Psychology Final Study Guide
Psychology Final Study Guide 100
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Beeson on Monday December 8, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at Santa Barbara City College taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see PSY 100 in Psychlogy at Santa Barbara City College.
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Date Created: 12/08/14
ANGER IS THE BIGGEST PREDICTOR OF HEART DISEASE more aggressive verbally aggressive no relaxation constantly pushing themselves very busy 9 more prone to heart disease easygoing relaxedhappy 9 more likely to live longer PROLONGED STRESS CAN DAMAGE THE BODY BUT SHORT TERM STRESS CAN BE BENEFICIAL 0 Brief stress can increase immune response make you feel more engaged help you focus on your priorities etc o Prolonged stress can cause mentalphysical coping abilities to become overwhelmed and defeated immune function decreases 9 overall health decreases Coping with stress 0 attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressorthe way we interact with that stressor I Ex working things out with a family member I People use this method when they feel they have control over the situation 0 attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one s stress reactions I Ex reaching out to friends for support comfort for stress relief I IT DOESN39T SOLVE THE PROBLEM OUR FEELINGS OF PERSONAL CONTROL OUR EXPLANATORY STYLE AND OUR SUPPORTIVE CONNECTIONS ALL INFLUENCE OUR ABILITY TO COPE SUCCESSFULLY the hopeless and passive resignation a person learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events 0 Ex abused women eventually become succumbed to learned helplessness 0 Increased self control noticeably improves health and morale I Losing control 9 outpour of stress hormones 9 increased blood pressure and decreased immune responses Internal vs External Locus of Control 0 the perception that chance or outside forces determine their fate 9 ulcers and lack of motivation the perception that they control their own destiny I Internals achieve more in schoolwork acted more independently healthier I Better at delaying gratification and coping with stress attribute poor performance to a basic lack of ability or to situations out of their control O o responds to blood chemistry receives and sends signals and it monitors levels of appetite hormones 2 secreted by an empty stomach Hormone Function Insulin Secreted by pancreas controls blood glucose by allowing cells to absorb glucose Ghrelin Secreted by an empty stomach appetite inducing signal is sent to the brain Leptin Protein hormone secreted by fat cells abundance 9 brain metabolism increases and hunger decreases SUPPRESSES HUNGER Orexin Secreted by hypothalamus in response to hunger PYY Digestive tract hormone sends appetite suppressing signals to the brain SUPPRESSES HUNGER People tend to hover around a stable weight by being more active when full and less active when hungry when people drop below their set point the body compensates by increasing hunger and decreasing metabolism until the weight is returned The Psychology of Hunger 0 One part of our decision to eat is our memory of the time of our last meal 0 As time passes we think about eating again 9 thoughts trigger feelings of hunger 0 9 calming effects and happy feelings carbohydrate filled foods boost these levels in the brain Social In uences on Eating o 9 people tend to eat more when they eat with others behavior is amplified 9 portion size matters people will eat more when they are offered 0 more 0 9 when offered a wide variety of food people tend to eat more is an ideal form of stored energy 0 In developing countries obesity signals af uence and social status Food and Activity Factors 0 People who suffer from sleep loss are more vulnerable to obesity because sleep deprivation 9 levels of leptin appetite suppressing hormone decrease and levels of ghrelin increase appetite stimulating hormone 0 Social in uence people are more likely to become obese if they have a friend that39s obese a mix of bodily arousal expressive behaviors conscious experience including thoughts and feelings WEEK 12 SUMMARY focus on the situation and they study the social in uences that explain why the same person will act differently in different situations we tend to overestimate the in uence of personality and underestimate the in uence of situations 0 attributing the behavior to the person39s stable enduring traits o attributing the behavior to the person39s situation 0 We tend to attribute our better qualities to our own personalities Persuasion takes on 2 forms 0 doesn39t engage systematic thinking but does produce fast results making snap judgments ie celebrity endorsements offers evidence and arguments that aim to trigger favorable thoughts ie when people analytically involved in an issue people who agree to small requests find it easier to comply later with a larger one 0 Ex POW in Chinese communist camps were brainwashed into believing communism was a good thing by the end of the war they began with small requests and gradually escalated their demands 0 START SMALL AND BUILD TO SECURE BIG COMMITMENTS Role playing affects attitudes o EX Zimbardo s Stanford Prison Experiment 9 what we do we gradually become we often bring our attitudes into line with our actions 0 The less coerced and ore responsible we feel for a troubling act the more dissonance we feel 9 the more motivated we are to find consistency ie by changing our attitudes to help justify the act we can39t always control our feelings but we can alter them by changing our behavior Automatic mimicry helps us feel what others are feeling and empathic mimicry helps foster fondness and Conformity and social norms 0 Mimicry is a subtle type of adjusting our behaviorsthinking toward some group standard 0 Asch s line experiment with college students 9 people are most likely to conform when I They are made to feel incompetent insecure I Are in a group of at least 3 people I Are in a group in which everyone else agrees I They admire the group39s status attractiveness I They haven39t made a prior commitment to any response I They know that others in the group will observe their behavior o I unconscious psychic energy that constantly tries to satisfy basic drives to survive reproduceaggress operates on a pleasure principle and immediate gratification I The evil on the shoulder I Ex newborn crying without concern for the rest of the world I Ex people who are stuck in the present without though of future consequences 0 largely unconscious executive part of personality that mediates among id superego and reality it operates on the reality principle satisfying the id39s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure vs pain 0 develops around 4 or 5 yo the part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment the conscious and future aspirations I The angel on the shoulder I Focuses on how we ought to behave it comes when you learn right from wrong SUPEREGO39S DEMANDS OFTEN OPPOSE THE ID39S 9 EGO MUST RECONCILE THE Personality Development personality forms during life39s first few years 9 children pass through a series of psychosexual stages 9 id39s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure sensitive areas of the body 0 boys seek genital stimulation and they develop unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and jealousyhatred for their father a rival 9 feelings of guilt and fear 0 Identification process children respond to threatening feelings by trying to become like the rival parent superego increases in strength as they incorporate parental values 9 produces our CONFLICTS UNRESOLVED IN EARLY PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES COULD SURFACE AS MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR IN ADULT YEARSquot a lingering focus on pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which con icts were unresolved tactics that decrease anxiety by distorting reality 0 A way of protecting the ego o All defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously banishes anxiety arousing feelingswishes from the consciousness o It underlies all defense mechanisms 0 Repressed urges may reappear as symbols in dreams slips of the tongue in casual conversation ie in free association 0 REPRESSION DOESN39T TYPICALLY OCCUR o Freud was right when he determined we have limited access to everything in our minds but our subconscious isn39t full of erotic passions and repressive censoring It is info processing without our awareness Unconscious involves automatically control our perceptions interpretations by stimuli to which we haven39t consciously attended enables split brain patients left hand to carry out an instruction the patient can39t verbalize operate without conscious recall even among those with amnesia Ectivate instantly before conscious analysis automatically unconsciously in uence how we process info about other eeing your foibles and actions in others 9 today39s 2 the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors Humanistic Theorists focus on the way healthy people strive for self determination and self realization o Maslow and Rogers 9 emphasized human potential 0 May have been too positive towards people we are motived by a hierarchy of needs o After we achieve self esteem we seek self actualization the peak of your existence the process of fulfilling our potential and self transcendence meaning purpose communion beyond the self 0 He studied healthy creative people vs troubled clinical ones o He decided that people who have rich productive lives tend to be self aware self accepting open spontaneous loving caring not paralyzed by other s opinions 9 interests are problem centered not self centered I Based on his own personal views Roger39s Person Centered Perspective A growth promoting climate requires 3 conditions 0 When people genuine they open wit their own feelings and self disclosing o When people are accepting they confess their worse feelings and discover we are still accepted we become stronger o when people are empathic they share mirror other s feeling and reflect their meaning O A CENTRAL FEATURE OF PERSONALITY ONE S SELF CONCEPT HOW wE DEFINE OURSELVES lung highlighted universal themes in unconsciousness found opportunities for personal growth by finding meaning in moments of consciousness Adler focused on fighting against feelings of inferiority l fJw3 I I 391 39 Hm V 39 39 C Kxl M 1 1gtw 4 V S e V I A L h ampu V Ia d39 J quot quot K 39 gt 39lt gt M u L Q Kr 39 ax xx 0 lt v 8 Jquotquot T It x l I J 7 vu c 3 g l A L f I f 3 lt m H I 39 I39 Q 39 39 l 4 n v V C r K J 1 39xult x39u w 39w L Q I V J39 39 39 t l39v39A 39 g 39 f I gt k 39 1 quot l I I f K 39 I 391 o s gt lt v ltgt I J i quot l 39 L quot L s C C A L 39 quot T quot g so 39 V 39 39 r C 39 39 39 r x l NHv yquot c Xov t I V s Jup1eL 0 L c Lt L K now I v39 3939 J 1 v Ll 5 r nj E M L l I l V K V 1 Q 4 7 VIC C 39 I A V Ju3939 TLrJ39 L us 2 1 J1 K It11 j V QQ 39 1 gt V 1 Kg r lt 1 39 39 9 gt 5 quot X quot 39 3939 an s 39Q w l 7 r I I lie I L L t J A I 1 C quot 39 quot 39 l 39 A 39Y39g jsl 9quot JCIk L gt ltl Jquot H L at 39439 x r k M L l I A f I 39 0 Lxcr I 39x 39 i r M v 9 9 39 quotquotquot quot39 quot n 7 5 V gt39 392 J 39 V1 s L v ga 39 quotV Q quots L1ixki I 1 C L I 439 39 quotquot 39 C 439 39 L iquotl K o L 139ll V ma LBobo doll exp wc overestimating other s noticing and evaluating our appearance performance and blunders 0 Fewer people notice than we presume our feelings of high or low self worth predicts many outcomes our sense of competence on a task 0 Ex I am fun to be with I have good ideas our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably 0 People accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad and success for failures 0 People see themselves as better than average and we overestimate ourselves can protect us from failures but for most people thinking has positive bias fragile focuses on sustaining itself 9 failures and criticism feel threatening 9 anger 0 lt fragile less contingent on external evaluations 0 By accepting who we are we are able to focus beyond ourselves WEEK 15 SUMMARY Qualifiers for a disease 0 Is it deviant 9 Do some people have a level of inattentivenessimpulsiveness that is extreme for their age 0 Is it distressful 9 Does the person enjoy or dislike the symptoms 0 Is it dysfunctional 9 Are the symptoms harmless fun or do they negatively impact work and relationships worthless expressing inappropriate guilt 0 daily problems with concentrating o recurrent thought of death and suicide DEPRESSION IS THE MOST COMMON REASON THAT PEOPLE SEEK MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES F alternates between depression and overexcited hyperactivity o It can be more dysfunctional than major depressive disorder Female risk of depression is 2 times that of males 0 When women get sad they tend to get sadder than men when men get mad they tend to get madder than women STRESSFUL EVENTS OFTEN PRECEDE DEPRESSION Most disorders are genetic and get passed down through families The depressed brain 0 Brain activity slows in mania it increases 0 Left frontal lobe and adjacent brain reward centers are less active and hippocampus memory processing center is linked with emotions scarce during depression 0 Norepinephrine increases arousal and boosts mood scarce during depression and overabundant in mania o Serotonin scarce inactive during depression 9 drugs that relieve depression tend to increase serotonin norepinephrine supplies by blocking either the reuptake or chemical breakdown of the neurotransmitters Repetitive physical exercise ie jogging decreases depression by increasing serotonin explores how people39s assumptions and expectations in uence what they perceive o Depressed people have extremely negative views of themselves their situations their futures THE SELFDEFEATING BELIEFS AND NEGATIVE EXPLANATORY STYLE FEED DEPRESSION S VICIOUS CYCLE 9 depressed mood triggers negative thoughts Depression s vicious cycle rejection and depression feed each other 0 If we can recognize the cycle we can break out of it a split mind disorder 9 person split from reality person may have disorganized thinking disturbed perceptions inappropriate emotions and actions 0 A type of a broad term for a disorder marked by irrationality distorted perceptions lost contact with reality characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that increase anxiety brain39s danger detection system becomes hyperactive 9 anxiety with no threats 9 person is constantly tense worrieduneasy without reason 9 unfocused out of control negative feelings o Symptoms commonplace and last for months 9 people mostly women worry continually o Some people can39t identify the cause of their anxiety 9 it39s difficult to relieve or avoid it o General anxiety disorder may 9 depression and 9 hypertension 9 Person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread o Panic symptoms are often misread as a heart attack or another serious ailment o Smokers have more than a 2 times greater risk for developing a panic disorder because nicotine is a stimulant 9 person intensely irrationally afraid of a specific object activity situation o Specific phobia focuses on particular animals heightsblood closed spaces 0 Social phobia extreme shyness intense fear of being judged by others9 avoidant threatening social situations speaking up eating out going to parties WORRYING ABOUT ANXIETY CAN AMPLIFY ANXIETY SYMPTOMS 9 person troubled by unwanted repetitive thoughts actions 0 Obsessive thoughts ie intense focus on cleaning your room unwanted and repetitive o Compulsive behaviors the response to those thoughts ie cleaning and cleaning and cleaning o OCD is common among teens and it lessens with age Z 9 person has lingering memories nightmares etc for weeks after a severely threatening uncontrollable event o Very common amongst veterans survivors of accidents disasters violent sexual assaults Conditioning o The environment in which the trauma took place is a cue for fear 0 Conditioning magnifies a single painful frightening event into a phobia by stimulus generalization and reinforcement I when a person experiences a fearful event and later develops a fear of similar events I helps maintain them anything that helps us avoid escape a feared situation 9 decreased anxiety feeling relief reinforces phobic behaviors ASP the most troubling and heavily researched personality disorder o A disorder in which a person usually a man exhibits a lack of conscious for wrong doing even toward friends and family members may be aggressive ruthless or a clever con artist 0 Usually appears before 15 yo when a person begins to lie steal fight display unrestrained sexual behavior PEOPLE WITH ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDERS FALL WAY BELOW NORMAL IN ASPECTS OF THINKING IE PLANNINGORGANIZINGINHIBITION ALL FRONTAL LOBE FUNCTIONS 4 n Jquot q 39 A I I l u A s
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