Final Exam notes
Final Exam notes 402
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Luis Blanco Seguerit on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 402 at North Dakota State University taught by Tom Bon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Engineering Ethics and Social Responsibilities in Engineering and Tech at North Dakota State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Introduction Comments on article from business Week article Nearly half of American workers say they ve had to choose between what they feel is right and what they were told to do 10 of these cases were found to be ethical 90 of that 50 had some ethical problems Ethics Ethics study of moral choices amp characteristics of morals What is right and wrong Often have an element of uncertainty Not everything is known Aspect of risk Ethical Legal Legal and technology General steps for registration Take the FE exam Obtain 4 to 5 years work experience Check the requirements for the state you want to be registered in Take and pass the PE exam Again check state requirements Upon meeting all above you are a registered Professional Engineer Many states require cont education to maintain your status and renewal fees every 1 or2 years Many states but not all have ComityEndorsement provisions If you are a registered PE you may be able to apply for the PE in another state by going through the process but not have to retake the written PE This varies from state to state Fundamentals of Engineering Examination Starting 2014 FE exams will be online at Pearson Professional Test Centers THIS IS NOW IN EFFECT Take test at a Pearson Testing Center You are not awarded FE status until after graduation Need to then complete application with ND Board of Registration for Engineers and Surveyors Graduate students or others who did not do their undergraduate degree engineering degree in ND will also need to supply additional information to have their degree evaluated Need to take second part which is a two hour open book ethics and practices exam in ND Can schedule the exam for2 months out of 3 month quarter Can take test up to 3 times during a year if necessary but only once during a quarter Engineering Ethics and Social Responsibility Study Guide Chapter 1 Objectives Evaluate the Ford Pinto case Know background ideas Be able to evaluate the Challenger Disaster Ford Pinto Case Was a criminal case What responsibility do engineers have in safety What lessonsinsights can be gained Legal requirements vs current engineering practice state of the art Background 0 Problem was created by adesign change creating more trunk space 0 Change saved 650 per car 0 Retro t x cost10car both values are 1977 dollars 0 Legal review exercise by Gary T Schwartz in 1991 argued the case was overblown and statistically the Pinto was as safe as other cars in its class Also value used in human life calculations was from a NHSTA documents Some Data Car Model 1975 1976 AMC Gremlin 274 315 Chevrolet Vega 288 310 Datsun 1200210 392 418 Datsun 510 294 340 Ford Pinto 298 322 Toyota Corolla 333 293 VW Beetle 378 370 Conclusions All compacts 73 Pinto 70 All vehicles 68 Pinto was about equal to Vegas Lower than Volkswagen and Datsun Higher than Toyota and the Dodge Colt Aftermath Pintos gained a bad reputation State eets sold their Pintos at low prices Found a good market What were the buyers thinking Considerations 0 For Ford 0 Met current standards 0 Were not signi cantly different from others 0 Did reduce manufacturing costs 0 Against Ford 0 Should have responded sooner with a warning 0 Should have made the change sooner even if NOT required to do so Why Background Ideas Ethics study of moral choices Morals good or right conduct virtue Character the ability to follow convictions hopefully good morals Moral Autonomy page 3 paragraph 1 is the ability to think critically and independently about ethical issues Critical thinking is purposeful and re ective judgment about What to believe or What to do in response to observations experience verbal or written expressions or arguments httpenWikipediaorgwikiCriticalthinking 082509 Why is something not necessarily unethical if it is illegal Should engineers merely obey safety laws and legal requirements Taxonomy of Engineering Ethics 1 Technical practical issues 0 Hold paramount the safety amp welfare of the public 0 Improve engineering technologies 0 Improve your technical competence 0 Honestly state What you can do technically 11 Professional issues 0 Avoid con icts of interest Be honest amp reject bribery in all forms Seek and accept criticism Avoid bad mouthing others Bring honor to the Engineering Profession Don t compete unfairly The Challenger Disaster A casestudy in Engineering Ethics Shuttle Components 0 Orbiter 0 Liquid Rocket Booster 0 Solid Rocket Booster 0 this slide is from Engineering Ethics at Portland State University People involved 0 NASA 0 Larry MulloySolid Rocket Booster Project manager at Marshall 0 Morton Thiokol 0 Roger Boisjoly amp Arnie Thompson Johnson Engineers who worked on the Solid Rocker Booster Development 0 Joe Kliminster Engineering manager on the Solid Rocket Booster Development Alan McDonald Director of the Solid Rocker Booster Project Bob Lund Vice president for engineering Jerald Mason General manager Political Climate Congress was unhappy with NASA and controlled the budget NASA had apparently over promised on the shuttle s performance to congress NASA had set a very ambitious schedule for shuttle launches V P Bush was scheduled to attend 0 NASA did not want to potentially upset a strong supporter of their program 0 Political pressure to launch before the President s State of the Union address Problem Orings in the solid boosters Became stiff and did not seal well under cold temperature There had been leaking in the past at 51 degF However there was no evidence of leaking on a launch that occurred at 31 degF Data was considered inconclusive by some Joint was at 28 degF on launch A redesign without Orings had been developed and was due to installed by the next launch Puttyr U rings Tang Clevis b CIJ Pin Inside of booster Discussion 0 Recommendation by Morton Thiokol was to postpone the launch Jerald Manson told Bob Lund to Take off your engineering had and put on your management hat Lund reversed his position and supported the launch McDonald still attempted to convince NASA to postpone the launch but was unsuccessful Professionalism and Codes of Ethics Chapter 1 and 2 Background De nitions Ethics study of moral choices amp characteristics of morals what is good and bad Webster s What should be done Morals good or right conduct virtue Virtue conformity to a standard of right moral excellence Webster s 7th Collegiate Dictionary Goal of the textbook moral autonomy the ability to think critically and independently about moral issues and apply this moral thinking to situations in your professional practice Critical thinking is purposeful and re ective judgment about what to believe or what to do in response to observations experience verbal or written expressions or arguments Taxonomy of Engineering Ethics The same from Chapter 1 0 1 Technical practical issues 0 Hold paramount the safety amp welfare of the public 0 Improve engineering technologies 0 Improve your technical competence 0 Honestly state what you can do technically 11 Professional issues 0 Avoid con icts of interest Be honest amp reject bribery in all forms Seek and accept criticism Avoid bad mouthing others Bring honor to the Engineering Profession Don t compete unfairly Aclass in ethics cannot make you Ethical It can make you aware of the subject amp provide knowledge The rest is up to you Consider the meaning of Job Occupation and Profession Job work done for hire Occupation employment by which someone makes a living Profession Common uses Doing something for pay verses being an unpaid amateur exp Golfer Someone who has attained a degree of skill through experience exp Professional Carpenter or Professional Mechanic This is not what we are talking about in engineering In this course Profession is l Meets societal needs 2 Work requires sophisticated skills the use of judgment and the exercise of discretion is not routine 3 Requires extensive formal education not simply practical training or apprenticeship 4 The public allows special societies or organizations controlled by members of the profession to set standards for admission to the profession set the standard of conduct for members and enforce these standards 5 Signi cant public good results from the practice of the profession Judgement and Discretion Judgment making significant decisions based on formal training and experience Discretion a keep information confidential and b make decisions autonomously being able to make decisions and accepting responsibility for your decisions Is engineering a profession How could we argue for this Requires considerable education Requires Judgment In design development In considering alternatives public welfare Requires discretion In dealing with clients and information In making reasonable trade offs while maintaining public welfare Keeping confidential information Some Comments Some engineering societies are considering the Master s degree as the level for the first professional degree ASCE One proposal is a BS Engr Degree 30 credits of graduate level work States may req Continuing ed to renew your license seminars classes presentations etc For eXp ND requires 30 m total life long learning per renewal period Code of Ethics A code of ethics spells out the ways moral and ethical principles apply to professional practice It helps engineers apply moral principles to the unique situations encountered in professional practice Why a code of ethics Provides a framework for ethical judgment Shows the profession s commitment to ethical conduct Defines the professional s roles and responsibilities Objections to Codes 1 Few engineers belong to professional societiesI encourage you to be involved with a professional society 2 Even members are not aware of the codes 3 Codes may be inconsistent 4 Codes are super uous because people know what to do without them However 1 There are instances when guidance is good 2 They serve as a reminder to think about our actions andor motives Most Engineering Societies have their own Codes of Ethics Also the National Society of Professional Engineers NSPE has its own code similar to NCEES s code NCEES s Code of Ethics is the one you need to be familiar with for the FE exam It is a model code used as a building block by most states Organization of NCEES Code of Ethics Introduction Section Licensee s Obligation to Society Licensee s Obligation to Employer and Clients Licensee s Obligation to other Licensees Yourself General Hierarchy of NCEES Code decreasing rank Society Employer andor Clients Other Licensees engineers Yourself Summary Engineering is a profession Codes of Ethics are embedded in professionalism Society ranks the highest in professional levels Consider being active in a professional society that is active in your areas of interest both as a student and a graduate Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking In order to receive compensation for offering a statement of professional opinion an engineer must wwwfeexamouedu Issues A Reveal the names of those who are offering compensation for the statement B Reveal the interest the parties have in giving such compensation for the statement C Both b and a are correct D Receiving compensation for such a statement is not allowed under the codes of ethics Section A6 See your handouts Answer C According to the standard codes of ethics in order for an engineer to receive monetary or other compensation in exchange for a professional statement of opinion he must reveal two things to the public the names of Types the paying parties and the interest they have in the statement So both these answers are correct De nition of Critical Thinking Simpli ed Reasonable re ective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do purposeful self regulatory judgment which results in interpretation analysis evaluation and inference as well as explanation of the evidential conceptual methodological criteriological or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based above from wikipedia Also critiquing information for its reliability Why is Critical Thinking important to you Critical for a working Democracy Helps to cultivate a solid world view Helps to avoid scams Helps to evaluate information May help save your careerlives Being able to keep calm and think things through How do we implement critical thinking Ask Questions Evaluate answers logic Evaluate Data Evaluate Authors Evaluate Language Evaluate the other side Logic A science that deals with the canons and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration Develop coherent rational ideas or thoughts the formal principles of a branch of knowledge Study of the principles of valid inference httpenwikipediaorgwikiLogic and correct reasoning Deductive Logic Inductive Logic Deductive Logic General to Speci c Major Premise A B very general Minor Premise B C more speci c or limited in scope Conclusion A C result Valid Math is correct conclusion follows from the premises ignore truth or falsehood of the premises while determining validity Valid or not valid considered rst and then soundness Sound Valid 1 the Premises are true Cogent IF the listener believes it sound Example of a valid argument that is not sound 1 All mammals have hair not true 2 All whales are mammals true Therefore All whales have hair follows Example of Valid and Sound Major Premise No one in group X lives in city Y a true statement Minor Premise Jill is a member of group X true Conclusion Jill does not live in cityY Valid and sound Inductive Logic Speci c to General Exp Experimental results lead to a grand theory Proceeds from the speci c to general Inductive logic is the basis of the Scienti c Method Law of noncontradiction Two mutually exclusive items cannot both be true at the same time Logical Fallacies These are errors which might be made in logical developments sometimes done on purpose May initially seem good but are not These are misapplications of logic Want to detect or avoid logical fallacies A fallacy is a statement that may seem to be true but is not There are two classes of fallacies informal and formal Fallacies of relevance Fallacies of ambiguity Fallacies or Relevance Self Refutation self contradiction violates the law of noncontradiction Where the statement contradicts itself There are no absolutes From Star Trek Harry Mudd never tells the truth Harry Mudd says I am lying Argumentum ad hominem Argument against the manwoman Attacking a person rather than argument An attempt to discredit the argument by discrediting person I wouldn t hire that company because most of their engineers are Yankees Sue s proposals on traffic rules to enhance school zone safety ridiculous She was convicted of tax evasion in 2003 Forced Choice Loaded Question gotcha Forcing an answer that is wrong Have you stopped cheating on exams yet Argumentum ad Verecundiam Halo effect a person with fame or expertise in one area is used to support a premise in another area Venus Williams says that Chrysler cars are the best engineered cars in the world I m not a doctor but I play one on TV and I recommend this medicine Post hoc ergo propter hoc after this therefore because of this The first item must have caused the second item Correlation is not necessarily causation Appeal to authority Referring to what is said by someone else James says according to Dr Doda this common food additive is actually a severe health hazard Dr Doda is a humanities major Is a fallacy if the person is not an expert in the area either by training learning selfstudy If the person is an expert this is not a fallacy but may be open to discussion and additional information the the are Fallacies of Ambiguity Equivocation Using a word with two meanings in a confusing manner The sign said fine for parking here Since it was fine I parked there Why did I get this ticket Exciting novels are rare But rare books are expensive So exciting novels must be expensive Amphiboly meaning is unclear due to poor grammar Don t let worry kill you off let the church help Teacher strikes idle kids A reckless motorist Thursday struck and injured a student who was jogging past campus in his Porsche Hints Ask what a person does Not what their title is Ask what an organization does Not what their name is Ask what the person means by using that word Not what does that word mean relocation camp for prison camp in WWII Math challenged for liberal arts students under tall Garfield s self description Recognize halftruths correlations ie Asbestos causes cancer detail includes particle size length of exposure and occupation Reading critically means asking the right questions What is the writer saying Is it logical What right evidence logic etc does the writer have to say this Watch out for red ag words and claims Red Flag Words Always Never Experts agree Research has shown It is universally accepted Statistics Red Flag Words do not necessarily disqualify an article but do indicate a more careful reading is merited Often overused or used as an appeal to authority to eliminate debate or discussion North Dakota Code of Ethics The Board of Registration is granted the power to adopt and promulgate a Code of Ethics that is binding upon all registrants by NDCC 4319l08 The previous Code of Ethics had not been revised since January 1988 The Code of Ethics was completely rewritten in 2004 and became effective October 1 2004 The Code of Ethics can be found in NDAC 2803l ND Administrative Code The revised Code of Ethics contains 17 sections contains broad topics but more speci c language is based upon national models is compatible with modern business standards encompasses reasonable expectations of professional conduct Codes from NCEES NSPE and NSPS were reviewed for input to ND Code of Ethics Also 14 other states codes were read Standards of Integrity can be found in NDAC 2803 10103 Protection of Public can be found in NDAC 2803lOl04 Advertising can be found in NDAC 2803lOl05 Aid Public Understanding can be found in NDAC 2803lOl06 Issuance of Public Statements related to engineering or surveying can be found in NDAC 2803lOl07 Quali cation for Work Projects can be found in NDAC 2803lOl08 Disclosure of Con dential Information can be found in NDAC 2803lOl09 Disclosure of Con ict of Interest can be found in NDAC 2803lOl10 Solicitation of Work can be found in NDAC 2803l0112 Risk Safety and Accidents Chapter 5 While working on the nal stages of a job you notice that one small clause in the contract has been violated accidentally What should you do wwwfeexamouedu A Tell the client about the discrepancy and ask himherthem what to do B Look for a loophole in the contract that would enable you to avoid re doing the work C Don t worry about it let your boss or the client worry about it later If it s important they ll address the subject D Fire the person who caused the contract violation to occur Choice A The client has the right to know if the contract has been breached before the nished product is reached Since the violation was small and inadvertent nobody should be red over it But it is a big enough deal that the client should be noti ed and allowed to make the nal decision This is also the best way to preserve trust between the client and engineer So this is the best option What does it mean when a design professional accepts a punishment for an unethical act from hisher technical society with prejudice Lindeburg M R 2004 FE Review Manual A The professional s race creed an national origin were considered in deciding the punishment B The professional s race creed and national origin were not considered in deciding on the punishment C Even after the sentence is served or punishment is completed there may be further action taken D The design professional is held in bad report for the period of prejudice When a punishment is meted out with prejudice there may still be further rami cations For example a professional whose membership is revoked with prejudice may need to have a future hearing in order to regain hisher license Answer C Risk and Safety Risk is the possibility of suffering harm or loss May also indicate danger or a lack of safety Is usually unavoidable at some level Want to manage andor mitigate risk Safety freedom from damage injury or risk Risk is an element of engineering Why How much risk is acceptable how much is unacceptable implied warranty products will perform as advertised includes safety Subjective factors in judging risk Voluntary vs involuntary Shortterm vs long term Expected probability Reversible effects Threshold levels Delayed vs immediate risk Perception of risk can be quite subjective Safety and wellbeing of the public is an essential concern to engineers Reference NCEES Code of Ethics section A 1 Criteria for safe design Must comply with eXisting laws Fit accepted engineering practice State of the Art One reason to be involved with your professional society Explore potentially safer alt designs Attempt to foresee potential misuses and design for them Failure Modes Effects Analysis FMEA Test prototypes and nished products Design for safety De ne the problem Generate several solutions Analyze each solution Test the solutions Select the best solution Implement the best solution Confounding factors in risk Dealing with uncertainties Many risks are probabilities May involve educated guesses Types of Accidents Procedural Result from bad choices or not following procedures human errors failure to follow accepted design practices inadequate inspection of documents misreading gauges or instruments Engineered Flaws in design Items that don t perform as expected Materials that fail before expected fatigue cracks Devices that don t perform well in all expected circumstances Poor or inadequate design Standards or Reg not followed Current state of the art not utilized Systemic Result from unexpected effects in complex systems or organizations Many small errors creating a major accident Accident investigations Include examination to see if engineering design may have contributed to the accident or if design changes might reduce the chances of future accidents Value Jet ight 592 What type of accident was it Systemic numerous small errors added up to failure Ford Pinto gas tank Overall Engineering Particular case Systemic as well Teton Dam What kind of accident was it Hyatt Regency Walkway Engineering Accident DC10 accident at Chicago O Hare Airport Engine fell off ruptured all hyd Contr Lines Procedural Accident lettings Pylnn Attnth Paint an wing Pylnn Attach Fitting Eaten Win Elena Aft Engine Mnunt Fwd Engine Mnunt Summary of Duane Lillehaug Speech Fundamental Canon of ethics National Society of Professional Engineers Engineers in the ful llment of their professional duties shall Hold paramount the safetv health and welfare of the public Perform services onlv in areas of their competence Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees Avoid deceptive acts Conduct themselves honorably responsibly ethically and lawfully so as to enhance the honor reputation and usefulness of the profession Fundamental Canon The 135 Bridge analysis Kill 13 people and injured 145 Minneapolis An engineering rm URS hired to inspect the Interstate 35W bridge before it collapsed in 2007 has agreed to pay 524 million to more than 130 people affected by the tragedy attorneys announced Monday URS has always argued company engineers didn39t know the bridge would collapse because they didn39t know about the design aw NTSB investigators cited as a major factor in the collapse The gusset plates on the bridge were only a halfinch thick instead of the full inch they should have been Engineers also found that the bridge39s design aw the thin gusset plates was made worse when roller bearings on the bridge froze preventing the bridge from expanding and contracting the way it should URS hired to determine the safety of the bridge and it failed to identify the existing hazard combination of too thin gusset plates and bearing freezeups in its inspections Legal Theories l Strict Liability products only 2 Negligence 3 Breach of Warranty Strict liability Product is defective amp unreasonably dangerous Defective a defect or condition that made it unreasonably dangerous A defect may be in Design Manufacture Due to inadequate or lack of warnings Unreasonably dangerous is dangerous beyond that which would be contemplated by the buyer user or consumer Negligence Failure to use ordinary care amp diligence in Design Manufacture Giving adequate warnings about dangers In the case of products results in the product being defective Ordinary Care 6 99 The care a person of ord1nary prudence usually exerc1ses Standard Care What a reasonable person in the position of the engineer would do Breach of warranty Product is t for ordinary purposes for which it is used Merchantability Product is fit for the particular purpose for which the product is to be used Fit for Particular Purpose Role of engineer Consultant Advisor Expert Witness Adverse party or employed by adverse party Safety Engineering Fundamental Principle reduce the risk of harm to persons coming into contact with the product work building etc Do By identifying the hazards Then Design out the hazard Guard it Warn MEET EFFEJTW39E39 l Eh ET EFFBET I39a39E Summary of Carman Lynnes Speech Engineering Code of Ethics Hold paramount the safety health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties Innovation Important factor in an Engineers contribution to society Increased innovation increased risk In new products new services Unintended consequences Government Intrusion FDA Consumer Products Safety NTSB Engineering Responsibility When things go wrong Was it Operator or user error 85 rulethe person screwed up This is denied 100 of the time Was it defective Design defective manufacturing negligence Responsibility of the designer Develop Safe Products Achieve Form amp Function Requirements Meet or Exceed Customer Requirements Achieve Serviceability Achieve Manufacturability with the latest Technology Comply with Worldwide Standards ASABE ISO SAE Achieve Cost Objectives Function Function determines Value amp Cost Different ways to accomplish Function Engineers must select the best Alternatives considering Safety Durability Manufacturability Serviceability Ergonomics CostValue Function determines Value amp Cost Different ways to accomplish Function Engineers must select the best Alternatives There is usually a signi cant Risk associated with Function Key Elements for Safe Design Identify Intended UsesExperience Customer Focus Groups Conduct a Hazard Analysis Failure Mode amp Effects Analysis Fault Tree Analysis Design Engineering Experience amp Skill Identify Intended UsesExperience Conduct a Hazard Analysis Failure Mode amp Effects Analysis Fault Tree Analysis Identify Potential MisuseExperience Warn Against Misuse Develop amp Support Training for the Users Hierarchy of Design Design out the hazard Good better and best parameter Designs Designs tend to evolve over time Guard against the hazard A part of the parameter design process ROPS Seat Belts Covers Interlocks Warn and instruct for potential hazards Product Misuse Engineers design products for speci c uses Users nd new and different ways to apply the product Manufactures communicate the proper uses amp warn against foreseeable misuse Impossible to anticipate all types of misuse Hazard A condition inherent in a product that potentially can cause harm when associated with circumstances of misuse There are hazards associated with almost every product It takes knowledgeable Engineers to evaluate hazardsExperience Human Factors The relationship between the people and the product Design Engineer must consider how people will Use and Misuse the product Experience level age background physical stature contraband Foreseeability An event or activity that can be reasonably or rationally expected to occur Just because an activity with a product is possible does not mean that it is Foreseeable If Possible Foreseeable the engineer could not design anything Manufacturers Responsibility Engineering Design State of the Art Products Meet or Exceed Standards Address Hazards Intended Use amp Misuse Manufacturing Build Product to the Specifications Achieve Consistent Quality Standards Provide Safety Communications Product Safety Communications Information Shipped with the Product Operations amp Maintenance Manual Warning amp Informational Decals Affixed to the Product Danger Warning Information Condensed Operators HandbookTethered to the product Training Programs Product Delivery Protocol Proper Product ApplicationRight Product for the Right Job Safety Notices Product Updates Safety in Servicing When an Accident Occurs Manufacturer can be found Liable for Defective Design Defective Manufacture Negligence Failure to warn Failure to properly design Summary of Stephanie Nelson Speech Nelson has a background in Chemical Engineering and work for Cargill Even though she has worked in different type of projects like hardware facilities for electrical projects She worked building a refinery She has eXperience in management too and have travelled to different places to work in different projects She talked about the Guidelines that every employee has to follow during their work in Cargill These guidelines are the following 1 2 U 899 Obey the Law any place in where you work Conduct the business with integrity Accurate records of how you do things this means to record any information and work you do during your job Honor the needs of Obligation Treat People with Dignity and Respect Committed to be Global and purposeful Reach the community wherever you work FE Exam Prep Creeds Codesm Cannons Statutes amp Rules Creed a statement or oath often religious in nature taken or assented to by an individual in ceremonies Example Order of the Engineer Cannon nonstatutory nonmandatory codes of personal conduct A fundamental belief that usually encompasses several rules such as ASCE Code of Ethics Rule is a guide principle standard or norm for conduct and action in a certain situation Statutory rules are enacted by the legislative branch of a government and have the weight of law Competitive bidding Is no longer prohibited by codes of ethics Was decided in a 1971 Supreme Court Case Points to consider I Engineers and design firms may continue to refuse to bid competitively l Clients are not required to seek competitive bids for design services I Federal state and local statues governing the procedures for procuring engineering design services even those statutes that prohibit competitive bidding are not affected l Any prohibitions against competitive bidding in engineering registration laws remain unaffected l Engineers and their societies may actively and aggressively lobby for legislation that would prohibit competitive bidding for design services individual state Seal bids Are usually covered by state or local laws Laws cover how bids shall be handled when they shall be opened how the decision to accept a bid will be determined and rights of the individualorganization accepting the bids I For example there may be clauses such as we reserve the right to reject any or all submitted bids Stamping Plans vs Plan Stamping Stamping plans Bl B2 B3 is the legal process of an engineer applying hisher sealstamp to plans they have supervised reviewed thoroughly or been the coordinating engineer in charge of the project after all engineering sections have signed off on their sections Plan Stamping Basically applying your engineering stamp to plans you have not directly developed andor thoroughly reviewed This is not permissible Analysis of Issues Factual issues I What is known about the case I Are there cases where facts are disputed Conceptual issues I Have to do with the meaning or applicability of an idea Moral principle issues I Which ones apply to the problem I May have con icting moral issues Some Aids Start with what are major issues What sections of the code may apply Check more closely If make sure the engineer has adequate knowledgeinformation that is often an answer Check options against code sections Usually give companyclient rst chance to correct the situation What are appropriate authorities or agencies that may apply Rights and Responsibilities Chapter 6 Confidentially amp Proprietary Information Confidential amp Proprietary 39 Patents trade secrets nondisclosure agreements 39 Test results amp data 39 Upcoming product info 0 Designs or Formulas 39 Business info 0 working on a project Identity of suppliers Marketing strategies Production costs Product yields Designated internal communications 00000 0 0000 0000 Con dentiality How long 39 After leaving 0 Will have knowledge 0 Balancing Act 39 Some information forever unless compelled by court action or ethical requirements 39 Nondisclosure and noncomplete agreements Con ict of interest Actual con ict of interest 39 Work for city approving plans for your company and competitors and the competitors always have delays in approval 39 Your judgementfairness can be questioncompromised Potential con ict 39 Specify contracts to companies where you have a nancial interest friends working or family members working Appearance of a con ict of interest 0 Transparency does not look the best 0 One former speaker taking contract from former boss 39 Must be considered more in public contracts Problems with con ict of interest Possible appearance of deception Lose of trustreputation Perception of bias Possible methods to deal with con ict of interest Recusal excuse yourself from decision making Disclosure Tell everyone up front Manage can t delegate Disclose explain decisions Cannot accept business See B7 of NCEES Professional rights Right to a professional conscience 0 Exercise professional judgment in an ethical manner while doing one s duties Reasonably object to company policies without fear of retribution Right to privacy Right to participate in activities of one s own choosing outside of work Right to due process 0000 0000 0000 Environmental Ethics Intrinsic value Consult experts in the area Computer Ethics Tool of unethical behavior such as theft or invasion of privacy Object of unethical acts 0 Hacking viruses etc Autonomous computers 39 Make decisions wo human intervention 0 Military weapons 39 Automatic stock buyingselling programs Whistleblowing Is going outside or skipping the chain of command in your organization Internal or External Acknowledged or anonymous Internal 39 Go around or skip the chain of command External 39 Go to press or general public Often considered disloyalty Companies generally want to avoid Whistleblowing Before Whistleblowing answer yes to all these Need aclear and important harm that can be avoided Proximity must have rst hand information expertise and knowledge Capability have a reasonable chance of winning Last resort Last course of action not the rst or second If you plan to blow the whistle Examine your motives Expect retaliation Document Document DOCUlVIENT Don t break laws or company policy Generally kiss your engineering career good bye and seek another line of work this is a developing area legally Generally get legal council early may be statutes of limitations etc to consider Preventing Whistleblowing 39 Have a strong corporate ethical culture 0 Have clear lines of communication 39 Provide access to higher level managers 0 Also no retaliation for voicing concerns 0 Management willing to admit mistakes Philosophical Foundation for Ethics How ethics ts into philosophy Metaphysics rst principles nature of being ultimate reality theology Logic right reasoning Aesthetics Concept of beauty Epistemology Nature and limits of knowledge What is truth how can we know it Ethics study of standards of conduct and moral judgment good and evil What are the choices DOES THIS SYSTEM HAVE A METAPHYSICAL ABSOLUTE ie something that does not change over time and space TWO CLASSIFICATIONS Descriptive Ethics Teleological merely describes NO ABSOLUTES Normative Ethics Ontological Why is metaphysical absolute necessary The statement There are no absolutes Is Selfrefuting The statement Everything is relative is selfrefuting There is only one metaphysical absolute THEREFORE an ethical system that is descriptive is neither logical nor consistent Truth The state of being the case FACT The body of real things events and facts ACTUALITY Webster Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary 1965 Absolute Truth True in all places and times Relative Truth true in some places and times Truth is exclusive World view A world view is a set of presuppositions Which we hold consciously or subconsciously about the basic makeup of our world James Sire Also similar to wikipedia s def Presupposition background belief or assumptions held by a person Everyone has a world view whether one can explain it or not It can be likened to a pair of glasses through which one views the world Dr Ray Bohlin Some considerations in world view evaluation Reason should be consistent and coherent Experience should match the facts of our experience Explanation should be comprehensive in scope and be able to explain the world around us Practice should be livable A person s worldview attempts to answer Explain the world universe Where are we heading Values What should we do How should we attain our goals What is true and false Be able to explain how it is constructed and its origin wikipedia worldview paraphrased III Basis for Ethical Action In classical metaphysics the only absolute is a transcendent God Two fundamental Questions What ought one do Why do what one ought As paragraph by a speaker in a previous semester What is the right thing to do What motivates your ethical behavior External motivators laws police authorities others etc Internal motivators conscience religious beliefs personal beliefs etc
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