Exam 2 Unofficial Study Guide
Exam 2 Unofficial Study Guide GEOG 322
Popular in Louisiana Geography
Popular in Geography
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianne Hall on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 322 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Molly McGraw in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Louisiana Geography in Geography at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Geography Exam 2 Geomorphology 0 Study of land forms 0 Louisiana very young bc of MS River 0 Vast majority of Louisiana consist of Cenozoic Age Rock6065 million years 39 Tertiary Age of Man 286065 MYP I Quaternary Ice Age Pleistocene and Present Holocene 028 MYP 0 Scattering of older rock Mesozoic 70225 MYP in BienVille and Ouachita Parish 0 Generally North LA is older than South LA gt gt MYP Million years before present Sedimentary Rock 0 Formed from fragments of existing rock 0 Existing rock is weathered transported and deposited Weathered rock yields sediment 0 Sediment can be transported and deposited by water Wind and ice 0 Generally deposited in horizontal beds characteristically 20000 ft to bedrock in N LA 40000 ft to bedrock in S LA New layers are from MS River depositing sediment Hinge point occurs at 3T N Louisiana Uplands 0 Home to the highest elevations in the state and are made of the oldest rock Two Main Regions lTertiary Hills 2 Terraces Minor Uplands 1 Loess 2 Salt domes 3 Pimple mounds Uplifts 0 Sabine Uplift Associated With lignite coal mineable deposits limited to 7 parishes Desoto Caddo Bossier Sabine BienVille Natchitoches and Red River 0 The Monroe Uplift important bc one of the larger oil and gas fields in the fields 0 Anticline pushed up layers of rock can erode away and leave a series of ridges They create the hills of N LA 3 Major Wolds Hills Tertiary Hills Wold asymmetrical ridge With a long gentle slope on one side and a sleep cliff on the other Wold cuesta Kisatchie Wold 0 MS River oodplain to the Rio Grande Valley 0 Runs east to west of Alexandria found in Vernon Natchitoches Rapides and LaSalle Parishes 0 Ridges runs through the Kisatchie National Forest 0 Formed from layers of the very resistant sandstone sedimentary rock 0 Western Part hills 7400 ft very rugged 0 Eastern Part hills 300 ft fragmented due to stream erosion breaking them into The Chalk Hills and Sicily Island NaCOgdoches Wold 0 A ridge running from the MS River to the Rio Grande Valley 0 Sabine Natchitoches Winn Bienville and Claiborne Parishes then exits into Arkansas 0 Older than Kisatchie and higher elevations shaped partly by the Sabine Uplift 0 Contains the highest peak in LA MT Driscoll 535 ft Ouachita Hills 0 Just north of the eastern end of the Kisatchie Wold extend north to Arkansas 0 The last significant string of hills in LA 0 lt300 ft in elevation 0 Underlain by The Monroe Uplift Terraces 0 Created as part of the glaciation process that took place in the last ice age 0 Sediment from MS River and changes in sea level created them 3 Maior Terrace Coleexes 1Upland complex 2 Intermediate complex 3Prairie complex Upland Coleex oldest 0 Series of terraces ranging in elevations from 150 to 350 ft 0 Glacial outwash 0 A belt across the state from Texas to Sicily Island just south of the Kisatchie Wold 0 Some located in the Florida Parishes 0 Characteristic soil highly oxidized orange sands and gravels Intermediate Complex 0 Distinguishable from other complexes by its elevation 100 ft 0 Alluvium deposits 0 Located in the Florida Parishes in a narrow band that widens westward 0 Composed of sand silt and clay Prairie Coleex youngest 0 40 ft above the river planes of S LA 0 Alluvium deposits 0 Youngest major complex of terraces and is the closest to the gulf coast 0 Composed of sand silt and clay Minor Uplands Loess 0 Structure less uncemented loose light colored wind borne silt deposits 0 Very fine silt size 0 Form vertical cliffs 0 Rapid Erosion 0 Found in St Francisville 0 Can get caught in the dermal creases in your hands 0 Formation at the end of the last ice age when ice sheet melted it left a fine loose sediment that ended up in Louisiana Salt Domes Diapris Masses of salt that push up through the rock layers above them Avery Island Jefferson Island and Bayou Corn Salt is less dense than rock and sediment and tries to push up through the layers of rock that are pushing down on it Under heat and pressure salt becomes a plastic and moves very slowly 3 Basins 1 Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin 2 Northern Louisiana Salt Dome Basin 3 Mississippi Salt Dome Basin Lots of minerals Limestone Sulphur Oil and Natural gas gt More Salt Domes closer to the Gulf of Mexico Pimple Mounds Low round circular or elliptical shaped hills about 23 height and 50 ft diameter Scattered or clustered On shallow slopes or at areas but not creek bottoms or poorly drained areas ONLY present west of MS River Formation is a geomorphic mystery Lowlands and Fluvial Features MS River Single Most Feature 3 Dominate Regions 1 2 3 Alluvial Valley Fluvial ValleyFlood Plain Deltaic Plain Chenier Plain River System Drainage Basin 0 Tributaries ow into other rivers Alluvial Valley 0 Chute Delta 0 Distributaries Receiving Basin Alluvial ValleV 0 Historic ood path of the MS River and its tributaries 0 All features formed by the MS River and tributaries O No active major MS River tributaries in LA 0 Historically Red River and its tributaries Tensas and Ouachita Rivers River Morphology 0 Nothing is static everything is dynamic 0 Channel where the river ows 0 Bank confines the channel 0 Bed bottom of the river 0 Thalweg deepest part of the River and water is moving is the fastest 0 Natural Levee adjacent to channel part of the bank and higher in elevation 0 Backslope back slope of the natural levee 0 Batture area bw artificial levee and the river 0 Meander loop 0 Point amp Cut Bank features associated with meander loop Created by the thalweg 0 Typically Point Bank is inside meander 0 Cut Bank is outside meander Meander Migration 0 Meanders are not static 0 May move downstream or laterally 0 May form cutoff oxbow lakes gt Oxbow a meander that has been cutoff Where the river once was The cutoff oxbow lake is what causes the MS River to move Meandering Rivers 1 Oxbow Lakes a EX False River b Meanders that have been cutoff 2 Ridge and Swale Topography a Point bar migration 3 Crevasse Splay a Crevasse break in the natural or artificial levee Over Bank Flooding U PP Pi River rises Flows outside banks Carries sediment Deposits sediment over bank Creates a natural levee Deltaic Plain In Louisiana starts where the Atchafalaya ows from the MS River and extends along the MS River NOT the same as a delta Natural process of the river constantly shifting MS River now wants to ow through the Atchafalaya River Deltaic Plain of the MS River is approximately 8 to 10 thousand years old Chenier Plain Chenier French word for oak ridge Southwest LA Long linear features built from sediment from the MS River Long linear ridge that runs parallel to the coastline 0 26 miles high 0 IA to 12 miles wide SandShell ridges ie Chenier that sit atop a mud at Chenier Plain series of cheniers series of ridges It grows and extends further into the gulf Rare features 7 of the Worlds Coastline LA has one of the largest complexes in the world Facts The Mississippi River One of the largest rivers in the world Literally created our state Drains 41 of the continental US 3rd largest drainage basin in the world exceeded in size by only the Amazon and the Congo Rivers Drainage Basin 1245000 square miles Includes all or parts of 31 states and 2 Canadian provinces Waters from as far East as NY and as far West as Montana contributes to ows in the lower river 0 2300 miles long Average gradient 25 inmi shallow Source at Lake Itasca Minnesota Tributaries Tributaries feed water into MS River Ohio River largest contributes the most water Missouri River longest has the largest drainage basin Arkansas River Red River HISTORIC does not ow into MS River anymore Distributaries Distributaries water ows from main river to a smaller river Atchafalaya River 30 of ow MS River mandated by Congress Discharge Facts Discharge avg 470000 cubic ft per second At this discharge it would take approx 4 minutes to fill New Orleans Superdome SS load avg 436000 tonsday Atchafalaya River Only remaining distributary of the MS River Desoto in 1500 s described the Atchafalaya River The diversion process began around Desoto s time 0 1950 s Harold Fisk of LSU Geo Dept recognized that the Atchafalaya River would overtake the MS River by year turn of the century 0 Why we don t want the MS River to ow into Atchafalaya River Drinking water fresh to salt Industry use water from MS River Transportation Morgan city would be destroyed Flooding 0 1927 Flood 2rld largest ood on record AprilAugust 0 2011 ood along the lower MS Was the largest on record The Great Flood of 1927 0 April August 0 Huge ood along the lower MS River ooded 16570627 acres 0 700000 left homeless and killed 246 people 0 Killed 500000 farm animals 0 Arkansas Illinois Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi Missouri and Tennessee 0 120 crevasses break in the levee Levees 0 Direct result of the 1927 ood 0 7000 miles of levees along the MS River and its tributaries 0 30 ft high 0 Major impact to LA wetlands Prevent annual overbank ooding Flood Controls 0 Old river control structure 30 MS River ow 0 Bonnet Carre Spillway opened MS River in New Orleans at 20 Morganza Floodway Atchafalaya River Last Recourse In 1927 the Caernarvon levee was dynamited below New Orleans to save the city from the Flood of 1927 Louisiana Wetlands Hydrology water movement All wetlands must have 1 Wetland hydrology permanently or periodically saturated ie it has to be wet 2 Wetlands soil 3 Wetland vegetation The corp of engineers regulates all wetlands in our state Wetlands are found on every continent except Antarctica Along coasts shores of lakesponds Can be permanent or seasonal as long as they meet the 3 criteria of wetlands Coastal Louisiana 0 Marsh mainly herbaceous grasses and some woody shrubs vegetation 0 Fresh marsh 0 Salt marsh 0 Or brackish 0 Swamp herbaceous and woody trees and shrubs vegetation 0 Fresh water Whv are LA wetlands important 0 Among the most productive ecosystems in the world 0 Nursery for 95 of the finfish and shellfish harvested in coastal LA and 15 of the estuarine dependent fisheries in the US 0 32 billionyear to LA 0 Storm buffers every mile of coastal wetlands can retain up to 18 cm of storm ood 0 Absorbs storm surge and rainfall Migrating Waterfowl 0 LA is located along the MS Flyway birds use to migrate 0 Maj or migration route bw North and South America 0 Aesthetics 0 Hunting Flood Control by serving as temporary storage areas for excess runoff and as groundwater recharge areas Sinks for contaminates especially heavy metals Filters for waste water Facts 0 LA 41 of US coastal wetlands 0 LA is losing these wetlands at rate of 24 mi2year 19902000 0 Roughly equal to one football field every 38 minutes Why is LA losing wetlands 0 Very complex issue 0 Combination of natural and anthropologic manmade activities 0 Subsidence 05 cmyear I Natural subsidence of old MS River deltas 8000 yrs old I Subsidence due to extraction of oil gas 0 Sea level is rising due to climate change Leveeing of lower MS River in 1920 s prevents annual overbank ooding of MS River Canals dug for oil and gas access 0 Introduces saltwater into interior marsh 0 Over burden disrupts surface and subsurface hydrology Late 20th century sea level rises 2 mmyear Present 2015 32 mmyear Next 85 yrs 12 mmyear Dredging of oil and gas causes berms which interfere with surface hydrology and subsurface hydrology Salt water pulled up by oil canals KILLS vegetation Salt Water Intrusion Nutria Rat eating all the vegetation Native from S America Replaced our native muskrat Millions of nutria rat in LA Faults ground slips and turns into open water What is being done to restore LA wetlands 0 CWPPRA Coastal Wetlands Planning Protection and Restoration Act Also known as BreauX Bill 0 Enacted in 1990 0 41 funding Federal gov t 40 million state 10 million 0 State Funds 0 Wetlands Trust Fund 1986 O 1986 1997 100 projects for total of 44 million Maior Players in LA Coastal Restoration 0 US Corp of Engineers 0 EPA 0 USGS US Geological Survey 0 USGS NWR Lab Lafayette 0 La Dept of Natural Resource Coastal Restoration Division 0 LSUUNOSLU 0 BTENP B arataria Terrebonne Estuary National Program CWPPRA Proiects 0 Major Projects 0 Barrier Island Restoration Marsh creationmanagement Freshwater sediment diversion Hydrologic restoration Shoreline protection 0 Vegetation planting O O O O 0 Caernarvon 0 Davis Pond O W Major diversions put fresh water to pump out salt water 100 Million NED Nutria Excluder Device 0 A device made from PVC pipe or chicken wire to place around newly planted trees to prevent nutria rat from eating them 0 Developed at Southeastern Ground Water Groundwater Water that lies beneath the land surface Why is GW important 1 56 used for agriculture 2 48 used for irrigation rice 3 22 Public Supply potable water 4 8 aquaculture fish farming 5 17 industry 6 3 rural domestic 7 2 power generation Where does GW come from 0 Comes from precipitation that infiltrates the soil surface called recharge and percolates to an aquifer 0 Aquifies accessible through wells 0 Pump water from wells 0 Artesian free owing wells no pump age 0 Hydrologic cycle 0 Rain falls to earth gets in aquifer 0 13 major aquifers and aquifer systems in LA 3 aquifers supply 93 of all groundwater withdrawals 1 Sparta 2 Chicot 3 Southeastern Sparta Aquifer 0 Northern La and Southern Arkansas 0 Supplies all or part of the GW for 16 parishes 0 North and central LA 0 Thickness 50 to 700 ft thickness increasing South and Southeast 0 Pumping since late 1800s mainly domestic and municipal supply drinking water 0 1920s industrial use began with numerous paper and lumber mills in N LA 0 Now the aquifer is depleting at a rate of about 2 ftyear 55 Public supply 40 Industry 5 Other Chicot Aquifer 0 East Texas through the Atchafalaya River principle aquifer for SW LA 0 Most heavily pumped aquifer in the state 0 half GW withdrawals 0 Used to grow rice 0 Water levels are decreasing 0 Used in industry around Lake Charles 68 Irrigation 11 Public supply 9 Industry 8 Aquaculture 2 Power generation 2 Other Southeastern Aquifer 0 Confined bw MS River and Pearl River 0 thick as Chicot Aquifer 50 to 1100 ft thick 0 Increases in thickness as you move south 0 Perfect drinking water 0 Problem salt water intrusion 49 City of BR 39 Industry 6 Rural Domestic 5 Power Generation Soil in Louisiana Functions 0 Plant growth 0 Regulate water quality and supply 0 Filter water 0 Medium for nutrient recycling 0 Habitat for organisms worms 0 Engineering medium people build on top of soil and use soil for construction How soil forms 1 In place N La oldest soil 2 One place and transported to another by wind water and ice S La youngest soil a Ex Loess Soil Texture 0 Determined by grain size Three grain sizes 1 Sand largest easy to work with dry and infertile 2 Silt 3 Clay smallest fine grained difficult to work with infertile Soil is composed of different percentages of sand silt and clay Loam mix of all 3 found in ood plain and perfect soil for agriculture Ideal Loam 50 silt 40 sand and 10 clay 7 General Soil Regions of LA Tertiary Upland Pleistocene Terrace Flatwoods Coastal Prairie Loess Alluvial Gulf Coast Marsh NQP PWPE Tertiary Upland 0 Oldest bedrock in state 2 to 65 million yrs old 0 Undergone lots of weathering and erosion 0 Oxidized redyellowish color 0 Not very fertile 0 Lots of pine trees grow on it Pleistocene Terrace 0 Located in upland and intermediate terraces 0 Deep 0 10000 to 2 million years old 0 Not very fertile 0 Frangipane thick lightcolored hard structure deep in the soil 0 Found in creek bottoms Flatwoods 0 Located in intermediate and prairie terraces 0 Form under pine 0 Acidic 0 Almost at 0 Poorly drained 0 Perfect for growing strawberries Coastal Prairie 0 Located in SW La 0 Rice grows well bc 0 Clay Pan cannot be penetrated by water I Found at bottom of ponds barriers the water 0 Formed in midwest by ice age 0 Very fine transported by land 0 Light brown 0 Has little sea shells in it 0 Makes vertical bluffs very easily eroded Alluvial 0 Floodplain of rivers 0 Very well drained loamy 0 Excellent for agriculture 0 Most fertile soil in LA 0 Youngest soil in LA Gulf Coast Marsh 0 Wetlands Chenier plains 0 Highly organic anything that was once living 0 9598 organic 0 Poorly drained 0 2 to 12 ft thick 2 types of gulf coast marsh l Muck highly decomposed organic material black smells horrible 2 Peak organic materials layers of dead compress heat and creates Peak spongy can see stems of plants creates coal and then oil
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