Sociology 222 - Exam 3
Sociology 222 - Exam 3 222
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Popular in Sociology
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Setters on Monday December 8, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 222 at University of Massachusetts taught by Naomi Gerstel in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Sociology at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 12/08/14
EXAM 3 STUDY QUESTIONS KEY TERMS 1 Genetic gestational and social parenthood a Genetic surrogates use their own eggs but use someone else s sperm b Gestational surrogates use an implant of an embryo a fertilized egg and carry the baby completely unrelated c Social parenthood i Many social debates on reproductive tech ii Opponents include the Catholic church a Breaks the link between sex and procreation marriage and disagrees with embroyo disposal iii Other opponent conservative political groups a Believes it destroys traditional familiesbad for children It lets gays have children and single parents raising children iv Other opponent are some feminist groups bc it brings issues of gender race amp class with reproductive justice only those who can afford reprod tech treatment can have children d Adoption i De nition legally transferring rights and responsibilities concerning child to non biological parents can be nationalinternational iL Types 1 Step parents 2 Public foster care 3 Private agencies 4 Independent attorney or physician iHlssues 1 Who has the right to parent Class less privileged to more privileged Marital status single parent China says no Sexual orientation same sex yn Race transracial Gender i Birth mother ii Putative father sperm but may not know he produced a baby DP0939 a Through observations the study found that middle class children exuded a sense of entitlement and the right to pursue their individual preferences whereas working class children showed a sense of constraint in their interactions b Result of middle class push of activities and accomplishments compared to working class relaxed parenting sets back children in academics compared to their peers 6 Daddy bonus a Men who are fathers are generally hired and offered more over men who are not fathers excludes black men b Possible reasons i These men have a family to support ii They are more likely to be hard working and dedicatedresponsible 7 Putative father a A putative father is generally a man whose legal relationship to a child has not been established but claims to be the father or who is alleged to be the father to a child who is born to a woman to whom he is not married at the time of the child39s birth 8 Heteronormativity a Heteronormativity is the belief that people fall into distinct and complementary genders man and woman with natural roles in life It asserts that heterosexuality is the only sexual orientation or only norm and states that sexual and marital relations are most or only tting between people of opposite sexes b Mothers enforce heteronormativity at home with their children i More worried about boys than girls c Heteronormativity in adoption 9 Electronic tether how today children leaving home as young adults have more contact with their parents through electronics like phones skype social media etc a This results in children becoming more dependent on their parentsless autonomous b Students were most satis ed with communication with their mothers rather than their fathers and females communicated more with their parents than males in the study c Overall parental regulation had a positive impact on students except on cases of academic regulation which was negatively correlated 10 Annulment a Dissolves a marriage like it never happened i Ex Britney Spears amp other celebrities that get married for a very short amount of time b Two kinds d People in poverty cannot afford expensive treatments Often times not covered by insurance e Brings issues of race amp class into reproduction technology and who receives it f Debate over whether doctors should be deciding which women can receive treatment Essays Research suggests there are diverse models of parenting and ch dhood a Compare concerted cultivation and natural growth discuss each type and bene ts amp disadvantages b De ne process of adulti cation identify factors that shape the process behaviors adulti ed children are likely to exhibit and the positive and negative consequences c Describe the lives of working class mothers and father who alternate shifts describe the mother and father39s gender ideologies how they distribute paid workhouseholdparental responsibilities d Discuss how and why poor fathers in inner cities often remake fatherhood Concerted cultivation is a style of parenting that is marked by a parent39s attempts to foster their child39s talents by incorporating organized activities in their children39s lives This parenting style is commonly exhibited in middle class and upper class American families and is also characterized by consciously developing language use and ability to interact with social institutions A child that has been concertedly cultivated will often express greater social prowess in social situations involving formality or structure attributed to their increased experience and engagement in organized clubs sports musical groups as well as increased experience with adults and power structure They are able to communicate with adults more comfortable and as a result my come off with a sense of entitlement and overall con dent in school settings In com pa rison Working class families who do not have the time to dedicate to their child s activities let their child play Without the rigid structuring or scheduling of activities These Working class families often times are balancing several jobs and are too busy to dedicate attention to their kid s activities Instead they practice the idea of natural growth Where letting their kids make their own decisions and play freely will ultimately make them successful human beings Giving their children this freedom allows them to make their belief in traditional gender roles because most workingclass families can t afford to have the mother at home it s impossible for men to live up to a traditional standard of the breadwinner But studies show that alternating shift couples still see men as the breadwinners In almost all alternating shift families the parents stressed men s breadwinning roles by treating the father s job as the more important job in the family The number of hours worked by each couple were structured around this idea For example a father eaming less per hour than a mother but working more hours per week Mothers are still in charge of the work at home fathers help because their wives are unavailable Mothers in these families are seen as the number one parents regardless of how much time fathers spend with their children Mothers in these families tailor their work lives so they can be with children at times they define as key times As the children grow they change their shift so when their kids are in school the mother can be there when they get home Mothers are more committed to their work roles than traditional center ideology would allow Poor fathers in the inner city are faced with many struggles They way these men deal with fatherhood varies Many of their children result in unplanned pregnancies where attempts to maintain a marriage are only for the sake of a child In many cases babies are more important than the mother of the child come before mothers in importance The fathers aspire to get married and long for a soul mate as a marital partner But often times the women they get pregnant are not people they even considered The idea of fathering for these men give them one person who can t deny them To father it is a positive idea in the midst of chaotic family and neighborhood environment to play a positive social role in a child s life The longing for a chance to be consumed by a set of activities that are good something to take pride in and purge one s own negative past Black fathers are more involved than the white fathers are with their children especially when the kids are younger Many of these unwed fathers are seen as a paycheck and nothing more unless he has a visitation order no institution will help to ensure that a father will be able to see his child Unskilled men s revolt in the breadwinning domain has been matched by an unexpected incursion Our men s response to the societal condemnation often levied at them is the loud proclamation I m not just a paycheck the just implying that they insist on being something more Given their economic and social condition which seriously limit their ability to play traditional roles like breadwinner unwed dads may have hit on a definition of fatherhood that will allow them to find some productive way of contributing to their children s lives despite limited means Fatherhood gives these men the push to make a turning power in their lives by getting a steady job entering in to the military or marriage Despite their hit and run reputation these men at the bottom are eager to engage in some aspects of the fatherly role Although some younger men are not ready to put street life behind them others are ready to settle down if it offers a chance to establish a meaningful connection with a child While most men claim to want the whole fatherhood experience they end up performing in their children s lives like a favorite uncle the man who can be counted on to spring for the diapers or tennis shoes when things get tight show up on the Weekends for a visit attend the birthdays and special events But this favorite uncle role isn t What these men really Want to provide it is their economic means that make their idea of a real family an impossible goal In the end these men s attempts to refashion fatherhood fail because it is too bold and too out of synch with What mothers and the Wider culture demand Discuss the role gender plays in parenting Explain why these differences exist by a Comparing the hours mother and fathers spend parenting and changes over time in these hours b Comparing the economic consequences of parenting for mothers and fathers c Discuss how policies like the paid family leave act can reshape gender difference in parenting Compared to 50 years ago the amount of time mothers and fathers spend parenting has increased even with increased work hours For fathers time spent parenting has increased slightly more than mothers although both have risen signi cantly in the last 50 years In this time women have increasingly worked full time in the workforce while balancing motherhood which has resulted in men having to take on more parenting responsibly than they used to In addition children have increased active lives aside from going to school Sports music and other activities have increased the time mothers and fathers spend parenting Instead of coming home after work they must bring their kids to sporting games and rehearsals This takes careful planning and arrangement between mothers and fathers and the use of their leisure time to dedicate towards their children Economically having children is a huge sacri ce nancially Some parents are forced to alternate their work schedules in order to care for their children by working alternating shifts For many working class families this is the only way they can afford to take care of their children since childcare is so expengve The paid family leave act was rst enacted in California and it reshaped gender difference in parenting when the act granted men twelve weeks of unpaid leave in a twelve month period This allowed men to take a parental leave for a newborn child something very uncommon in the United States This proved to be overall better for the child as a study showed that men who and a woman not people of the same sex Although feminists are often supporters of gay rights they are another group who oppose reproductive technologies because it brings forth issues of gender race amp class with reproductive justice The bulk of the issue that feminists have is that these treatments are very expensive and those of low class can39t afford to receive the treatment This means that people of lower economic status are excluded creating an evident inequalities due to the medicalization of infertility Because treatments are so expensive people who are poor often times minorities cannot get the treatment These minorities are either immigrants or people of colors which draws even more attention to who receives this treatment white people The inequalities created by race and class through reproductive treatments are what upsets feminists the most The main supporters are gay and lesbian couples who are looking to have children but need the assistance of this reproductive technology and heterosexual couples who are facing fertility problems and need the help of this technology to become fertile The implementation of these treatments are becoming more and more frequent since 50 men and 50 women can face some kind of fertility problem Two legal cases involving reproductive technology are Jenkins vs Miller and Calverts vs Johnson In theJenkins vs Miller case a lesbian couple in Vermont were granted a civil union Each changed her surname to Miller Jenkins In 2002 Lisa gave birth to a child conceived through arti cial insemination which the couple named Isabella MillerJenkins The couple separated in 2003 triggering a protracted legal battle over the custody of Isabella Custody was granted to the biological mother and the other was granted visitation rights Miller the biological mother then moved to Virginia where civil unions were not recognized Jenkins made several attempts to visit her child but Miller went to Virginia courts to declare her as the sole parent of her child Jenkins appealed in November arguing on the basis of the Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act that the Virginia courts were obligated to comply with the rulings in Vermont family court Jenkins then gained visitation rights but Miller did not comply As a result Jenkins got full custody of the child This case brings into question how parenthood is de ned through reproductive technologies especially in this case with arti cial insemination the use of another man39s sperm Genetically speaking Miller who carried the baby was the biologically mother as her genetics were part of the embryo in union with the insemination of sperm She also carried the baby in her own uterus But under the court of law in Vermont the couple was under a civil union therefore giving custody and Mothers read gender behavior to read homosexuality They usually wonder more about boys because often times boys demonstrate non normative gender behavior at a young age For example some boys may take interest in playing with dolls which can prompt concern for mother39s for emphasize heteronormativity in their children Assumptions of heterosexuality in uence parenting practices and shape what mothers teach children Mothers teach children about heterosexual marriage to someone of the opposite gender and love For example they may say to their daughter you will marry a wonderful man someday They may talk to their kids about weddings and show them their own wedding pictures and teach them when a man loves a woman they get married In addition to hearing this from their mothers it is important not to forget that kids are also hearing these messages that romantic and heterosexual love is important from the media which reinforces the normativity of heterosexual love Many mothers EXCLUDE the discussion of gays and lesbian couples with their young children Mothers instead actively pursue strategies to ensure heterosexuality by teaching kids it is wrong and unacceptable using religion as an example In conclusion many mothers parent to prevent homosexuality by teaching it normality and completely omitting the discussion of being gay or lesbian when talking to their children Describe the way that children of divorced parents shape their own childhood and their parent39s childrearing experience Discuss how children of divorced parents manage Absence of their parents The relationship between their parents Their relationship to new partners of their parents Discuss how these experiences shape their sense of self and autonomy 99m Children of divorced parents deal with the separation and loss of a joined mother and father gure in many different ways Much of this is dependent on the relationship they have with their mother and father For example is a father was abusive or had some kind of substance abuse problem a divorce that led to his absence would be a positive in uence on a child who probably does not want him around On the contrary a good father who was once close to his children moving away could negatively affect a child who may carefree state ultimately affecting the way they see themselves as children in comparison to their peers
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