EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Biol 180
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmitTal on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 180 at University of Washington taught by Scott Freeman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Introduction Evolution and Mendelian Genetics NOTE SU MMARY Objective Think like a biologist What is Bloom39s Bloom s Taxonomy splits the learning process Taxonomy of Learning into quothigher learningquot and quotlower learningquot Lower Memorization and understanding Higher Analysis evaluation and synthesis What39s the difference Religion a collection of beliefs cultural batWeen re39igion systems and world views PseUdOSCience and Pseudoscience claimsbeliefs often SCienCE presented as science but that cannot be scienti cally tested Science a testable claim that follows the scienti c method What is the scienti c l Observations method Question Hypothesis l Prediction Test If the test does not support the hypothesis revise it If the test does support the hypothesis it is corroborated NOT proven How can hypotheses be Theories have two parts tested experimentally Pattern a noticeable trend in nature what Process an explanation for that trend howwhy What is the theory of special creation Pattern Species are recent unrelated and static Process Instantaneous and separate creation of all species by a god Testing the pattern Radiometric dating geographical relationships Wallace line What is quotLamarkianquot evolution Pattern Evolutionary change is progressive and leads to a quotladder of lifequot Process Individuals change in response to the environment and pass on those changes Example Giraffes would grow longer necks to reach higher leaves and would pass on that trait to their offspring What are Darwin39s four postulates 1 Individuals within populations are variable 2 These variations are hereditary 3 Not all individuals produce the same number of offspring 4 Individuals with certain traits produce more offspring What is evolution by Natural Selection Natural selection occurs when heritable variation leads to differential reproductive successRS What are alleles An allele is a variant of a gene All alleles of a gene are located at the same position on a chromosome Humans are diploid organisms because they have two alleles at each genetic locus with one allele inherited from each parent What was Darwin39s quotproblem of variationquot 1 Selection would exhaust diversity in a population advantageous alleles would dominate a population entirely and wouldn t allow for more evolution 2 Blending inheritance would create an overly average population by mixing advantageous traits with inferior ones and combining their attributes equally What contrasting hypotheses was Mendel trying to understand 1 Blending inheritance the quothereditary materialquot from each parent mixes making intermediate phenotypes 2 Inheritance of acquired characters Traits change through environmental in uence and these changes are hereditary What is a model organism quotA model organism is a species that has been widely studied usually because it is easy to maintain and breed in a laboratoryquot What is a gamete Gametes are mature haploid sex cells that are able to unite with another of the opposite sex to form a zygote What is the physical basis of Mendel39s rules Mitosis the process responsible for asexual reproduction and growth in multicellular organisms Meiosis the reproductive process in which cells form two gametes each with half of the parent cell s genetic hereditary information What the hell does haploid number actually mean The haploid number is the number of different types of chromosomes in a cell I know it confused me too
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