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Intro to Cultural Anthropology Midterm Study Guide

by: Tiffany Fomby

Intro to Cultural Anthropology Midterm Study Guide ANTH 110 01

Marketplace > Yale University > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH 110 01 > Intro to Cultural Anthropology Midterm Study Guide
Tiffany Fomby
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Dr. Louisa Lombard

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Outline of major topics of Cultural Anthropology all in one document. Topics include: Defining Anthropology, Defining Culture, Anthropological Methods, Worldview, Rituals and Symbols, Gender, Kinsh...
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Dr. Louisa Lombard
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiffany Fomby on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 110 01 at Yale University taught by Dr. Louisa Lombard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Yale University.

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Date Created: 10/14/15
A What is sociocultural anthropology a Introduction to the course i Lecture try to answer these questions Why is it we do the things we do Every human counts What does the world look like in someone else39s shoes How do people make meaning of social life How do people make social categories Symbols How do we construct families and how what is the effect of that How do the power dynamics work in a society 1 Socioculturalethnography immersive longterm participant observation b Cultural meaning social structure power and human agency i Bohannon quotShakespeare in the Bushquot different cultures have different meanings for things they interpreted Hamlet in a totally different way contrary to Bohannon39s initial thought that people are basically the same and would get the gist of it but culture plays a MAJOR role in how you do things AND how you perceive things ii Eriksen 54nthropoogy Comparison and Context 1 2 P P P Anthropology the comparative study of cultural and social life accounts for social and cultural variation Culture acquiered cognitive and symbolic aspects of existence Society social organization of human life patterns of interaction and power relationships Methodology eld work Central problem the variation of human social life Tension between universal we39re all alike and particular everyone s different Ethnocentrism evaluating other people from one39s own vantage point extremely biased analysis and evaluation Cultural relativism the right way doctrine that societies or cultures are qualitatively different and have own inner logic so can39t be ranked c This thing called Culture i Zora Neale Hurston culture includes stories songs dialect traditions parties how they have fun etc 1 Anthropology as a spy glass ii Geertz 1 Man are animals suspended in webs of signi cance spun by themselves 2 Culture are those webs 3 Anthropology is not experimental science but it39s interpretive searching for meaning quotis a context something within which social events behaviors institutions or processes can be intelligibly that is thickly describedquot Thought is social Explain behavior and its context Culture is public 8 Historically transmitted pattern of meanings expressed in symbolic forms 9 Studying variousness of humans 10Culture those abilities notions and forms of behavior persons have acquired as members of a society emphasis on meaning rather than behavior d Anthropological methods i Malnowski 1 Scienti c aims 2 Proper conditions through immersion ww ew a quotsporadic plungingquot vs quotreally in contact with themquot b Participant observation Methods of collecting manipulating and xing evidence a Have the right mindset no preconceived ideas vs foreshadowed problems b Ethnographic diary wcollection of ethnographic statements verbatim All events are important a quotimponderabilia of actual lifequot b ALL of it social practices rituals day to day routine c The little things that count d Actually observed data is the esh and blood of the skeleton Goal grasp the native39s POV Ethnography empirical descriptive Ethnology speculative and comparative theory Spirit POV Boils down to inductive immersive holistic magical ii quotArriv l storiesquot you learn as you go it s a rite of passage have to craft questions speci cally to get the right answers patience takes time sometimes have luck on your side it all depends you have to know how to interact with them and get them to trust you as well it39s a lot of work e Worldview cosmology fetishism i EvansPritchard PWF E 9 Zande the notion of witchcraft explains unfortunate events explains unfortunate events and how to react to them worldview effects how you respond to certain events need to understand their worldview in order to understand everything else makes missing link of why coincidences happen quotwitchraft explains the coincidence of these two happeningsquot explains why harmful not how it happened observe observe observe quotumbagaquotquotsecond spearquot circumstance witchcraft umbaga bad thing 10There are exceptions doesn39t explain people actually doing wrong incompetence laziness ignorance 11Actualize not intellectualized beliefs 7au55ig 1 People s ideals aren39t always the same as ours 2 The Devil and Commodity Fetishism a Cfthe social relationships involved in production are looked at as economic relationships among the money and commodities exchanged in market trade Only valuable by collective belief Criticize own culture through the lens of others They make pact with the devil agreeing to use useless money b c d The Devil and the Cosmogenesis of Capitalism 390 a quotcosmogenesisquot of capitalism in which the acquisition of commodities for the purpose of producing extraordinary wealth is intimately linked to the expropriation of the reproductive powers of both land and people 4 The Devil and Proletarian Labor 5 Cosmogony 6 lncredulity and the Sociology of Evil 7 8 9 1 The Devil in the Mines Marxist critique of capitalism critique Western culture It39s so alien it seems evil to them 39the devil is the mediator between the two types of societeis 11Capitalismdevil 12 peasants show it39s not natural by associating it with devil and moral shift B The power of Rituals and Symbols a Symbols and social meaning i Mary Douglas 1 390 quotthere is no such thing as absolute dirt It exists in the eye of the beholderquot 2 Humans delineate cleanunclean 3 4 Something doesn39t tdirt instead of rede ning our We make categories of things category which strengthens the idea that the category is right 5 Rituals of purity and impurity create unity in experience 6 Our idea of dirt is hygiene and respect for conventions 7 Secular de lement 8 9 1 Rules of cleanliness are symbolic boundarymaintenance Concepts of pollution and taboo Uncleanness is that which must not be included if patterns are to be maintained Sherry Ortner Iquot P P PPquot Symbols The natives tell us X is important a Symbol a vehicle for cultural meaning Natives seem to be pos or neg aroused by X not indifferent X comes up in different contexts There is greater cultural elaboration on X There are greater cultural restrictions Key symbolsroyal road to culture a Central to a culture Types of symbols a Summarizing sums up a lot of things express represent in an emotionally powerful way means a lot object of reverence i Synthesize complex ideas in unity form ii American agbroad American way b Elaborating sort out complex feelingsideas order experience analytic i Root metaphor source of categories big metaphor like the cows ii Key scenarios rituals valued end states and effective means to get there c Key symbols has to do winternal org of the system of cultural meaing d Everything makes sense because of this i Content vs form ii Quality vs quantity iii Vertical vs lateral priority relative to other meanings b Ritual as process i Turner 1 2 6 9 quotrites de passage Change from quotrelatively xed or stable conditionquot to another 3 Transition separation margin limen aggregation 4 5 quotritualquotreigious behavior related to social transition Entry into new achieved status a ritualtransformative ceremonycon rmatory transitional being has a term attribueted to them bc they39re neither this or that 7 liminalperiod of antistructure 8 relationships neophyteneophyte camaraderie neophyte elder respect an obedience sacra what39s shown in these rituals include exhibitions shown actions done instructions said c Ritual of rebellinGluckman C Gender kinship and beyond a Gender as a belief system i Davie5gender is a signi cant concept in Bugis society they have 5 genders UJN Challenging Gender Norms Five Genders Among Bugis in Indonesia Is it biological In Bugis quotin order to achieve increased social status indiv Have to adhere to strict gender conventionsquot 4 Islam amp govt play a role in constructing gender ideals 5 6 Challenges queer theory focused on sexuality rather than Calabai women that act like men social facilitationmobility b Kinship as social bond i Miller 1 2 3 4 Kinship and Domestic Life Kinshipa sense of being related to another persons Kinship systemguidelines about who are kin amp how kin should act Important because continuity of group maintain social order provide basic needs There39s different ways by blood not by blood Kinship diagram schematic way to present kinship relations of individual ego Geneaology schematic way of presenting family tree a Earliest ancestors to now no ego Descenttracing of kinship relations through parentage a Bilenial chiId shown as related to both parents b Unilenial chiId recognized through descent of one parent i Patrilineal traced through the male line ii Matrilineal traced through the female line Shadng a Kinship through food sharing b Adoption transfer of childchildren from birth parents to different person 10Ritualy established kinship 11Marriage 12Poygyny husband wmultiple wives polyandry vice versa 13matrifocality ii ScheperHughes 1 2 Death Without Weeping Has Poverty Ravaged Mother Love in the Shantytowns of Brazil High expectancy of dea thdifferent de nition of o veless secure attachment and indifference c Giftgiving and exchange as an alternative economy and social bond i Mauss 1 2 3 Prestation Gift and Potach Distribution of the System Obligations that bind into peaceful relationships Prestationlegal term something you have to give in recognition of something you have received a You39re obligated to give something back in recognition of something received b Obligation of gifting AND receiving gt creation of familes social things etc c Potach thing you do on important occasions 4 4 types of economic systems a Househoding one fam on farm take care of all needs by themselves very rare b Reciprocity aka gift societiesobigation to give and obligation to receive c Redistributive one chief and everyone has to give some to chief and chief decide how to give resources out reciprocal with inequality bc have a big organizer d Market ii Carol Stack 1 there39s the not the simple solution ofjust go get a job 2 swappingtradinggtfamiy and kin who39s reliable but mainly kin a it39s the way they af rm their relationship b how they create a family d Tribal loyalties i Veblen 1 2 8 9 quotThe Higher Education as an Example of the Pecuniary Culture Marxistish BUT Veblen say that the disenfranchised are gonna emulate the pecuniary conspicuous consumptionwork their way up we39ve been working a lot making a class of people that don39t have to do the daily work and live off of money and make more money off of the money they already have for a certain class of people consumption becomes an important part of the way people interact have to look at consumption what they39re buying colleges perpetuate the leisure class making money from money resurgence of rituals cap and gown anoint as quotpriestly classquot elite leisure class one part analysis one part polemic In order to go to college you need time leisure so it39s an institution for the leisure class 10No econ Bene t but social mobility ii Moffat 1 2 3 American university goes hand in hand With a social aspect Odd mixture of higher learning and youth culture There are two different types of institutions academic life and social life


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