Physiology Final Study Guide
Physiology Final Study Guide 108
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Beeson on Monday December 8, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 108 at Santa Barbara City College taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see BMS 108 in Physiology at Santa Barbara City College.
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22 Newborn Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a lifethreatening condition What is this condition What causes it What is the treatment Newborn Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a condition in which a premature baby may not have developed pulmonary surfactant 9 the baby must be put on a ventilator because it won39t be able to breathe on its own Pulmonary surfactant isn39t produced by the fetus until late in the pregnancy Treatment 0 The application of synthetic surfactant to the baby39s lungs 0 Mothers at risk of having a premature baby can be treated with cortisol a hormone that signals the synthesis of surfactant in fetal lungs 23 List the 2 diseases included in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD Chronic bronchitis Emphysema 24 Why do people with asthma and COPD ventilate their lungs so poorly Resistance is majorly in uenced by the bronchiolar radius Lung disease ie asthma and COPD can reduce the bronchiolar radius and increase resistance 9 restricted breathing 25 List the various causes of asthma Asthma is usually an allergic response to an inhaled allergen It can be caused by chemical irritants cold air or exercise 26 What factors contribute to the narrowing of airways during an asthma attack People with asthma and COPD ventilate their lungs poorly because they cause spasms of the smooth muscle in the walls of bronchioles plugging of airways by thick mucus and thickening of bronchiolar walls due to in ammation induced edema 27 What causes chronic bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a long term in ammatory condition of the bronchioles caused by frequent exposure to irritants ie cigarette smoke polluted air allergens 29 Explain how smoking cigarettes can lead to the development of emphysema Cigarette smoke irritates alveolar walls Smoking is the culprit of emphysema it stimulates macrophages that live in the alveoli o Macrophages over secrete trypsin a protease that they would normally use to kill bacteria but in the absence of bacteria trypsin digests the cells of the alveoli 9 destroys the lungs via a loss of alveolar walls vascular tissue elasticity and causes bronchioles to collapse 9 poor ventilation 38 Refer to the 02hemoglobin dissociation curve in the figure to the right to answer the following questions a Arterial blood that is 100 saturated with 02 enters a tissue where p02 is 45 What will be the 02 saturation of the venous blood leaving this tissue What fraction of the 02 delivered to this tissue dissociates from hemoglobin a 80 saturated b 20 is delivered to the tissue b Venous blood enters alveolar capillaries The alveolar p02 is 100 What is the percent 02 saturation of hemoglobin in the blood leaving the alveoli 20 a 98quot0 10 c Venous blood enters alveolar capillaries The O 10 20 30 40 50 6 70 80 90 mm M alveolar p02 is 60 What is the percent 02 P0201 mod mm Hg 760 saturation of hemoglobin in the blood leaving the alveoli a 85 d Arterial blood which has a p02 of 60 enters a tissue that has a p02 of 40 What will be the 02 saturation of venous blood leaving this tissue a 75 as it leaves The first number is irrelevant 100 90 80 70 60 50 W 40 V 30 Percent hemoglobin saturation 39 Which of the following conditions would increase the dissociation of 02 from hemoglobin a An increase in the temperature of the environment surrounding hemoglobin b An increase in the pC02 in the environment surrounding the hemoglobin I I I II III I Illl IIIIII I Iellllllllll d An increase in the hydrogen ion concentration H in he envronment surrounding hemoglobin A g g A 40 State 3 ways that CO2 is transported in the blood Dissolved in plasma 10 CO2 is much more soluble than 02 Bound to hemoglobin 30 CO2 can bind to hemoglobin and form a carbamino compound it dissociates from hemoglobin in capillaries of alveoli As bicarbonate 60 formed by carbonic anhydrase found in RBCS and converts CO2 H20 into carbonic acid HZCOS9 HCO3 H 41 What fraction of CO2 produced by tissues is converted to bicarbonate 60 42 Name the enzyme that converts C02 to bicarbonate Carbonic anhydrase 50 Define peristalsis Peristalsis the propulsion of food through the tube via movement of the smooth muscles of the alimentary canal 51 Describe the composition of saliva Saliva is made of mucus amylase an enzyme that starts the breakdown of carbs and a bicarbonate buffer 52 What enzyme converts starch to maltose Amylase 53 How does saliva contribute to the health of your teeth Saliva has amylase which may function to help keep teeth clean and prevent tooth decay by converting insoluble starch into soluble starch maltose which can wash away when swallowed 9 decreased bacterial growth and decreased tooth decay 54 What are the components of gastric juice Gastric juice is made of hydrochloric acid HCI intrinsic factor and pepsin 55 What specialized stomach cells secrete gastric juice HCl and intrinsic factor are secreted by parietal cells Pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells and gets converted to Pepsin by the acidic environment of the gastric juice 56 What is the function of hydrochloric acid HCl in the stomach HCl works to denature ingested proteins so the food can become solubilized and converted into a semiliquid paste 57 What is the function of pepsin in the stomach Pepsin is a protease enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of proteins into smaller units amino acids 58 What catalyzes the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin in the stomach The acidic environment of the gastric juice catalyzes the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin 59 What is the function of alkaline mucus that coats the stomach wall The alkaline mucus that coats the stomach wall protects the epithelium from the destructive effects of pepsin and HCl 60 What are the major causes of peptic ulcers Over secretion of HCl Breakdown of the mucus barrier Heliobacter pylori a bacterium that is associated with peptic ulcers o The intestinal phase gives the small intestine time to process the chime before more is added 65 How does the hormone Gastrin affect the secretion of HCl Gastrin is a hormone that stimulates further release of HCl and pepsinogen 66 What effect does the presence of food in the mouth have on the secretion of pepsinogen The presence of food in the mouth stimulates the secretion of HCl and pepsinogen 67 Does movement of chime from the stomach to the small intestine speed up or slow down gastric emptying The movement of chime from the stomach to the small intestine slows down gastric emptying it is an inhibitory mechanism 68 What is the function of the alkaline uid secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine The alkaline uid acts to neutralize the acidity of the gastric juice that gets secreted into the small intestine with the chime it protects the duodenum from damage and creates proper pH for enzymes 69 What types of pancreatic enzymes are secreted into the small intestine Amylase converts starch into maltose Lipase converts triglycerides fats into 2 fatty acids monoglyceride Protease converts proteins into peptides 70 What pancreatic enzyme converts starch to maltose Amylase 71 What pancreatic enzyme converts triglycerides to monoglyceride plus 2 fatty acids Lipase 72 What pancreatic enzyme converts proteins to amino acids Protease especially trypsinogen 9 trypsin 73 What small intestine enzyme converts trypsinogen to trypsin Enterokinase converts trypsinogen to trypsin lKVquotgtollt I quot L 3 l rcgtTum 9 yyv i U Nwomc N lb 74 List the components of bile an essential molecule increases membrane uidity and is a precursor to all steroid hormones ie estrogen and testosterone a yellowish pigment derived from metabolized heme of dead red blood cells RBCs 9 secreted into bile as bilirubin detergent like molecules that emulsify break up fat droplets 75 What causes jaundice What physical sign is observed with jaundice Liver disease or obstruction of the flow of a bile duct cause high levels of bilirubin to accumulate which causes jaundice Yellowing of the skin and eyes is a symptom of jaundice 76 What is the function of bile salts Bile salts break up fat droplets into smaller fat droplets that can more easily be digested by lipase gives the droplets a larger surface area volume ratio quotZ 1 Q 39 39 J 0 C K E 9 90 4 o w s a 5 Q O C 39 Rb 539 Snvxu F r39 W UquotW LLl vvkcquot 9LL39lgt 77 What is the function of the gall bladder The gallbladder is a pear shaped muscular sac that is attached to the ventral side of the liver and stores and concentrates bile between meals o The liver is constantly making bile 9 travels through the hepatic duct into common bile duct 78 What stimulates the secretion of cholecystokinin CCK from the small intestine The presence of fatty acids and amino acids in the duodenum stimulate the secretion of CCK 79 What is the function of cholecystokinin CCK CCK stimulates the pancreas to secrete hydrolytic enzymes ie protease lipase amylase and it stimulates the gall bladder to contract 9 secretion of bile into the small intestine quotquot39j 9T amp 39V 39 3i Q Q 1 7 I x IV C I 39 3953 t 39 K J quot T K K J C 39 39 l r40 lxig l K 3939 Ckj 1quot 39 u s 7 quot l p tdoc d pl 9 5 80 What stimulates the secretion of the hormone secretin from the small intestine Secretin is secreted in response to a low pH in the duodenum 81 What is the function of secretin Secretin stimulates the pancreas to secrete an alkaline uid bicarbonate into the duodenum 9 neutralizes the acid 9 increase in pH r quot39quot 39 39x P l l 39 0C quot 39 l I oq 1 v 3 Q 39 V N 4 I u 39tk 39 gu 39u A V J J kjp Kquot L 39 39 82 What region of the alimentary canal is most responsible for the absorption of nutrients The small intestine is most responsible for nutrient absorption 83 Does absorption of monosaccharides and amino acids occur by active transport or simple diffusion Active transport 84 What fundamental defect causes lactose intolerance When the production of 2 decreases or stops the person becomes unable to digest lactose 9 lactose intolerance 85 What intestinal problem results when a lactose intolerant person consumes milk Undigested lactose enters the colon and is digested by lactase producing bacteria 9 production of gas Presence of undigested lactose in colon increases the Osmolarity of feces 9 inhibits H20 reabsorption 9 diarrhea 86 Does the absorption of fatty acids in the small intestine occur by active transport or simple diffusion Simple diffusion 87 What is the function of chylomicrons in fat absorption Chylomicrons lipoproteins are protein carriers that transport lipids form the intestine to the blood stream 88 What is the major function of the large intestine The large intestine forms as stores feces and absorbs the remaining water and ions 89 Describe the defecation re ex what is the stimulus and what are the responses The Defecation is inhibited by the distention of the rectum by incoming feces 9 relaxation of the internal sphincter 9 mental urge to defecate 9 contraction of smooth muscles of the colon and rectum forces feces out of anus The external sphincter is under voluntary control 9 consciously inhibits defecation 90 Define anabolism and catabolism the synthesis of large molecules from smaller molecules the degradation of large molecules into smaller molecules 91 What is the basic function of cellular respiration Cellular respiration takes molecules from food and converts it to energy ATP 92 What is the overall chemical equation of cellular respiration C6H1205 602 9 6C02 6H20 36 ATP 93 What are the 3 major steps in cellular respiration of glucose a multistep process in which glucose is split in half and chemically modified into 2 pyruvate molecules 9 release of ATP Krebs Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation 94 Where in the cell does glycolysis occur Cytoplasm 95 Does glycolysis require oxygen No 96 What energy products does glycolysis yield 2 NADH 2 ATP 2 Pyruvate Qdxugc n l 2N 1gt 9 V l3939 V quot 3 Ah7 V L In gt Lsvcw RAB x Y 97 What is the function of NAD in cellular respiration It is a high energy electron carrier that can shuttle electrons to the electron transport chain 98 Where in the cell does the Kreb s cycle occur In the mitochondria 99 What energy products does the Kreb s cycle yield 2 ATP 3 NADH 3 FADH2 an electron carrier 100 What is the role of the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation The electron transport chain ETC is a series of proteins that takes energy from molecules such as NADH and FADH2 and they use that energy to do work they pump H from the matrix of the mitochondria into the inter membrane space Pumping 9 H gradient 9 H are allowed to ow back into the matrix down their concentration gradient through a membrane bound channel 9 ATP synthase 101 How do the ATP synthase and H gradient work together to convert ADP to ATP ATP synthase is an enzyme that can phosphorylate ADP 9 ATP The energy ow of H through ATP synthase 9 production of ATP 0 Each NADH provides enough energy for 3 ATP 0 Each FADH2 provides enough energy for 2 ATP 102 What molecule is the final electron acceptor for electrons that travel down the electron transport chain Oxygen O2 3CclL3 3 4 Q Lrgt1c gtn cut o tuo 39 quotV 2 c39 c 1 fc rV39 c cA quot C I lDf5 1c i Tquott1gtox3 o amp OxabCLCtampC K39t K CL 1 gt um p quot Mowax A FAN 39 v T9 CC CC 3 4 krggt3 LAC 105 Besides glucose what other fuel molecules can be consumed in cellular respiration Triglycerides Proteins 106 Is lactate fermentation an aerobic or anaerobic process Anaerobic process 107 What are the 2 major steps in lactate fermentation Without O2 pyruvate is converted to lactic acid via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and NAD is produces as a byproduct replenishing NAD supplies 108 What is the function of lactate fermentation Lactate fermentation replenishes NAD supplies which are limited and required for glycolysis to run 109 Do the following conditions occur during the Absorptive state or the Post absorptive state a Nutrients are entering the blood from the gastrointestinal GI tract Absorptive state b Glucagon is present in the blood Postabsorptive state c Insulin is present in the blood Absorptive state d This is a period of net catabolism of fuel molecules Postabsorptive state e Glucose is the preferred fuel for body cells Absorptive state f Fatty acids are the preferred fuel for body cells Postabsorptive state g Fuel molecules entering the blood are coming from body stores Post absorptive state 110 How does the body store excess glucose entering the blood during the absorptive state Excess glucose is converted to fat by the liver and transported to adipose tissue for storage 111 What is the fate of amino acids entering the blood during the absorptive state Amino acids are used for protein synthesis and they help replace repair rebuild worn out tissues Excess amino acids are converted to fat by the liver and transported to adipose tissue for storage 112 What cells in what gland secrete insulin 2 is a peptide hormone secreted by beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas 113 What factors stimulate secretion of insulin Which of these factors is most important Insulin is dominant during the absorptive state Increased levels is the most important factor that stimulates the secretion of insulin 0 Beta cells of pancreatic islets directly sense the concentration of blood glucose increase blood glucose 9 insulin secretion also in uences the secretion of insulin it The directly innervates the beta cells 0 The Parasympathetic NS is stimulated by the consumption of a meal GIP is secreted by the small intestine in response to chime in the duodenum 9 GIP enters blood stream and goes to pancreas 9 secretion of insulin 114 Describe the process by which insulin increases cellular uptake of glucose from the blood Insulin binds to receptors on body cells and changes the activities of pre existing enzymes to favor the absorptive state 0 Enzymes that catalyze the uptake of glucose and its conversion to glycogen are activated by insulin 0 Glucose carrier vesicles are delivered to the membrane of the cell allowing the cell to uptake glucose I Glucose moves down its concentration gradient into the cell 115 How does insulin promote the activities of the absorptive state Insulin activates enzymes that catalyze the uptake of glucose and its conversion to glycogen and it inhibits the reverse reactions that would take place in the post absorptive state 116 During the postabsorptive state most body cells rely on fatty acids for energy but the central nervous system CNS requires a constant supply of glucose What 2 processes maintain adequate blood glucose levels during the postabsorptive state Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis 117 Define glycogenolysis the breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver 9 increased blood glucose levels 118 Define gluconeogenesis the synthesis of new glucose from other smaller molecules ie fatty acids and amino acids 0 Only occurs in the liver 119 What cells in what gland secrete glucagon is a peptide hormone that is secreted by Alpha Cells of the pancreatic islets 120 What stimulates the secretion of glucagon Glucagon is secreted when alpha cells detect a decrease in blood glucose 121 What effect does glucagon have on lipolysis glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis Glucagon increases the activity of lipolysis glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis 122 What causes Type 1 diabetes mellitus Type 1 diabetes mellitus insulin dependent diabetes mellitus It is cause by an absence of insulin production from beta cells of the pancreas It is an autoimmune disease in which immune system attacks the beta cells 123 What causes Type 2 diabetes mellitus Type 2 diabetes mellitus non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus related to obesity It39s caused by insulin resistance 0 Insulin is present but diabetics don39t respond to it 0 Down regulation a decrease in the number of insulin receptors caused by chronic overeating by an obese person 124 What effect does diabetes mellitus have on blood glucose levels Why does this occur It makes blood glucose levels rise because the people with diabetes mellitus can39t make or respond to insulin so no glucose is absorbed into the cells and out of the blood 125 What is the treatment for Type 1 diabetes mellitus for Type 2 diabetes mellitus Treatment for Type 1 diabetes mellitus daily insulin injection Treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus exercise weight loss drugs that decrease blood glucose levels 126 Describe the process of ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetic Ketoacidosis extremely high glucose and ketone levels in the blood Without insulin blood glucose concentrations increase because glucose can39t be absorbed by body cells it can be absorbed by the brain however Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis actively add more glucose to the blood because the cells are starving for energy 9 glucose is present in the urine 9 osmotic diuresis excessive urination 9 dehydration 9 coma death Insulin deprivation 9 near complete reliance on fat metabolism 9 fatty acids and keto acids incomplete breakdown of fatty acids 0 Excessive keto acids 9 metabolic acidosis and dehydration 127 Why does diuresis occur in a type 1 diabetic that is deficient for insulin Diuresis occurs because there is an incredibly high level of blood glucose and all of the glucose can39t be sifted from the urine 9 the urine becomes hypertonic and water does not get reabsorbed as much 9 excessive urine production diuresis 128 Why does hyperlipidemia high blood fatty acid levels result in acidosis High levels of fat in the blood stream 9 break down of fats 9 byproduct of acidic ketones 9 eventual breakdown to CO2 H20 If there are too many ketones the blood becomes acidic 129 Describe the longterm effects of diabetes mellitus on the body Long term diabetes mellitus can cause degenerative disorders of the vasculature and nervous system Chronically increased blood glucose levels 9 glycosylation sugar coating of basement membranes of blood vessels 9 decreases rate of nutrient diffusion and gas exchange out of blood vessels 0 Impaired circulation in extremities 9 increased risk of gangrene cell death 9 amputation of limbs 0 Vascular lesions in the retina 9 blindness Chronically excessive blood lipids 9 increased risk for atherosclerosis coronary artery disease stroke Lesions in nerves 9 nerve disorders in the brainspinal cordperipheral nerves 130 What hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary Oxytocin plays roles n parturition and breast milk ejection Antidiuretic hormone ADH 131 How does the hypothalamus in uence the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary The hypothalamus integrates the nervous system with the endocrine system and it communicates directly with the pituitary gland which is just below the hypothalamus in the brain It regulates the secretion of pituitary hormones 9 affects the secretion of other endocrine glands 132 What is the relationship between growth hormone somadomedins and tissue growth Growth hormone stimulates the growth of body tissues and induces the secretion of somadomedins from the liver aka insulin like growth factors 9 directly stimulates cells to increase their rate of protein synthesis 9 tissues grow faster 133 How does growth hormone affect lipolysis It stimulates lipolysis which inhibits glucose uptake by body cells 9 growth hormone favors utilization of fats vs glucose 134 How does growth hormone affect glucose uptake by cells It inhibits glucose uptake by cells 135 How do bones lengthen prior to puberty Growth hormone stimulate secretion of somadomedins 9 bone growth by condocytes cells that produces cartilage at epiphyseal plate 9 lengthens bones and osteoblasts bone building cells that replace cartilage with bone at epiphyseal plates j Puberty accelerates bone cartilage growth and ossification 136 Why do bones stop lengthening after puberty Long bones lengthen rapidly during puberty but ossification outpace cartilage growth 9 epiphyseal plates ossify and bone lengthening stops 137 Describe the regulation of growth hormone secretion They hypothalamus GHRH 9 secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary Increased levels of growth hormone negatively feed back to the hypothalamus to decrease the secretion of GHRH 9 decreased secretion of 138 What effect does sleep have on growth hormone GH secretion Deep sleep causes GH levels to dramatically increase then slowly decrease throughout the night 0 GH levels are low during the day 139 What effect does exercise have on growth hormone secretion Exercise causes an increase in GH secretion because it 9 demand for energy and GH stimulates lipolysis 9 increased blood levels of fatty acids 9 working muscles can utilize the fatty acids for energy 140 What condition results from hypersecretion of growth hormone prior to puberty Gigantism 141 What condition results from hypersecretion of growth hormone after puberty Acromegaly 142 What condition results from insufficient secretion of growth hormone prior to puberty Dwarfism 143 Describe the characteristics of acromegaly People with acromegaly tend to have thick bones and excessive growth of soft tissues esp connective tissue and the skin 0 There is excessive thickening that is noticeable in the face 9 disfiguring condition 144 What type of cells within the thyroid gland secrete thyroid hormone Follicular cells secrete thyroid hormones 145 What are the functions of thyroid hormone Thyroid hormone is the most important mediator of a person39s metabolic rate 146 Describe the regulation of thyroid hormone Thyroid hormone is ultimately controlled by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary Hypothalamus secretes thyroid releasing hormone TRH 9 stimulates pituitary to secret thyroid stimulating hormone TSH 9 TSH binds to receptors on thyroid gland 9 secretion of thyroid hormone 147 Are the following conditions more likely to occur with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism Fast strong pulse 9 hyperthyroidism Cold intolerance 9 hypothyroidism Manic behavior 9 hyperthyroidism Weight gain 9 hypothyroidism Decreased metabolic rate 9 hypothyroidism Goiter 9 hypothyroidism 148 What causes Grave39s disease A malfunction of the hypothalamus pituitarythyroid glands causes Grave39s disease 9 hyperthyroidism 149 What are the signs and symptoms of Grave39s disease Grave39s disease is an autoimmune disease 9 immune system attacks the thyroid gland and other tissues Goiter and over secretion of thyroid hormone are symptoms 0 The body mistakenly produces too much thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin TSI an antibody that recognizes and binds to the TSH receptor on follicular cells of thyroid gland 9 growth of the gland 9 goiter and over secretion of thyroid hormone 150 Why does iodine deficiency cause goiter Iodine is essential to the production of thyroid hormone an when there is a deficiency thyroid hormone secretion stops Thyroid hormone is required to inhibit the secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH from anterior pituitary 9 TSH secretion increases without thyroid hormone TSH stimulates growth of follicular cells and the gland enlarges 9 goiter 151 How does cortisol increase blood glucose Cortisol the primary glucocorticoid it has many metabolic effects on the body and it plays a major role in a person39s adaptation to stress It increases gluconeogenesis and it inhibits glucose uptake by body cells other than the nervous system 169 What is spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis the production of haploid sperm 170 At what point in a man39s life does spermatogenesis begin When does it end It begins at puberty and continues to death 171 What is the function of the male scrotum It is a muscular sac that can regulate the temperature of the testes to provide an environment for optimal sperm production 0 Hot temps 9 scrotum relaxes and testes descend 0 Cold temps 9 scrotum contracts and testes ascend 172 What temperature is optimal for spermatogenesis Several degrees below normal body temperature 173 Spermatogenesis occurs in what structure of the body Seminiferous tubules of the testes 174 What is the role of sertoli cells in spermatogenesis Sertoli cells form the wals of the seminiferous tubules and support the development of sperm by providing growth factors and nutrients 175 What cells secrete testosterone Leydig cells 176 What is the function of the epididymis The Epididymis stores the sperm and transports it from the testes It is the sight of sperm maturation 177 Where are sperm stored prior to ejaculation Vas Deferens capable of contraction during an orgasm 178 Describe the structure of a male sperm There are 4 major parts 0 contains the nucleus 0 a sac that contains hydrolytic enzymes capable of dissolving the egg s protective barrier zona pellucida it covers the top of the head 0 contains the mitochondria o a agellum that ll propel the sperm 1397 av CCLA U0 g 39 0 6 T y kw 39 1 J 1 quot 39 gxn lnquot1 quot 9 O 87 1 YJl J 0 ex r 1 ultn1lt r t1 1 P 1 LL quot quot fuv39I Q39 x4 v 188 What is Oogenesis Oogenesis is the development of haploid ova female gametes 189 Where does Oogenesis take place It occurs in the ovaries 190 Describe the timing of Oogenesis in the female life cycle At what age does it begin When does it end It begins in utero during fetal life and continues into the 3rd trimester of pregnancy All primary Oocytes within the fetal ovaries begin meiosis and don39t complete the first cell division until puberty Oogenesis stops at menopause around 50 yo 191 Describe the cyclic changes in the ovary and endometrium during the menstrual cycle Include in your discussion the follicular phase the luteal phase ovulation proliferative phase secretory phase and the hormones that regulate these events Follicular Phase follicle stimulate hormone FSH stimulates follicular cells surrounding the egg to undergo rapid cell division 9 great enlargement of the follicle 9 follicular cells produce more estrogen 9 further stimulation of follicular growth 9 uid filled cavity 2 is formed 9 follicle appears as a blister like protrusion on the surface of the ovary o Ovulation is triggered by a spike in the secretion of leutinizing hormone LH 9 follicle ruptures and egg is ejected Luteal phase LH 9 ruptured follicle changes into yellow body 9 ovary begins luteal phase 9 corpus luteum continues to produces estrogen and it starts to produces progesterone 210 What is a blastocyst A blastocyst a zygote that has undergone rapid cellular division 211 When and where does a blastocyst implant After 7 days the blastocyst implants itself into the wall of the uterus 212 What kinds of secretions produced by the blastocyst promote implantation and formation of the placenta A blastocyst is made of an inner cell mass the embryo and tropoblast placental cells Tropoblast cells secrete proteases that destroy maternal endothelial cells 9 creates a space for the blastocyst and provides it with nutrients Blastocyst secrete chemical factors that stimulate vascular development within the endothelium 213 The maternal portion of the placenta is called the decidua while the fetal portion of the placenta is called the chorion 214 Explain how the positive feedback loop between the posterior pituitary oxytocin uterus and cervix results in expulsion of the baby from the uterus during parturition Parturition labor delivery Iust before labor smooth muscle of uterus myometrium is very responsive to oxytocin hormone that stimulates the myometrium to contract Contractions move from the top of the uterus down and push the baby toward the cervix stretching it 9 neural re ex 9 posterior pituitary releases more oxytocin 9 stronger more frequent contractions 9 more cervical stretch 9 cycle continues Oxytocin stimulates the release of prostaglandins from the placenta which also cause contraction of the myometrium and increased cervical stretch 215 What role does prostaglandin play in parturition Prostaglandin helps with contractions after the baby is born it causes strong contractions which deliver the placenta 216 What hormones stimulate development of mammary tissue during pregnancy Estrogen and progesterone stimulate the development of mammary tissue during pregnancy 217 What is the function of prolactin in lactation Prolactin stimulates the production of milk it comes from the anterior pituitary 218 What is the function of oxytocin in lactation Oxytocin stimulates milk expulsion in lactation 219 Explain the positive feedback loop between the baby and mother that keeps the mother lactating Suckling stimulates neural receptors in the nipple that communicate with the hypothalamus 9 stimulates secretion of prolactin from anterior pituitary and oxytocin from posterior pituitary 9 more milk is secreted into alveoli and ejected out of the nipple 9 encourages the child to suck more etc 99 F L K quot L ult I L 1 s V m V V I so gt L Ct 1 i it 391 c 11 gt xquotS 39Ho L g C3X31 r Pfbkxtxrx is W C l ll all quot C v39 VlgL v