or amend hypothesis repeat is the question answered Question Why do things fall Observations facts eg apples fall towards earth Thoroughly tested hypotheses become theories eg theory of gravitation theory of evolution What is a rock Observe solid inanimate varying textures colors weights Experiment Crush it small regular parts identify as minerals Hypothesis Pure forms elements made of atoms Test it heat it up separate components Answer rocks are composite solids made of crystal structures with regular ordered atomic lattices of various atoms Scientists have developed many ways to measure compositions and properties of matter chemistry mass spectrometers direct measurement spectroscopy light from glowing object So humans began to count So What is Earth 0 Observe A rocky planet with oceans atmosphere and biological lifeforms Observe Hot rocks and gas from interior 0 Measure Shallow rocks have silica oxygen iron aluminum etc How about deeper Need a Hypothesis This stuff got here somehow how and from where Need to look outward Earth is part of a solar system Heliocentric Pythagoras 580500 BC Copernicus 1473154 AD Kepler 15711630 Laws of Planetary Motion The sun is the quotkeyquot 0 what is the sun made of observe seems pretty hot 0 does its light tell us anything Making light quotusefulquot 0 Fraunhofer1814 Brighter lines gt emission Gark lines gt absorption of light of certain wave lengths Light has quotwavequot behavior wavelength CT c speed of light 300000 kmsec tfrequency Using periodic table of elements heat up every element and see what colors are reflected through prism and compare to a very large prism that uses the sun39s light to reflect all of it39s colors Meteorites have some heavy element composition as the sun bc meteorites can39t hold light elements while traveling through space bc gravity Meteorites and Earth have similar composition Using sun and reflected colors through prism and other stars that we can see their light we can deduce what the universe is made of Our sun is in a big galaxy 200 billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy 0 Central Black hole gt32 million solar masses 0 2000000 light years to Andromeda Nebula closest galaxy Doppler shift high pitch tone object car coming to you low pitch going away Redshift longer wavelengths object moving towards you Blue shift shorter moving away So galaxies are moving apart Universe is currently expanding Hmmm run time backward everything was closer together 0 Further and further back 137 Billion years ago it all converges Big bang Genesis you were there Lecture 3 From the Big Bang to our solar nebula Big Bang Inferred from current expansion of the Universe observed in the redshift of distant galaxies quotIn the beginningmothers was an explosion An explosion which occurred everywhere with every particle rushing apart from every particlequot Steven Weinberg Big Bang Process T01 s tempgt10quot1 1 K matter is subatomic particles T1 s matter is electrons positrons neutrinos photons density 4x10quot9 gmcmquot3 T 1s temp10quot10k T180 s temp10quot9k protons and neutrons from HHEnuclei 73 mass is H 27 HE At high temp there a lot of collisions Fusion 10quot1010quot9 K Collision of protons Deuterium nucleus Tritium or quot3He nuclei Helium nucleus Energy 175000 kW gram of quot4He Temp and particle density drop quickly 0 After 3 min temp and pressure below threshold for fusion only elements are H and He plus trace Li B 10000300000 years universe expands cools particle density lowers until it becomes Transparent photons propagate without absorption origin of microwave background radiaTion Temp about 3k 0 12 billion years matter groups by gravity into Galaxies with First stars made of H and He We can39t see all the universe 0 Light we observe today led distant objects long ago we don39t know what just happened to them since We can see back to time Background radiation 0 1965 bell lab and Princeton astrophysicists detect ubiquitous microwave radiation everywhere The oldest stars galaxies are indeed low in metals 0 So how does the universe have elements heavier than H and He Where to make elements 0 Need sustaine very high temp and pressure longer than such conditions lasted during the Big Bang Stars are the Key 0 Stars result from gravity pulling gasand dust together Pressure and collisions between particles increase This causes temp to increase 0 When temp reaches 10000000 K fusion of h to make he 0 Heat makes the star want to expand gravity makes it want to contract reach a balance as long as fusion sustains When h fusion runs out Eventually one burns up all available h making He from it Then fusion ceases and gravity causes to core to collapse and outer layers of the star expand outward as red giant phase When h fusion runs out in a really big star 0 But if the star is big enough as matter packs closed together in the collapsing core it heats up If there is enough matter star size the He core of the star may exceeds T 10quot8k 3 he ados can then collide helium burning to make a new element C Fusion balances gravity star sustains Stars are Forges of the elements 0 At higher and higher Can build up to iron fe For massive stars larger than ours internal tempera can exceed 2 billion k then si fusion procedure fe Problem cannot get Fe to burn star core eventually will run out of fusion heart When fe is all made 0 Fe core of star will begin to collapse o If fe coregt 15 solar mass total mass gt6 solar mass gravity will lack until temp is 50 bil Protons and electrons collide to make neutrons releasing vast energy in seconds as neutrinos Star explodes supernova Supernova Core collapses releases massive energy 0 Shock waves blasts out shallow layers of sta spreading elements into interstellar space extends at 15000 miles sec 1 bil times brighter than sun Shockwave locally with Tgt4 bil K synthesizes elements heavier than Fe Lecture 4 Explosion Aftermath star core collapses packing neutrons together Neutron star pulsars initial star 630 solar masses pack 14 solar mass in 10 mile diameter fast spi 150 lb person would weigh 1 million tons on surface 0 Black Hole initial star gt Historical Supernovae 1054 crab nebula 500 light years away 0 1572 tycho39s star 0 1604 renaissance star 0 1987 large magellanic cloud feb 24 light arrived 175000 star sanduleak 69202 about 15 solar masses detected neutrino flux Summary of Evidence 0 big bang 0 red shift of the galaxies 0 background radiation 0 theory predicts h he abundance 0 early stars are h he rich metal poor nucleosynthesis in stars 0 experimental physics explosions accelerometers o theory predicts relative abundances observed supernova debris Solar system formation condensation laplace 1596 descartes 1644 encounter de buffon 1785 nebular turbulence current thought Observations planets in plane orbit and most spin with sun39s axis planet distribution regular Bode39s Law rn1 2rn planet bulk composition varies with distance from sun 0 sun has 999 mass planetsgt 98 angular momentum Lecture 5 Initial conditions Moon revolved around Earth every six hours but since it has been moving back ever since the creation of it the revolution now takes 24 hours Goldilocks World Earth39s environment is precariously poised tiny changes would lead to very different worlds 1 Size Earth is big enough to hold onto N 0 H20 and CO2 but small enough to let H and He escape 2 Position Earth39s distance from the sun yields a 39reasonable39 influx of radiation Don39t get wildly extreme atmospheric cycles and storms 3 Temp incoming radiation from the Sun heats the surface close to the temp where water is liquid With a little greenhouse warming all three phases of water vapor liquid ice can exist on Earth Water is a great solvent and has the odd property that as it freezes it becomes less dense ice floats 4 Tilted rotational axis from lunar impact Tilt makes seasons and oscillatory heating and cooling of the poles Before lunar formation 6 hours to revolve around earth magma on that outside ocean underneath with a molten lron core no atmosphere oceans continued meteorite amp comet rain until 39 gyr After 24 hour revolution convecting mantle inside with crust molten solid core solid rocky surface atmosphere amp ocean initially 002 atmosphere then 02 life Earth stratification Earth is a planet that is Chemically differentiated radially stratified layered Layers are Crust Mantle and Core Melting played a dominant role in separating chemicals in the Earth Near surface rocks melt at about 1000 degrees Deep in the mantle around 4000 degrees The first half billion years were hell hades Hadean times 45539 gyr Intense meteorite bombardment Magma Ocean Earth was hotter by hundreds of degrees Mantle convection was more vigorous H20 002 and other gases released by intense volcanism built up the atmosphere and hydrosphere Granite rocks silicarich began to form continents Big impactos gt100km replaced our entire atmosphere with rock vapor for a few centuries not pleasant probably happened several times while early life struggle to evolve The Intense Bombardment Continued for 500 million years c The surface was a magma ocean Early atmosphere and oceans were blown away 0 Any start on life was reset 0 This is Hadean from 45539 bya Eventually things calm down mantle cools ocean and atmosphere accumulate and sustain The earth has 39evolved39 because it is a dynamic system 0 Earth cools releasing heat of accretion Internal melting causes light materials to rise dense materials to sink Earth flows 0 gas and water released from leting rock build up atmosphere and oceans over time 0 life appears and modifies the surface environment and the atmosphere The core convects Earth39s magnetic field shields its surface from much harmful radiation Earth39s Dynamic Systems 0 Internal motions driven by cooling of the planet over time in presence of gravity atmospheric oceanic motions driven by heating Continental rocks record history after that Hadean Earliest life on Earth Oldest rocks are 39 byo no evidence of life 0 38 bya rocks with quot12C graphite with light carbon photosynthesis 35 bya filamentous microfossils in Australia and Africa 0 Look like cyanobacteria bluegreen algae Photosynthetic Probably not but some controversy remains Earliest Llfe Stromatolites at 35 bya in Australia and Africa Mounds of calcium carbonate CaCO3 and chert SiO2 Fossil microbial mats Found alive today in intertidal zones today Photosynthetic and anoxic bacteria Ancient may be chemophotosynthesis Such a long long time 0 life has existed 35 billion years So what is life boundariesquot organized structures smallest unit is a cel Metabolismquot Harvest energy from environment to build and maintain the body and move Reproduce Makes new copies of themselves Heredity Offspring have traits passed down from parents Respond react to external stimuli Homeostasis Maintain an internal state of balanced Diffusion transport material into and out of cell limits size Chemistry of life carbonbased most molecules in a cell have c bonded to either itself or h tremendous complexity liquid water cells are full of water main component of cytoplasm universal solvent 0 basic elements other than C N O H P and S are present in many molecules All were fairly common on early Earth Key large biological molecules 0 proteins made of amino acids strung together in long chains used for structure in animals molecular transport catalysts lipids made of fatty acids strung together in long chains used to make membranes and for energy storage carbs sugars either individually or strung together used for structure cellhouse and energy structure starch Nucleic acids made of sugar phosphate and a base either individually or strung together in long chains rna and dna central to information transfer in replication atp central to energy homeostasis Lecture 6 Buy 5 pink scantrons for course In class exam on next Fri Recap Early life on Earth Archean 39 byr to 25 byr Singlecell bacteria and archaea doing chemosynthesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis No nucleus prokaryotic very small 1 Early sun 75 as bright 2 CO2 greenhouse Nolittle free 02 3 Strong tides 18 hour day 4 Slowing impacts large one each 100000000 years Pilbara AustraliaEarliest Fossils Oldest 347 bya unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks 0 Contains putative microfossils of ancient bacteria Earliest organisms were prokaryotes bacteria and archaea Making the building blocks 0 Alexander Oparin 1930s Amino acids fatty acids sugars nucleic acids produced by atmospheric chemical reactions Rain to Earth to make Primordial Soup MillerUrey Experiments early 1950s Ran an electric current through a simulated atmosphere for early Earth water methane ammonia etc Made geojunk rich in amino acids and sugars New ideas about atmosphere suggest it had more carbon dioxide than methane which cuts the yield of molecules greatly ChybaSagan 1990s Comets are rich in organic moleculejs Extraterrestrial source for building blocks Hooking up There are many sources for building blocks but linking them into chains is hard work Building blocks rdilute in a 3D medium and most chemical linkages between building blocks are dehydration reactions ie they spit out a water molecule Prebiotic Pizza Clay minerals concentrate building blocks out of solution and catalyze reactions Protometabolism Dehydration occurs on mineral surfaces where other energy releasing chemical reactions are occurring Prebiotic farm Lipid and protein bubbles trap and concentrate molecules 0 Ice beer model Freezing concentrates molecules Energy Options for Life Energy for life comes from high energy electrons passed from molecule to molecule in cell releasing energy Energy releases is used to quotchange upquot ADP to ATP by adding a phosphate ion stores energy for processes Autotrophs capture energy from light or chemical reactions Chemoautotrophs inorganic reactions eg Methanogens unicellular archaea CO2 H gives methane water atp in cow guts 500 liters day cow methane Heterotrophs energy by consuming organic compounds Fermenting heterotrophs reduce glucose to ethanol carbon dioxide and 2 ATP done in eubacteria anaerobic Likely both common in early earth New options needed as hydrogen gas and prebiotic organic compounds were consumed Photoautotrophs absorb light energy using molecules with organicmetal complexes porphyrins like chlorophyll energy charges up ATP then make sugar Photosynthesis H2O CO2 light CH2O sugar 202 1 almost limitless source of food 2 oxygen toxic to earlier and archaea and eubacteria drive to anoxic environments 3 photosynthetic organisms had to develop antioxidants to protect themselves 4 increased oxygen Proterozoic Time 25 bya Archean to early Proterozoic Little Oxygen up to 32 bya Find Pyrite iron sulfide and uraninite uranium oxide in river require low oxygen levels but photosynthesis is going on since 25 bya where is the oxygen Banded iron formations 352 bya Layers of chert and iron dioxide Low 02 iron soluble chert deposits High 02 forms rust deposits Alternating waves of 02 from stromatolites Fluctuating Mechanism Banded lron Formations Sediments with alternating layers of Chert SiO2 oxidized iron materials When there is Cyanobacteria Oxygenation of the atmosphere and ocean Cyanobacteria Evolution The oldest confident evidence for cyanobacteria at this point is 215 ga fossils from Canada But maybe we can use a more indirect method looking for the increase in atmospheric oxygen produced by cyanobacteria The oxygen revolution Proxy evidence suggests that atmospheric oxygen levels increased rapidly between 245232 from 001 PAL to 110 Proxies Banded iron formations and manganese deposits Detrital pyrite and uraninite Paleosol quotred bedsquot Molybdenum concentrations in sediment Sulfur isotopes But oxygenation Endosymbiosis Hypothesis Mitochondria and chloroplasts were once freeliving bacteria that took up residence inside the cell of another organism Eukaryotic cells result the organelles are separated from the cytoplasm by complex membranes These organelles retain their own DNA reproduce by fission Genetic structure of organelles more like bacteria than host cell Mitochondria like purple bacteria chloroplasts like cyanobacteria Proterozoic 256 bya 1 Continental red beds being deposited by 23 bya requires free oxygen in atmosphere to rust iron would have begun to develop ozone layer protection from radiation 2 Eukaryotes from by Endosymbiosis 1817 bya fossil eukaryotes diversity increases by 12 bya Eukarya Larger cells almost all do aerobic respiration Mitochondria can do aerobic respiration when O2 is 2 of now Chloroplasts can do photosynthesis when O2 is 10 of now 0 27 bya sterols in rocks 1st evidence of cell wall like eukarya 1817 bya large fossils grypania almost certainly a eukaryote Snowball earth 0 it appears that several times 2 4 between 800 and 600 mya the earth iced over completely evidence 0 glaciers at sea level near equators 0 Ocean rocks indicate no photosynthesis 0 Thick layer of calcium carbonate CaCO3 above glacial deposits 0 How did it start 0 lower solar intensity removal of CO2 from air 0 Run away 0 Ice spreads from poles reflects sunlight planet cools How does it end 0 volcanos keep erupting o no photosynthesis or rock weathering to suck up CO2 0 Greenhouse warming 0 rapid rock weathering leads to CaCO3 deposits Lecture 7 Relative Time Rock record Simple rules of deposition Fossils Evolution speciation extinction Absolute time Radioactive dating The biblical Context Biblical literalists dated Genesis from genealogies in the bible mid160039s Archbishop Ussher Earth39s birthday was Oct 2 4004 BC 1654 revised by John Lightfoot Oct 26 4004 80 at 9 am in Mesopotamia Enter Renaissance Thinkers Types of Rocks Sedimentary rocks accumulated by breaking up eroding older rock or chemical precipitation eg salt or depositing shells Igneous rocks solidified from molten rock magma eg granites lava Metamorphic rocks apply high temperature andor pressure to existing rock of any other type Rock Rules Nicolaus Steno 16381686 Lava flows and sediments form from flowing material lava or flowing water that spreads out Hence Principal of Original Horizontality layering in sediments and lavas formed within a few degrees of horizontal Principal of lateral continuity a layer may change in thickness but will be continuous Thus a bed that looks the same and is the same age can be correlated Principal of Superposition younger rocks on top of older rocks except in the case of magma injected into other rocks Unconformities Lost Record Jame Hutton39s book Theory of the Earth 17881795 Unconformities represent gaps in the rock record during which erosion took place Rocks below an unconformity could have been uplifted tilted folded overturned etc then eroded followed by renewed deposition Vast time intervals may be missing Have to look at many locations to piece together a complete sequence by correlating from place to place Hutton39s Unconformity James Hutton 17261797 Scottish Plutonism vs Neptunism Granddaddy of uniformitarianism quotno vestige of beginning no prospect of an endquot Uniformitarianism vs Catastrophism 0 Uniformitarianism o Doctrine that processes observed today operating over great spans of time give rise to largescale changes in the Earth Catastrophism o Doctrine that changes in the Earth have often involved sudden events caused by physical forces operating in ways not routinely observed today Early catastrophism was biblebased Stratigraphic Correlation Rock layers are called beds or Strata The study of the lateral variation or vertical succession of strata is called stratigraphy Stratigraphic correlation can be made by rock type Fossils help because of Principle of Faunal Succession First stated by William Smith 17691839 he used fossil and sediment types to make 1st geologic map After Snowball Earth Appearance of Multicellular Animals Metazoans Differentiation of cells coding for onoff switches developmental sequence gt bigger specialized structures longer lives Diverse forms around 700 Mya including multicellular algae fungi and soft bodied animals Complex Life Record 0 Low diversity of life in PreCambrian prior to 544 mya and low rock preservation gives little time resolution based on fossils must use radioactive decay to date Cambrian explosion and after has great diversification of life and attendant extinction Distinct flora and fauna succeed one another providing a relative The diversity of life is recorded in the roc lndex Fossils Life forms useful for biostratigraphic correlation have 0 Short existence from first occurrence speciation to extinction Spatially wide occurrence Abundance Likelihood of preservation Good index fossils often 1 are oceanic because they can easily migrate around the world 2 have shells or bones 3 are low on the food chains thus there are lots of them Geological Relative time scale cenozoic mesozoic paleozoic proterozoic archean hadean new to old Lecture 8 On to absolute time geologists can measure time directly by annual cycles and deposition rate sedimentation rates what you see today extrapolates back varves annual seasonal fluctuation in deposits layers 0 Tree rings annual seasonal fluctuations Need something better physics Lord Kelvin39s Estimate of Earth39s Age in 1862 Assume Earth was once molten Cools by heat conduction Use observed increase of temperature with depth in mines to extrapolate temperature through Earth Then calculate how long it has taken to cool by laws of heat conduction Answer 2040 mil years Good try based on Science but Wrong Why Faulty assumptions 0 Earth has a major continuing heat source radioactivity hadn39t been discovered yet Cools by heat convectionalso hadn39t been conceived yet Radioactive dating techniques 189039s radioactivity discovered 1902 theory to explain it Ernest Rutherford Early 20th century first radiometric dating Decays generate heat Parent Daughter Half Life 235U 207pb 710 myr 238 u 206 pb 45 gyr 40 k 40 ar 13 gyr 87rb 87 sr 47 gyr 14c 14n 5573 yr If one can measure both the amount of parent and daughter then one can calculate the age JeanBaptiste Lamarck 17441829 First widely discussed theory of evolution Spontaneous generation of organisms through history Organic Flux usedisuse of parts causes transformation beings moved up chain Inheritance of acquired characteristics No extinction would great gaps in the chain Top of the chain is oldest George Cuvier 17691832 Great geologistanatomist paleontologist Life is bushy not linear No organic flux species are real stable highfunctioning machines no intermediates Charles Darwin 18091882 Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Accepts both evolution and extinction and that life is bushy Strongly influenced by Lyell39s Principles of Geology 1830 Applied uniformitarianism to biology Evidence for Evolution Homology Structural similarities among organisms To Owen 1848 similarities indicated that organisms Vestigial features Structures that are functionless in a species but homologous to a functioning structure in other species Morphology similar and vestigial organs and bones geographic distribution eg marsupial of australia Fossil record Predicted intermediates between major groups are known from the fossil record Classification Nested Hierarchy organisms form hierarchies of increasing similarity Natural Selection If 1 a population displays variability 2 and this variability is heritable 3 and it leads to different reproductive success Then The population39s traits will shift evolve toward the favored characteristics Darwin and gradualism Darwin recognized that rates of evolution varied from slow to fast His theory required that the history of life has no gaps not that evolution occurs all the time or at the same rate Yet he always emphasized the gradual slow progressive nature of the processes leading to both evolution and extinction No catastrophes or sudden changes in rate Evolution largely driven by continuous competition among organisms Little focus on environmental forcing If the fossil record failed to show expected intermediates this was because quotimperfectionsquot in the record ie lots of time not represented by rock Lots of Death Fossils show abrupt transitions where entire species genera families present at one time are not present in any younger rocks Mass extinctions How abrupt is the 39event39 it is an artefact Imperfections of the rock record timing is it because of missing record Issues related to mass extinctions 1 rates 2 kill mechanisms 3 fundamental causes 4 periodicity Book Notes 0 Most widely accepted hypothesis for the origin of the solar system was stated by Immanuel Kant in 1775 He thought that the Solar System had formed by growth of the Sun and planets through collisions of matter within a rotating cloud of gas and dust The greatest accumulation of matter occurred in the center of the disk building towards today s sun 0 The remaining rings of matter in the revolving Solar system formed into large bodies as particles continued colliding and fusing together to create plantes The origin of the moon is that Earth was struck by a Marssize body which generated a massive cloud of dust and vapor part of which condensed into the MOon this theory suggests that the Moon is made mostly from Earth s rocky mantle Earth appears to have been formed about 46 billion years ago 0 Earth in its infancy probably grew from random collision of debris that formed a more or less homogenous mixture of materials As earth began to rise in temp to due to impact energy liquid iron began to flow to the core which then again released more energy that converted to heat The release of this massive amount of heat would eventually form a primitive crust of lowdensity rocks at the surface of Earth large oceans a denser atmosphere The planet was changed from a somewhat homogenous ball into a density stratified mass with the denser materials in the center and progressively less dense materials outward to the atmosphere Lower denser materials eventually formed continents oceans and atmosphere
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