Midterm #1 CHEM 120
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claira Notetaker on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 120 at University of Washington taught by Deborah Wiegand in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 380 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Chemistry in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chem 120 Study Guide for Midterm 1 Chapter 1 2 3 11111113 Chapter 1 Matter Matter anything that has mass and occupies space 0 Can be found in multiple states I Solid definite shape and volume I Liquid definite volume but an indefinite shape I Gas indefinite volume and shape Phase of matter is affected by temperature pressure and strength of forces Properties 0 Physical can be observed without changing the basic identity of the substance I EX color melting point hardness smell etc 0 Chemical the characteristics of a a substance that describes its resistance to change or how it undergoes that change into a new substance I EX decomposition rusting some chemical reaction etc Mixture a physical combination of two of more pure substances but each pure substance still retains its own chemical identity 0 Heterogeneous visible differences in appearance 0 Homogeneous one on visible distinct phase with uniform properties throughout Pure substance a single kind of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter or by physical means 0 Compounds can be broken down into two or more simpler pure substances 0 Elements cant be broken down into simpler pure substances by chemical means I Need to know elements and symbols Agsilver Alaluminum Arargon Augold Bboron Babarium Be Beryllium Brbromine Ccarbon CAcalcium Clchlorine Cucopper F uorine Feiron Hhydrogen Hgmercury Iiodine Kpotassium Lilithium Mgmagnesium Nnitrogen Nasodium Neneon Ninickel Ooxygen Pphosphorus Pblead Ptplatinum Ssulfur Sntin Uuranium Znzinc Chapter 2 Measurement in chemistry Metric units 0 Length meters m 0 Mass grams g 0 Volume liters Lml for gases and liquids 0 Temperature Celsius C Sig figs 0 All non zeros count 0 Zeros I Leading zero are never significant I Trailing zeros No decimal point not significant Decimal point significant 0 Additionsubtraction I Sig figs in answer product with the fewest numbers to the right of the decimal o Multiplication division I Sig figs in answer least number of sig figs in product Conversion factors 0 Used to show how specific units are related to each other 0 Increase the size of the unit I Kilo k 1000 I Mega M 1000000 I Giga G 1000000000 I Tera T 1000000000000 I Peta P 1000000000000000 o Decrease the size of the unit I Deci d 1 I Centi c 01 I Milli m 001 I Micro greek u 000 001 I Nano n 000 000 001 I Pico p 000 000 000 001 I Femto f 000 000 000 000 001 Density is the ratio of the mass of an object to the volume occupied by that object 0 Density massvolume I D mV I Units just the units of the massvolume Temperature scale tendency of heat energy to be transferred from one object to another 0 Fahrenheit I Smaller degree size I 32 freezing I 212 boiling o Celsius most commonly used in scienti c work I 0 freezing I 100 boiling 0 Kelvin makes all temperature reading positive by setting 0 as the absolute zero where there is no kinetic energy I Same degrees increments as Celsius I Degree C 273K degree K 0 Converting between temperature scales I F95 C32 I C59F32 Chapter 3 Atomic structure and the periodic table Atom smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element 0 Nucleus small dense and positively charged center of the atom I Protons cause the positive charge of the nucleus atomic number Z I Neutrons I Neutrons protons Mass number A 0 Number of electrons number of protons I Electrons I This way the atom is of neutral charge Isotopes are atoms of an element that have same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons 0 Same atomic number different mass numbers 0 Same chemical properties but slightly different physical properties Finding the elements atomic mass 0 Multiplying the relative mass of each isotope by its fractional abundance and then totaling the products Molecule a group of 2 of mole atoms that function as a unit because they are bonded o Homoatomic all atoms are of the same element 0 Heteroatomic 2 or more kinds of atoms 0 Diatomic di two so they contain 2 atoms 0 Triatomic trithree so they have 3 atoms Continues numerically Periodic table 0 Period row 0 Group column I 1 IA Alkali metals I 2 11A Alkaline earth metals I 3 111B 12 IIB transition metals I 17 VIIA Halogen I 18 VIIIA Noble gases 0 Metal characteristics of luster thermal conductivity electronic conductivity malleability 0 Non Metal absence of the characteristics of metals Electron configuration 0 Electron shell is a region in of space around the nucleus that contains electrons that have about the same energy ad that spend most of their time approximately that same distance from the nucleus I Electron sub shells a region of space within an electron shell that contains electrons that have the same energy S p d f I Shell 1 1 subshell gt 15 2e I Shell 2 2 subshells gt 23 2e 2p 6e I Shell 3 3 subshells gt 35 2e 3p 6e 3d 10e I Shell 4 4 subshells gt 45 2e 4p 6e 4d 10e 4f 14e Electron orbitals a region of space within an electron subshell where an electron where an electron with a specific energy is most likely to be found 0 Can only accommodate a maximum of 2 electrons I These electrons must spin opposite of each other so one will spin clockwise and one will spin counter clockwise to balance out in diagrams the one up pointing arrow and the one down pointing arrow 0 Each subshell has a distinct shape to it I S circular I set of 2 I P dumbbellfigure 8 3 sets of 2 I Dclover 5 sets of 2 I F ower 7 sets of 2 Diagrams o Subshell energy order I lsgtZsgt2pgt3sgt3pgt4sgt3dgt4pgtSsgt4dgt5pgt6sgt4fgt5dgt6pgt7sgt5fgt6d gt 7p I use a subscript to indicate how full the outer most electron shell has atomic number number of electrons ex B has 5 electrons o 15quot225quot22pquot1 0 Using the periodic table I Distinguishing electrons is the last electron added to the electron configuration for an element when electron subshells are filled in order of increasing energy This last electron is what causes the element to differ from the element preceding in Period number Sblo ik I a he phlock r r 9 215 T quot l 3 35 d block j 3 4 45 4 y a 4 5 55 S g agh r a 6 11quot f l T 39 7 quotIs 7 I l l i E I l 1 Mquot l l 37 31 39 39 l i H 39 l L A l 4 7 4VA I Read from left to right I The distinguishing electron will be found on the S subshell for the 5 block the distinguishing electron will be from the p sub shell from the p block and so on Chapter 11 Nuclear chemistry Nuclide is an atom with a specific atomic number and a specific mass number 0 Stable does not readily undergo change 0 Unstable spontaneously undergoes change Alpha particle emission 4H 2 C 0 Beta particle emission 0 43 0 Gamma ray emission o It has no change or mass so you have to be told to use a gamma ray in the equation o 3907
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