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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Katherine Keller

Exam 2 Study Guide CLAS 220 001

Katherine Keller
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Classical Mythology
Jason Osborne

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About this Document

Study Guide for the second exam. It covers Chapters 10 - 16, as well as Hippolytus and Bacchae. Will be updated as he goes over information in class.
Introduction to Classical Mythology
Jason Osborne
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katherine Keller on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 220 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jason Osborne in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Artemis Birth 0 Child of Zeus and Leto I Hera tries to delay the birth Twin of Apollo Born first and helped with the birth of her brother 0 Born on Mt Cynthus on Delos Called Cynthia Appearance and Nature 0 Virgin goddesses Associated with childbirth the hunt the moon 0 Short skirt sandals loose clothing 0 Bow and arrow the animals Niobe 0 Women of Thebes honor Leto and children 0 Niobe s boast Rich beautiful queen mother of seven She should be honored more than Leto who only had two children 0 The vengeance of the gods Artemis Apollo kill all the children I Turn her to a stone that cries and put her on a mountain top in Phrygia Acteon 0 Artemis at the spring bathing o Innocence of Acteon just wanders onto Artemis o Punishment Sacred chastity of Artemis Turned into a stag and killed by his own hounds o No way to go against the gods Callisto and Arcas o Devout follower of Artemis 0 Loved by Zeus Banned by Artemis Gave birth to Arcas o Punished by Hera I Turned into a bear 0 Ursa Major Ursa Minor Orion 0 Mighty hunter and very large 0 Attempted rape of Artemis 0 Killed by a scorpion 0 Orion and dog Sirius and scorpion put into the stars I Origins of Artemis o Fertility goddess I Not necessarily sexuality I Association with childbirth young animals humans 0 Goddess of Moon I Association with menstrual cycle I Poor thing 0 Goddess of Nature I Virgin huntress I Rejection of sexuality 0 Misandry I Hatred of men I Rejection of sexuality men 0 Lesbian overtones I Virginal pure I Her band of followers Hippolytus I Some major themes 0 The arrogance of chastity morality I People who are supremely moral are prideful of it I Problem for society Drives society Denies true human nature 0 The humanness of sin I Acting in a way that you re not supposed to rebellion I More comfortable with sinners than saints o The injustice of the man god relationship I Chastity o Hippolytus refusing to honor Aphrodite I He feels as though she is too dirty for him I Relationships are too complicated for his life I Love in itself causes difficulties I Morality is different than pride 0 Hippolytus learns the truth I Revulsion of the sin itself I Holds everyone to the same standard to which he holds himself I Nurse man was born to err I Men made to sin Hippolytus is not good 0 Hippolytus reflections on women I He rejects some aspects of femininity and women I What is the benefit of women just overall 0 Hippolytus on his own chastity I I am the least sinful ever hubris nemesis o Phaedra discussing adultery and hypocrisy I Despises those who seem moral on the outside but secretly are bad 0 The Nurse to Phaedra I Denying love is denying Aphrodite Living out of bounds of nature Extremes are usually bad I Sin itself is common to humanity Nature of the Gods o Aphrodite Hippolytus demonstrates extremes mean way is the best way Jealousy among gods If someone doesn t like her she punishes them 0 Artemis Can t help Hippolytus Going to go kill someone who Aphrodite loves o No justice between man and god The mortal lives as the man lives the god does as the god does 0 Can t change baser nature 0 Apollo Birth 0 Leto and Zeus Twin sister of Artemis Born in Delos Sacred as birthplace of Apollo Important temple complex Home of Delian League Nursed by Themis with ambrosia and nectar Associated with prophecy lyre archery sun Most important deity represents ideal man intelligence Delphi 0 Foot of Mt Parnassus o Defeat of the dragon Python Pytho l rot The sun rotting the dragon The Western deities replacing Eastern deities o The Omphalos Navel of the world 0 Apollo Delphinius Apollo as a dolphin Cretan priests o Pythian Games Athletic intellectual games Second only to Olympics 0 Temple Complex Near Athens International Amphictyonic Counsel 0 The Oracle I Offering sacrifice by inquirer The Pythia The Priest or Prophet Closed in winter Apollo in land of Hyperboreans I The Loves of Apollo o Attempted affairs 0 Cumaean Sibyl I Prophecy I Life without youth Cassandra I Important in terms of Greek saga I Trojan Princess I Loved by Apollo granted gift of prophesy I He is rejected makes her unbelievable I Prophesy in vain Marpessa I Chooses mortal over god I Mortal will live along with her and wont leave her when she gets old I Grandchild of Ares Cyrene I Athletic nymph I Success I Carries her off to Libya and has a child Aristaeus Daphne I Would rather be a tree than get with Apollo I Turns into laurel tree I Laurel wreath becomes sacred to Apollo Hyacinth I Spartan youth I 5th century I Much more interaction between males sexualized I Killed by discus thrown by Apollo I Turned into flower Cyparissus I Youth from Ceos I Had a beloved deer that died I So depressed wishes for death I Turned into a cypress which is associated with sadness Coronis I She had an affair in Thessaly I Apollo found out from a raven I He kills her w arrow He saves their child Asclepius Raised by Chiron in medicine Becomes god of healing Incubation sleeping in a holy place His followers were doctors o Hippocrates was one of them Has a staff with one snake confused w Hermes staff Musical Contests 0 Marsyas the satyr The winner can do whatever to the loser Marsyas is flayed alive 0 Pan Flute vs lyre Midas ears transformed Hermes Birth 0 Zeus and Maia daughter of Atlas 0 Born at dawn wants to steal cattle at midday o In the evening steals eats cattle and then gets back in bed Nature of Hermes o Thief rogue Archetypal trickster God of Thieves and Liars Clever deception Anthropomorphism everybody needs their idol even thieves o Messenger Travelers hat Sandals Wings Caduceus heralds wand Often confused with Asclepius wand Represents commerce and trade Maybe good representation of modern day medicine largely corporations attempting to make money a lot of capitalization and monopolization o Athenian Herms I Sicilian Expedition 415 BC Alcibades general For good luck 0 Hermes Trismegistus Gets associated with luck mystery magic I Comes from Egyptian god Thoth o Hermes and Aphrodite Hermaphrodites Most beautiful male ever but pure 0 Salmacis the nymph fell in love Attacked him while he was bathing They became one Dionysus Pan Echo and Narcissus Dionysus 0 Birth Childhood Origins Zeus and Seleme have an affair Zeus took the form of a mortal Hera finds out and gets revenge Approaches Semele and convinces her to ask to see his true form Semele does so and is burned alive Her child survives divine Zeus puts the unborn child into his thigh to keep alive Born and takes place as an Olympian God Dionysus may not be original Greek God but is at least around by the Mycenaean Age Associated with a hat 0 God of vegetation the vine grape making wine mob fury religious ecstasy Associated with wine drunkenness and the consequences of being drunk 0 Nature and worship Ecstatic spiritual release through music and dance Possession of followers by the god Ripping apart of animal and eating of raw flesh Hightens understanding of truth and the nature of the god Very popular theme in ancient sculptures Orgy itself comes from idea of anger loss of rational mind Groups of worshippers Male leader playing part of Dionysus Baccae Maenads 0 Female devotees 0 Mortal women who becomes possessed o Psychotropic drugs involved Satyrs 0 Male counterpart to the Maenads 0 Part man part goat 0 Love singing music wine 0 Sexually aggressive Love chasing Maenads Think of Hercules ugh Always drunk and horny Sileni 0 Older more lecherous versions of satyrs o Wiser 0 Can t always tell them apart though 0 Relation to King Midas Capture and return of Silenus the original I Returned to Dionysus for a gift Everything Midas touches turns to gold It turns into a curse Gets rid of curse through the river Pactolus Has gold in the stream bed Dionysia One of the great festivals in antiquity Second in importance to Panathenia Competitions o Tragedy Trilogy Satyr Play Related to goats Comic part 0 Mythic connotation but with satyrs 0 Comedy Aristophanes Not a lot of comedies around 0 Greek works we have nowadays all made for the Dionysia Pan 0 Pan means all 0 Similar to satyrs sileni I Horns ears legs of goat I Love of music I Created panpipes out of the reeds of Syrinx I Lustful 0 Various origin stories I Maybe child of Hermes Apollo I Musician I God of shepherds I Relation to Satan horns o Honored by Athenians I Appearance to Phidippides 0 Battle of Marathon 0 Runs to Athens to tell of victory 0 Pan talks about the refusal of worship Athens reconsider I Panic pan blowing his horn and creates that fear within you Echo and Narcissus o Narcissus the beautiful youth I He fell in love with himself I Runs away from all women I Nemesis raised up against him due to pride Falls in love with reflection in pool of water No way to have contact with lover So smitten that he becomes sick and withers away Becomes a flower Narcissus MORH MEANS SHAPE OR FORM I METAMORPH MEANS CHANGE 0 Echo the talkative nymph I Echo stands as watcher for Zeus and other nymphs I Gets in Hera s way while protecting a friend I Is punished by only being able to echo others I Withers away to only a voice 0 We still love narcissism today I Selfies for days The Bacchae Themes 0 Hubris Arrogance to the extreme Disrespect of gods Atheism o Inequity of man god relationship 0 Righteousness of divine punishment 0 Dealing with new customs new gods change in society Dionysus o Divine punishment 0 Dealing with hubris and disrespect of his mother Pentheus 0 Doesn t understand new customs o Thinks its weird 0 Does not want the religious change and doesn t accept it Teriesius 0 Wise beyond years 0 Knows the thoughts of the gods 0 Advises Pentheus but is not listened to The Capture of Dionysus o In chains 0 lnsu ed o Threatened o The god s word is law the gods always win The fate of Pentheus 0 His mind is clouded by Dionysus o Profaning the ceremony o A just death 0 His mother and other bacchae think he s a lion and tear him apan Everyone s upset O Demeter and the Eleusian Mysteries I The myth o The rape of Persephone I Zeus tells Hades he can have Persephone as a wife I Hades kidnaps Persephone while she is out picking flowers I The rape refers to the kidnapping o The wandering of Demeter I She travels in sorrow around the Earth I Winds up at the palace of Celeus I Nurses Demophoon until the mother catches Demeter putting the child in the fire I Demeter leaves the household the village of Eleusis builds her a temple 0 Demeter recalled by Zeus o Zeus sends for Persephone which Hades gives but not without making Persephone eat a pomegranate I Persephone spends 13 of the year with Hades the rest with her mother I The seasons when Demeter isn t with Persephone everything dies winter 0 The Mysteries I Worship of Demeter 0 Interpretation 0 Birth Death Rebirth I Crop cycle 0 Zeus Demeter I Sky god and earth mother made Persephone o Redemption Immortality of the soul I Demophoon I Mysteries The Eleusinian Mysteries 0 Eleusis I Near Athens 0 Anyone can join but you must keep it a secret 0 Secret Ceremony Hymn to Demeter most important source Not much is known kept too secret Alcibades accused of profaning the mysteries o Lesser Mysteries Preliminary steps 0 Greater Mysteries Full initiation Views of the Afterlife The Realm of Hades The Underworld 0 Realm of Hades 0 Eternal Existence The soul continues after death Everyone goes to the same place 0 Development of views overtime Homer The Odyssey Can not assume that the poetry reflects real thoughts of people living at this time Book11 Odysseus 0 Shades blood 0 Tiresias He always knows whats up 0 Parade of Heroes Achilles Agamemnon Ajax 0 Punishments I Tantalus pushing a rock up a hill Sisyphus o Joyless eternal existence Plato Myth of Er The Republic A warrior who went to the Underworld and came back The Underworld is not as bleak as Homer descnbed Afterlife 0 Bad Judgement 0 Good Reward Reincarnation 0 Choice of life After going to heaven or the underworld Get to choose what you want your next life to be 0 The river Lethe Removes all of your memory deja vu Then sent up to your next life 0 Rebirth Neverending cycle Vergil The Aeneid 1st century BC Aeneas o Trojan hero 0 Father of Roman Race Descent in Italy 0 Charon the Ferryman River Acheron o Mythological catalogue Centaurs gorgons Briareus Harpies etc Cerberus o Divided Realms Fields of Mourning Wasted and consumed by relentless and cruel lovequot Dido ex of Aeneas Fields of Heroes Died in combat Tartarus Punishment for the wicked Sisyphus Titans Elysian Fields Paradise Anchises father of Aeneas


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