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Biology 109 Exam 2 Review

by: Leslie Anne Mall

Biology 109 Exam 2 Review BSC 108

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > BSC 108 > Biology 109 Exam 2 Review
Leslie Anne Mall
Intro to Biology
Dr. Yates

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Intro to Biology
Dr. Yates
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leslie Anne Mall on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views.


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Date Created: 10/14/15
Biology Test 2 Notes What do all living organisms need to sustain life gt Energy What is energy gt The capacity to do work What are the different types of energy gt Potential Stored energy gt Kinetic Energy in motion How do we measure energy Why gt Energy is measured in temperature gt Because it is measuring the kinetic energy where there is heat What is the study of energy gt Thermodynamics What is a calorie gt The amount of energy that raises the temperature 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius What is a Calorie gt The calories in food gt Kilocalorie 1000 calories What is the First Law of Thermodynamics Know it and what it means gt The conversion of energy principle gt Energy cannot be created or destroyed gt You always have the same amount of energy Why is heat lost in biological systems gt Energy is hard to harness Where does new energy come from How is most energy lost in what form gt New energy comes from chemical reactions gt Most energy is lost in heat or ATP What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics Know it and what it means gt Energy cannot be changed from one from into another with a loss of usable energy What is entropy gt A measure of disorder and randomness gt All energy conversions increase the entropy of the universe How do you make a reaction that requires energy gt ATP adenosine triphosphate What is activation energy gt The energy that activates the reactants in a chemical reaction gt Triggers a chemical reaction to proceed What is an enzyme and how do they work gt A protein that speeds up chemical reactions gt They work by lowering the activation energy of a chemical reaction 0 Each enzyme recognizes a speci c substrate 0 The active site ts to the substrate and the snzyme changesnghUy o This interaction is called induced t 0 Enzymes are speci c to their substrate gt Enzymes can function over and over again What factors affect how well enzymes work Speci city pH Temperature Concentration of enzymesubstrate Presence of inhibitor VVVVV How does an enzyme inhibitor work gt A chemical interferes with an enzyme s activity by acting as a substrate imposter and changing the enzyme s shape either by plugging up the active site of binding to another site on the enzyme What is ATP and what is it used for gt Adenosine triphosphate gt Energy that is currently in cells and being used for molecular work gt Can be broken down to a molecule of ADP How do you get energy from ATP gt Release of phosphate at the tail and transfers to power cells ADP What is the difference between diffusion and osmosis gt Diffusion passive transport molecules spread to available space gt Osmosis passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane What is hyper hype and isotonic gt Hyper higher concentration of solute gt Hypo lower concentration of solute gt lsotonic equal concentration of solute What happens to red blood cells if you place them in a hyperosmotic hyposmotic or isosmotic gt Hyperosmotic the red blood cell shrivels gt Hyposmotic the red blood cell is lysing gt lsosmotic the red blood cell is normal What is a producer Consumer gt Producer Depends on photosynthesis for food plants gt Consumer Obtains food by eating plants andor animals What is a receptor gt Protein on phospholipid bilayer gt Receives chemical signals from outside of cell What is an autotroph Heterotroph gt Autotroph Producer 0 Makes its own organic matter from inorganic nutrients gt Heterotroph Consumer includes humans and other animals 0 Eats plantsanimals that cannot make organic molecules from inorganic ones Examples of producersautotrophs and consumersheterotrophs gt Producersautotrophs Plants gt Consumersheterotrophs Animals and humans What is the difference between cellular respiration and breathing gt Cellular respiration harvest energy stored in sugars by using 02 to convert the energy stored in bonds to ATP gt Breathing exchanges these gases between blood and air What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration gt Photosynthesis takes in C02 and releases 02 fueling cellular respiration which takes in 02 and expels C02 What is the equation for photosynthesis gt 6C02 6H20 I C6H1206 602 What is the equation for cellular respiration gt C6H1202 602 l 6C02 6H20 ATP Where does photosynthesis occur gt Chloroplasts Know where the reactants and products of cellular respiration and photosynthesis come from and are used gt Photosynthesis 0 Energy from sun 0 C02 from air through leaves 0 H20 from soil through roots gt Cellular Respiration o Glucose ad oxygen to make ATP 0 C02 and H20 are waste products What is an electron transport chain used for gt Connects the two photosystems gt Releases energy that the chloroplast uses to make ATP What are the steps of photosynthesis gt 1 The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy gt 2 The Calvin Cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide Why are plants green gt Chlorophyll gt Green color is re ected What colors are responsible for photosynthesis gt Red and blue What are alternative forms of photosynthesis gt C3 uses C02 directly from the air gt C4 sugarcane close their stomata to save water during hot and dry weather Can still carry out photosynthesis gt CAM plants open their stomata only at night to conserve water What is a photosystem gt A group of chlorophyll and other molecules that function as a lightgathering antenna What occurs in the Calvin cycle gt Sugar is made from carbon dioxide Why is ceuar respiration important gt Cellular respiration produces ATP which is then used for cellular work Anaerobic vs aerobic respiration gt Anaerobic does not require energy 0 Occurs when the demand for oxygen is greater than the body s ability to deliver it gt Aerobic requires oxygen 0 Occurs when enough oxygen reaches cells to support their energy needs Where do the steps of cellular respiration occur and what is important about each step of cellular respiration gt Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol o Produces 2 pyruvic acidATP gt Citric Acid Cyce Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria o Extracts the energy of sugar by breaking the acetic aid molecules all the way down to C02 0 Uses some of this energy to make ATP 0 Forms NADH and FADH2 gt Electron transport occurs in the mitochondria o Releases the energy your cells need to make the most of their ATP How much energy is made from ceuar respiration gt Glycolysis 2 gt Citric Acid Cycle 2 gt Electron Transport 28 38 max per glucose What is glycolysis gt 6carbon glucose molecule is split in half to form two molecules of pyruvic acid gt These two molecules then donate high energy electrons to NAD forming NADH Where does glycolysis occur gt Cytosol What do you get out of glycolysis gt ATP pyruvic acid How many ATP s does glycolysis produce gt 2 Where do the steps of cellular respiration occur and what is important about each step gt Why does cellular respiration use an electron transport chain gt The electron transport from NADH to oxygen releases the energy your cells use to make most of their ATP What is fermentation gt The anaerobic harvest of food energy When does anaerobic respiration occur gt When ATP is used up faster than 02 delivery How much energy is made at each step of cellular respiration How much energy is made in anaerobic respiration gt 2 ATP per glucose What are some products of anaerobic respiration in animals and yeast gt Humans Lactic acid gt Yeast C02 and ethanol What is the link between C02 and global warming gt Increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere cause an increase in average surface temperature What is the greenhouse effect gt Warms the atmosphere gt Caused by atmospheric co2 Asexual vs sexual respiration gt Asexual singlecelled organisms produce by simple cell division no fertilization of an egg by sperm gt Sexual requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm using a special type of cell division called meiosis What is the bene t of sexual reproduction over asexual gt Genetic diversity How many times does the DNA replicate in mitosis gt Once Somatic vs germ cells gt Somatic body cells gt Germ reproductive cells Haploid vs diploid gt Haploid eggsperm 1 member of each pair 23 gt Diploid after fertilization pair of homologous chromosomes What are sister chromatids gt Two copies of each chromosome which contain identical genes What is a centromere gt Narrow waist gt Joins sister chromosomes What is a gene and what is an allele gt Gene unit of inheritance in DNA transfers from parent and offspring gt Allele a copy of a gene there are two How many chromosomes do humans have gt 46 What are the phases of the cell cycle What happens in each gt G1 phase part of interphase Cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis gt S phase DNA synthesis Synthesizing replicating DNA Occurs in the nucleus gt lnterphase DNA replicates and duplicates gt Mitotic phase gt Mitosis gt Cytokinesis What are the phases of mitosis What happens in each gt Interphase quotresting phasequot period of cell growth and metabolism DNA replicates and duplicates gt Prophase chromosomes become visible in the center of the cell and the centrioles separate and begin forming a spindle ber apparatus gt Metaphase centrioles are at opposite poles replicated chromosomes line up at the equator and spindle bers attach to centromeres that hold chromatids together gt Anaphase pus apart Shortest phase of mitosis The spindle bers shorten and pull chromatids to opposite poles gt TelophaseCytokinesis Chromosomes reach opposite poles of the cell reversal of many prophase events occurs chromosomes uncoi and decondense to become threadlike chromatin and a nuclear envelope forms around chromosomes and cytoplasmic division A cleavage furrow forms as cell membrane pinches inward What is cytokinesis gt The division of cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells How is cytokinesis different in plants and animals gt Animals Cleavage furrow gt Plants form cell pate What are homologous chromosomes gt Matching pairs of chromosomes What is a zygote gt Fertilized egg What is crossing over and why is it important gt Homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information gt Genetic recombination occurs l genetic variability What causes Down Syndrome gt An extra chromosome 21 47 total chromosomes What is a karyotype gt Method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number size and type What is programmed cell death gt Normal part of aging shrinking and breakdown What is cancer gt A disease of the cell cycle gt Cancer cells do not respond normally to the cell cycle control system gt Can form tumors gt Cancer cells divide excessively What are some of the causes of cancer gt Random mutation in DNA gt A chemical or physical mutagen UV radiationtobacco gt Avirus gt An inherited defective gene can predispose someone to cancer What is the association between cancer and the cell cycle gt Cancer cells do not respond normally to the cell cycle gt Ces divide excessively What causes mutations gt Changes in nucleotide sequence What is fertilization gt Fusion of sperm and eggs gt Results in a zygote Why is sexual reproduction important gt It passes along genetic information When does crossing over occur gt Prophase of meiosis What are some key differences between mitosis and meiosis gt Mitosis 46 chromosomes genetically identical one division gt Meiosis 23 chromosomes haploid crossing over 2 divisions How do chromosomes line up in Metaphase of meiosis Metaphase II gt Metaphase I 46 chromosomes gt Metaphase 23 chromosomes How do chromosomes line up in Anaphase of meiosis Anaphase II gt Anaphase I 46 chromosomes gt Anaphase 23 chromosomes How many times does the DNA replicate in meiosis gt Once How many cells do you begin and end for mitosis and meiosis gt Mitosis 1 l 2 gt Meiosis 1 l 4 What types of cells does mitosis occur in gt Body ces What types of cells does meiosis occur in gt Gametes


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