HIST 2124 Midterm Study Guide
HIST 2124 Midterm Study Guide HIST 2124
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Routman on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2124 at George Washington University taught by Zimmerman, A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see 19th-Century Europe in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
HIST 2124 Midterm Study Guide 10142015 Radicalism 0 French Revolution 0 O 0 Gave birth to modern political spectacle Triumph of 3rd estate 1789 Haiti in 1791 Revolution started with the King wanting to raise taxes against the nobility The 3rd estate begins to assert itself a Creates a constitutional monarchy Radicalization of the issue of property ie Slaves in Haiti Revolutions in the country side France declares itself a Republic in 1792 a What happens to a state when you cut off the head of the King Thermidor Moderationconservatism in revolution 1794 n Reinstituted property requirement 18th Brumaire Napolean over France in 1799 and tries to restart revolution 1813 he was defeated in Russia at Waterloo 0 Thomas Paine and International Jacobinism 0 Great Britain French Revolution gave English radicals hope for change for a model of government and that the world was changing a Therefore British government cracked down on radicals Took away Habeas Corpus o Jacobins Godwin Wolstencraft Paine n Opposed the Terror and was imprisoned Paine n Fled Great Britain after being elected to the French National Assembly ReacUon 1815 Napoleon was defeated and the French Revolution as defeated 0 Europe tried to restore order 0 Both the left and the right had creative ideas from the Revolution Why do monarchs have power etc o AntiRevolutionary Thought 0 Talks about restoration Crown and Altar Conservatism a Holy Alliance vs Revolution 0 Left Wing Thought 0 Radicalism The past does not equal legitimacy The good society is yet to come Authority is derived from consent Fundamental equality of all human beings socialism and feminism n Women were always active in the Revolution 0 Mary Wollstencraft Olympia de George Socialism Anarchism Communism nd origins in the French Revolution n Gracchus Babeuf French Revolution Communist Conspiracy of Equals o More Revolutionary than the Revolution 0 The Restoration Birth of Conservative Powers 0 During the French Revolution all of Europe was at war at some point 0 France loses King Restored Congress of Vienna 18141815 I Some states transformed a People in charge of the Congress were Prime Ministers not Kings a All of the states decided to prevent revolution individually and collectively 0 Organizations that emerge 0 Concert of Europe Sustain the new order 0 Holy Alliance UltraReactionary n Christianity against the revolution o Edmund Burke 0 Conservative Tradition authority Tradition exible and changes overtime Imagined slow political change 0 Joseph de Maistre o Reactionary from Kingdom of Savoy 0 France annexed Savoy and he ed o 1802 envoy of Russian court for 14 years Slavery and its Abolition Unfree labor 0 Atlantic Slavery Treated as property rather than people Unique aspects a Location time extent racism and harshness Some of the best sources we have of slavery are from people talking about property 0 The Zong 1781 0 English Save Ship Ran out of water and began throwing slaves overboard to save themselves Then tried to le an insurance report for having to lose its cargo a They said no Image of Atlantic Graveyard o Terminology o Slaveholder and Enslaved person 0 Slave labor camp 0 Since 1960 s historians have been attempting to Quantify Slave Trade 12 Million People Trans Atlantic Slave Trade Database n Largest amount of slaves sold in Caribbean BrazH Economies relied on working slaves to death a Many slaves were taken from Angola and Ghana Slave Culture Look for discrepancy between those who moved voluntarily involuntarily and indigenous people 0 Political Economy of Atlantic Slavery O O Unfree sectors of the economy were among the most dynamic sectors of the economy Almost everybody inside Europe was constrained by laws therefore the Atlantic could do whatever Emerged to produce sugars a 6070 slaves worked in sugar I 1020 didn t survive the passage Plantation Complex Monocropping 1st and 2nCI Slavery Break at the Haitian Revolution n Industrialization and the loss of Haiti increased the need for sugar n 2nOI slavery much more intense To what extent does Capitalism bene t from slavery when you can pay inexpensive wages for work 0 Robert Wedderburn 0 Working class B Jamaica to slave mother free father Antislavery Radical Underground n lnsurrections Labor politics 0 Growing working class politics in US and Europe 0 Complaining about work became equated to slavery a Middle Class Abolitionists Condemned slavery as immoral o Focused exclusively on ending slavery End of slavery was a result of a combo between insurrections and Abolitionist work a Turned into apprenticeships Serfdom and its Abolition 0 History and Political Economy of Serfdom o Goes back to the Roman Empire Payment in Kind a Payment with Labor 0 Feudalism System with a chain of obligations from King to Serfs Economy of estates n Serfs are unfree from birth Developed into a second serfdom between the 17th and 19th centuries 0 Differences with Slavery o Mobility Serfs are attached to the land 0 Obligation 26 days of forced labor for serfs 0 Racism Didn t really play a role with serfs 0 West vs East 0 West Cash economy instead of labor 0 East Coercive intense serfdom D Lord had a large plot with lots of political and policing power Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire Austrian Monarchy o Turgenev o B 1818 in Orel 0 Liberal Reformers but not revolutionary Gradual Change Wants to preserve hierarchy o Criticize via ction Portrays serfdom but also show how it can and is improving a Kaluga is the good town a Hor representative of Western Serfdom n Kalinitch representative of Eastern but more amorous version of serfdom Women are below serfs o Struggle of the 19th Century Understanding freedom and deciding if its worth losing everything you have and starting over Reforms and Abolition 0 French revolution brought about rising of the peasantry and serfs as well French Revolution didn t change feudalism but after the peasantry rose up the French emancipated them I Tried to keep peasants on the national side Modernity Capitalism and the Fantastic 0 Taking concrete things and making them abstract 0 Drawing abstract concept out of etherbeyond Where the beyond is capitalism Horror and rural Labor o Grimm Brothers Wanted to imagine national culture Kingdom to Republic Started looking at rural people and their folklore I Made a lot of edits though 0 What we read 0 Main character is immune to fantastic 0 Poor peasant who triumphs 0 Skilled at manufacturing Fantastic Machines Ure and Wedderburn New obsessions with automata l mechanical replicas of living things Told people more about the world 0 More mechanical than previously thought 0 Stemmed from skepticism about religion 0 19th c Ure started thinking about manipulating nature and disciplining humans DeMaiste talked about Vaucanson s ute player Technological determinism 0 Machine was economic and social agency 0 Economy and manufacturing is like a machine 0 Andrew Ure 0 Skilled workers are insubordinate and damaging 0 Get rid of skill o Machines should take over 0 Robert Wedderburn o Satirical 0 Show society that leadership would be more competent if taken over by machines le clergy parliament kings o The people to be replaced are not the working Counter Revolutionary States 0 Even the British feared revolution more than war 0 Relatively stable international relations 0 French Revolution blended war and revolution 0 Mixed with revolutionary thought and armies 0 International peace after the revolution was explicitly anti revolution Armies now also were used against their own people Less and less about policing and more about subduing violence a Peterloo Masacre Seen as excessive but also as a military success Wounded and killed revolutionaries These uses of force led to and increase in secret societies and secret police forces a Carlsbad Decrees Secret Police in Germany 0 Censorship Disbanded academic clubs out of notion that they were revolutionary 0 1820 s and 30 s there were diff revolutions in France Spain and Greece 0 Student revolutions with students and other intellectuals o Alf Ludke 0 German Historian o Ethnographer bottomup history Dealt a lot with police history because this was the main way that the general populace made contact with the state 0 Main Argument State violence was necessary to bring Prussia from feudalism to capitalism Examined history of brutality and discriminations against poor people as an early sign of capitalist tendencies American Civil War An International Revolution Part 1 0 France 0 1848 Revolution June Days 0 3 Revs in one Primal liberal socialist 0 June 1848 workers took to barricades against the Republic Temporarily took control and the government turned to Algeria to help quell them a General LouisEugene Cavaignac Figured out how to get through barricades June Days Massacre n Turning point in the history of socialism a Class doesn t determine political views a Executions and exiles France returned to a Republican government in February and elected Louis Napolean to lead a 1852 Republic becomes the 2nOI Empire 0 Germany 0 German Confederation after 1815 o 1848 Revolution Wanted to unify German States a This would mean overthrowing 39 governments Same three revolutions as in France March a Rose up to establish provisional governments n States would integrate liberals into the governments to quell the revolutions March Ministry n Agreed to allow representatives to be elected and sent to Frankfurt n Allowed to discuss revising a constitution March 1849 n Frankfurt Delegates drafted a uni ed constitution Gave the Prussian King the crown 0 He denied it quotcrown from the gutterquot o Disagreed with constitutional monarchy This broke up the liberal phase of the revolution 0 Marxist Thought 0 Cologne in Prussia becomes the capital for radicalism Communist league asked Marx and Engels to write the Manifesto before the Revolution a They though the Bourgeoisie would play a revolutionary role o It was a necessary step from feudalism to working class rule ie Communism Also oppressive and exploitative and inspires workers to rise up 0 Bourgeoisie is in its nature revolutionary 0 They wanted to ght alongside the Boug not make two revolutions 0 Austria 0 Fought against two revolutions at once 0 One in N Italy and one in Hungary They granted Hungary independence and they helped ght against N Italy a After the put down the Italian Revolution Austria recaptured Hungary Becomes AustroHungarian Empire in 1866
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