History 1100 Midterm Study Guide - Rough Draft, More to Come
History 1100 Midterm Study Guide - Rough Draft, More to Come 1100
Popular in American History to 1865
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Noark on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1100 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by John Wigger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see American History to 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
History 1100 America to 1865 Midterm I just wanted to let you know something that you are about to perform glorious sweet health improving sex to this test With my aid I will guide you to the path of success on this Midterm I am merely a bearer of this information simply putting it into an easily observable format for your convenience My hopes are that this study guide will get you more than prepared for this exam so you have more time to do the fun things in life which include but isn t limited to drinking beer going to bars masterbating watching Net ix watching Net ix and chilling watching Netflix and not chilling chilling grilling and putting holes in the ceiling Cheers and good luck 1 Columbus and his voyages His voyage shows key development in Europe and America Ambition He wanted to be a noble i Being a noble could be achieved through joining the military joining the churh marriage Columbus did this merchant Columbus did this 0 Everyone knew that the earth wasn t flat ii Greek measure circumference in 3rd century 0 Columbus never sailed around the world 0 Why he set sail iii He was looking for a new island with resources Atlantic didn t have many iv He was searching for a continent 1 The Anitpodes opposite of Europe 2 There was a philosophical argument that there had to be something out there in that big ass ocean v Passage to Asia 1 Needed an easy more profitable water route Not around Africa or through land vi Religious mission 1 He was influenced by 15th century millinialism Judgement day belief in the last book of the New Testament 1000 days where saints rule the earth 2 In 1501 he wrote a book of prophecies the end of the world 3 He claimed to have a celestial voice voice inside of his head 0 His ships were attained from back taxes and were very small they were wack af and he had a low budget Columbian Exchange viiFrom America to Europe 1 Food crops from America to Europe Avocados beans maize peanuts potatoes squash pumpkin 2 He found a big uncharted river 3 He told England that he found a trade route so that he would get more cash 4 He actually thought that he had found a passage to India 5 Not many animals were brought back 6 Not many diseases were brought back viiiFrom Europe to America 1 Food Apple rice coffee melon 2 Animals Most modern day farm animals 3 Diseases Bubonic plague chicken pox Chlora Measles Mumps Scarlet fever 0 Columbus then and now ix Murals at Notre Dame X He was a 19th century hero then and is looked as a villain now 2 Impact of Diseases on Natives Epidemic Diseases i 4 Diseases pools Europe Asia Africa and America iiImmunity was built in populations around the world but the Americas were left out iiiNative populations of central Mexico 25 mil in 1520 H 1608 ivEpidemic 1 People run from villages and spread disease 2 Nobody understood why it was happening 3 Disease allowed Europe to colonize on higher levels and forget about Africa which was very dangerous 3 Puritanism in England 0 Queen Elizabeth formed a middle ground for religion in New England but this didn t please the extremists Angelican Church Puritans vs Catholics Beliefs i Believe in Calvanism or predestination ii Christian Theology God predetermines your future 1 Everything has been decided 2 God and his sovereignty 3 Most of modern culture thinks the opposite Amernianism You have choices iii Authority on the Bible 1 Mary Rowlandson is not much different from everyone else 2 New England is all about education a Had laws where every community required teachers iv Holistic view on society 1 No separation between the church and state public and private life Everything is connected v Believed that god established covenants with Holy People 0 God established contracts with people o This helped provoke a nosey attitude 0 People questioned why they should be good to people 850000 in El God isn t out to trick people I Living a good life proves predetermination El Even if you were shitty you had a responsibility to your community 0 Mary Rowlandson said that people violated her community s covenant o They had a hierarchal view to the world I Resulted in lack of negative views on slavery Jamestown 1607 o The Virginia Company 0 Death 1 144 settlers leave England 2 Only 105 alive in April 1607 3 Only 38 still alive in January 1607 o Malnutrition a Weakness a Death 0 John Smith ii Leads Jamestown to success iii Negotiatied with Powatan Indians and Pocahontas iv Smith leaves in 1609 because of gunpowder explosion and there is another breakdown v 400 of 500 die 0 Sir Thomas Dale vi More hard times viiHe reports that people are bowling in the streets 0 Why was there so much trouble viiiToo many gentleman someone who doesn t work for a living ix Hunger and disease they were still bowling x Communal organization people didn t work together Xi Dependence on Natives they assumed locals would help 1 Indians gained power by serving and indebting others 2 When the English showed up the Indians gave out a ton of gifts xiiLack of work ethic wouldn t you fight to survive xiiiToo many adventurers xivNo simple answers 5 Tobacco and the Chesapeake Tobacco saved the colonies Tobacco motivated colonists to get to work i Workers could produce 25 pounds 200 pounds a year ii Farmers earned only 3 pounds a year in Europe iii You made bank Indentured servitude iv Benefit for landowners 1 Only cost 1012 pounds each 2 Were given 50 acre headrights v Terms of service 6 7 1 Usually about seven years vi It was tough viiIt was an alternative to labor and slavery Indentured Servants in the South The Pilgrims English separatism People couldn t leave the church of England because that was illegal They would meet in secret to avoid prosecution People moved to Holland for religious freedom i After a decade people noticed that their kids were growing up Dutch and didn t want their kids to lose their culture People decided to move to Plymouth to avoid culture loss ii They set sail on the Mayflower and the Speedwell The Great Puritan Migration Nonseparating Puritans 20000 Migrants in the 1630s The First generation works pretty well and people are motivated Church and State in New England wasn t a theocracy because that s how it was back in England i In England only church members can vote on elections ii In England you had to be born in New England was all about conversion experiences The halfway covenant iii People stop joining in large numbers iv If you aren t a member of the church you cant be baptized Puritan Theology particularly the Concept of Predestination Puritanism was a devotional movement how they made sense of life Experienced religion in everyday life not just Sunday i Couldn t pull physical from the spiritual ii Indians were the same way Providences wonders miracles There was no blind chance iii Providences Everyday events acted by god iv These events have meaning v Wonders Something unusual that carries meaning vi Miracles Beyond natural Anne Hutchinson viiChallenged predestination viiiSaid other ministers weren t preaching correct mythology ix She asked why try if your outcome is already decided x Anne claimed god spoke to her which freaked people out Xi Said that actions determined your outcome 10 The Role of Covenants in Early Puritan Thought Made people much more nosey Created a holistic view on society The church and personal life were intertwined everyone would be punished by God s providence If you made a mistake 11 Witchcraft in 17th Century New England 0 4 to 1 were women 0 Middle aged between 4060 0 English puritans were frowned upon them Didn t include Indians because they weren t part of the covenant 1 in 6 were childless i This made you stand out because it was expected to have as many children as possible in early New England 0 Typically had domestic troubles ii Family and neighbor con ict 0 Had been involved for crimes prior to being accused iiiAbusive speech lying theft sex offenses Lower social standing Abrasive character iv Hard favor and turbulent passions v Not the same as insanity Why New England vi Community vs Individuals viiCloseness of New England villages viiiCovenants 12 Salem Witch Trials i Town History 1 Dramatic uneven growth from 16601690 2 Salem becomes New England s largest port 3 Unequal wealth distribution 4 Refugees ii Porters and putnams iii First accusation 1961 Girls were having sezures so people were blamed iv Spectral evidence Accusations that can t be confirmed or contradicted v 23 of accusers wer age 1120 many were orphans The poor accused the rich vi Evidence against George Burroughs People claimed amazing feats of strength vii141 indictments viii19 executions all hanging ix If you confessed and repented you were free to go but you had to name accomplices x Explanation for all the weird shit going on 1 Ergot poisoning in the grain It doesn t work like that xi Ann Putnam s confession Believed they were innocent it was a great delusion of Satan 13 Indians Settlers and Guns in 17th Century New England 0 Early encounters with the Indians i 10000 Europeans came to the new world 1800 were left and 23 of them were in Virginia 20000 Puritans went to New England in 1630 The Pequots ii Small pox in 1633 killed off 80 of them iii They had an alliance with the Dutch Mohegans and Narragansetts Attack on Mystik Connecticut iv English and allies attacked mostly women and children Roger Williams V Puritan conversion experience as an early teen vi Part of the greatmigration of nonseparating puritans viiBecomes a separatist ViiiMoves to Plymoth Williams and Native Americans ix Built relationship in Plymoth x Wrote A Key Into the Language of America It said that the Indians are just like us xi Questioned taking Indian land and our Christian acts Roger Williams and Separation of Church and State XiiA national church is a political church xiiiExiled from Massachusetts bay colony in October 1635 xivAided by Narragansett Indians Rhode Island xvFounds Rhode idland and gets charter from England xviCalled for free quotsoul libertyquot xviiWelcomed Quakers and Jews xviiiQuakers dominate xixMany didn t follow this model and called it the sink hole of New England Weapons amp Tactics XXMatchlock 1 Big cumbersome 2 20 pounds 3 Muzzle loading 4 Burning match sets of pan XXiFlint lock 1 Flint hits striking surface creates spark lights the pan xxiiExperience 1 English had hunting as a sport for the leisure class 2 Indian spent lots of time hunting for food but they couldn t make gunpowder XXiiiMetacom also known as King Phillip xxivThere was tension between settlers and Indians on the frontier xxv52 of New England s 90 towns were attacked xxviMetacom runs out of resources xxvii800 colonists and 3000 Indians were killed settlement was pushed back a generation The Iroquis xxviiiMohawks Onedias Onandages Cayucas Senecas xxixAren t on the coast xxxExpansionists that made their way to Virginia Ohio and Canada xxxiBeaver wars pof the 17th Century Allied with Dutch against French xxxii4 Stages of History with Europeans 1 Massive depopulation from smallpox 2 Economic dependence on trade 3 Entanglement in imperial structure 4 Loss of territory The Mourning war tradition xxxiiiTaking captives xxxivThe fate of captives 1 Adopt them treat them as equals in their society 2 If they didn t fit or refused they would be executed in very violent deaths 3 Also were captured for ransom 4 They did this to limit captives 14 The Gender Imbalance In the 17th Century Chesapeake Background of the Chesapeake i 6 persons per square mile which is very spread out ii People wanted to grow tobacco and had to be near a waterway iii Life expectancy 48 for men 44 for women iv Parental death Most lost one 13 lost both 1 Blended families wasn t like this in New England 80 of servants were men around 20 years old and served 57 years Gender imbalance 41 in 1704 Less parental and community control 15 Bacon s Rebellion Bacon was a young wealthy English aristocrat that established a plantation in Jamestown Becomes friends with the governor their wives became friends There was conflict with the local Indians regarding land and Bacon wanted to use physical force to resolve it Raises army and attacks the susquehannahs and Occaneechees i Built army with former indentured servants that didn t have a bright future Bacon is a symbol of colonial discontent 16 The Development of African American Society in the Colonial Chespeake o A few servants came to the Chesapeake in 1680 but planters turn to African slaves to save money 0 Three stages of slavery i First 1 Small plantations little community most immigrants 2 Con icting legal status before 1660 Some say they are equal and some claim that they aren t ii Second 16901740 1 Large scale slave importations peak in 1740 2 Small plantation sizes 3 Social con ict amongst slaves iii Third 17401790 1 Slave imports decline 2 Plantation sizes decrease 3 Black populations grow 4 More stable communities 17 Benjamin Franklin and Jonathon Edwards 0 Were alive at the same time were very in uential people they however had very different views on life 0 Edwards was more concerned with religion was a pastor and devoted his time to Evangelicalism spiritualexperience that converts them to Christianity Ionathon Edwards book shows the beginning of Americanization i People are turning away from orthodox religion ii Less of a holistic view on society iii Conversion experiences iv Increase in materialism Benjamin Franklin s book represents the original American dream 0 Was heavily involved with the enlightenment scientific advances 18 Metacom s War 0 Relations between the colonists and Indians were illtempered Constant battles with colonists Metacom realized that the Indians needed to take action because they would eventually be overrun 19 Mary Rowlandson 20 William Penn and The Quaker Settlement of Pennsylvania 0 William Penn 16441718 i Is in the navy and serves under the puritans King James ii 1665 battle with Dutch in the English channel results in loss Penn takes the blame which gives the Penn family royal connections for years to come Penn s Education Went to Lincoln s Inn law school hated it dropped out because of the social elitest lifestyle Becomes Quaker in 1667 Quakers challenge the social order iii Refused to tip hats to social superiors iv Wore their hats in court V Refused to take oaths vi Pacifists viiGave women equality viiiFirst group to oppose slavery ix They weemed t be very radial Quakers in Society X 60000 by 1680 xi 15000 jailed Penn marries Gulielma Maria Spignet and hung out with the royals allowing him to get a Pennsylvania grant 0 Penn wanted to make a Quaker homeland but he also wanted to make some money 0 Government Governor council lower house no property required for voting Declining fortunres King James the II was overthrown during the glorious revolution 0 Religious Con ict William Keith 1692 o This was the first antislavery movement 0 The middle colonies served as a paradigm 21 The Quaker Concept of the Inner Light Quaker Theology The inner light or the light of Christ God speaks to you you don t need all of the extra 22 The Settlement of the Carolinas Was one of the restoration colonies others were New York New Jersey and Pennsylvania 0 There were few priests in the colonies and no bishop Charles Woodmason i quotabandoned morals profligate principle rude ignorant void of education fuckboys ii This shows how little influence the Anglican Church had iii Everyone had STDs The Navigation Acts and Mercantilism iv Mercantilism Government control of foreign trade is essential to a nation s prosperity and security v Colonies provide markets and raw materials for England vi Other nations are excluded from colonial trade viiNavigation Acts Only English ships could be used in order to prevent smuggling Racial Makeup viiiLess English 0 They were illegal unchartered settlements Given by a 1663 Grant by Charles the second 0 Products Livestock lumber turpentine pitch ix Tarheels and jacktars They didn t require a lot of money so they didn t require a lot of labor 23 Rice and Early Development of the Carolinas Prices remained high because you couldn t overproduce unlike tobacco in the Chesapeake ii There weren t many growing areas so if you were growing you were making some bank iii Annual plant iv Originated in China V Traditionally grown in Africa vi English learned how to grow rice from their slaves ViiRequired water to ood fields when setting young seedling i Decline ViiiLess profitable without slaves ix Ended in Carolinas and Georgia in the early 20th century 24 Slavery in the Carolinas First African Americans in the Carolinas had an uncertain legal status People questioned whether or not they were indentured servants Children and women had freedom Advantages of slave labor for planters i Labor for life ii Close connectedness with Barbados iii Knew how to grow rice iv Had immunity for disease Disadvantages v High costs vi Runaways Rice created wealth off of a slave based economy Slavery and Society viiSociety of the Propagation for the Gospel in Foreign Parts SPG 1 Unsuccessful in converting because they didn t want the religion of their masters viiiPolygamy Wasn t popular with their masters ix Growth of community life amongst slaves x Con ict and accomidation 1 Task systems and black markets 2 Regulations of clothing and food to keep their freedoms minimal 3 Masters liked how slaves cared for themselves 4 If slaves finished tasks early they were given free time which allowed them to find their own source of income xi Runaways 1 Went to Charleston seaports underground and welcomed in Florida because it was owned by the Spanish and the Spanish wanted to piss off the Americans XiiThe Stono Rebellion 1739 1 Group of 80 slaves burned 7 plantations and killed twenty whites most were killed and this resulted in a new restrictive slave code 25 The Seven Years War 0 War of jenkin s Ear i Spanish cut off dude s ear for smuggling keeps his ear in a pickle jar for seven years brings it back up and a war ensues King George s War and the War of Austrian SUcession ii Britian and Austria vs France and Spain iii 4000 new Englanders assault French port in Nova Scotia iv Fragile Peace competing claims for the Ohio River valley Eventually there was the Seven Years War which is very important 0 Virginia expedition under George Washinton British are defeated in America and Europe 0 Consequences of the War v William Pitt new PM turn to colonialists for aid vi Colonials sieze for in Acadia drive out French Cajuns viiBritish capture Quebec and Montreal viii1763 Treaty of Paris French leave North America 0 Consequences of Seven Years War ix Colonial good will x 123 million pound British debt xi 10000 British troops in North America xiiAdministration costs of 500000 pounds a year 26 Population and Consumer Trends in the Middle of the 18th Century 0 There was a growth and consumer revolution from 17131740 s i Population triples ii Southern life expectancy rose iii 3 more kids than English women iv Consumer revolution v 18th century worldwide population growth 27 The Proclamation Line of 1763 Impeded Western expansion in order to prevent issues with the Indians 0 This upset colonists because they had just helped the British fight a war and were now being restricted This is just the beginning of growing resentment from colonists that will eventually lead to the revolution 28 George Whitefield and the Great Awakening of America 0 This was not only a colonial event Beginnings Transatlantic connections Extent Throughout all of the colonies Whitefield was educated in the classics and acting Succeeded as a public speaker but was very average in mostly everything else 0 Was an Oxford servitor Went to school for free but had to serve the gentleman Invented dramatic field preaching 0 He became the Chaplain of an orphanage and said that he was raising money for it but on the side he was keeping a little bit of money for himself 0 Spoke extemporarily Had massive crowds Even Franklin noticed his talent and gave him all of the money in his pocket 0 Immediate results i Growth in Church Membership ii Wannabes iii Divided people between the old and new lights 0 Long Term iv Religious faith was based on personal preference v Decline of Anglicans Congregationalists Quakers vi Rise of Baptists Presbyterians quakers viiNew light colleges viiiAfrican American Christianity ix Religious toleration Consequences x Whitefield isn t against slavery xi Colonial unity Americans are brought together 29 The Long Term Impact of the Great Awakening 30 The Stamp Act 1765 0 Taxes in Britain and the Colonies i 26 shillings a person in Britain ii 121amp12 shillingsperson in America iii It really wasn t that bad Why was everyone so upset Showed virtual representation Not directly having representation in the government but having people talk for them 0 There were protests Stamp distributers were the weak link They were attacked colonists pressured them and destroyed their facilities 31 The Medieval Warm Period AD 9001200 0 Some of the warmest centuries of the last 8000 years 0 This led to European expansion 0 This increased norse in uence in 8001200 0 Iceland and Greenland settled raised cattle and sheep but eventually had to fish 0 Population boom in 1400 to 5 million 0 Age of Cathedrals shows optimism 32 Differences in how Indians and European settlers used the land in 17th century New England 0 Indians i Burnt the forest to clear land for ii Europeans even commented on how open the land was iii Corn was grown on land for 8 10 years iv They accepted that summer will fulfill and winter won t V Population densities were limited due to winter scarcity vi Relied on mobility Europeans viiEnglish relied on fixed mobility 1 This is part of the reason why they didn t believe that the Indians owned land 2 Some disagreed Roger Williams 0 Impact of Trade viiiIndians wanted brass copper pots hatchets knives guns ix English wanted furs x That led to a decline in animal populations and competition 0 Trees were cut down for the timber market 0 Trees were the perfect size for ship masts Impact of Cleared Land xi Lands are sunnier windier hotter colder drier xiiThis reduced wind speed and sped up soil evaporation xiiiWatersheds emptied quickly and led to flooding and erosion 19th century they turned to coal 0 Animals xivEuropean farm animas destroyred native American crops making Indians fence their fields 0 Food became a nation identity in the 18th century 33 Roger Williams and the Indians of New England 34 The Little Ice Age 0 The Little Ice Age i Solar minimum of 1 less energy ii Fresh water from melting polar ice caps disrupts Atlantic conveyor iii Volcanic activity causes ice to spread iv The Nordics die out v End of British wine production vi Frost fairs in 16001820 on the Thabes river 0 Year Without Summer viiVolcanic eruption in Indonesia spreads ash across the globe viiiSnow fell on England in June 35 Virtual Representation A big reason for the resentment from the colonists Many people felt that it wasn t fair to be paying taxes for a government that didn t give them a voice in the government 0 Yes the colonists voices were heard but they knew that no one was paying attention 0 Gave rise to no taxation without representation 0 They wanted the vote 36 British Loyalists during the American Revolution 37 Native Americans and the American Revolution 38 What was radical about the American Revolution Throughout history people were used to hierarchal order of things Monarchy was the norm Instead people were looking for a republic of virtue not bloodline i Elect the best people most virtuous All men are created equal wasn t a normal belief 39 15th Century Chinese Exploration in the Pacific 40 Sugar and Slavery in the Caribbean Sugar was not native to Americans Loss of Indian population opened up land Grew very well on the Caribbean produced 8090 of what was consumed in Europe Huge profits Labor intensive so slavery was used i Sugar planters were the first English to use slavery on a large scale Over a million slaves were brought to America 15 of all 16000 whites and 55000 blacks St John Island ii Danish colony in 1744 iii Slaves held the island for 6 months but not all were into it 41 Pirates in the Caribbean Mirrored larger con icts over trade and organization English Dutch French attacking Spanish Democratic Elected caption divided plunder by formula Recruited members when they captured merchant ships More of an egalitarian command structure all people are equal and deserve to be treated fairly
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