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Test #2 Study guide

by: Cara Dunkelman

Test #2 Study guide Psy 100

Cara Dunkelman
General psychology
Tracy Richards

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General psychology
Tracy Richards
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cara Dunkelman on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 100 at Colorado State University taught by Tracy Richards in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 10/14/15
Test 2 MODULE 5 Chromosomes Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes Genes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomal segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins DNA a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes Identical Twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two 60 Fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized eggs Share a fetal environment but they are genetically no more similar than ordinary siblings 30 Genetic relatives biological parents and siblings Adoptees are more similar to their biological parents with personality traits Environmental relatives adoptive parents and siblings Epigenetics the study of environmental in uences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change Genes can be turned on or off by environmental factors ex Drugs or stress MODULE 6 Dual Processing Sleep and Dreams Consciousness our awareness of our environment and ourselves Allows us to assemble information from many sources as we re ect on our past and plan for the future Cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with our mental processes Dual processing the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks Blindsight a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it Recently blind woman acted liked se could see Parallel Processing enables your mind to take care of routine business Sequential Processing skilled at solving new problems which requires your focused attention Selective attention your awareness focuses like a ashlight beam on a minute aspect of all that you experience Cocktail party effect your ability to attend to only one voice among many lnattentional blindness at the level of awareness we are blind to all but a tiny sliver of visual stimuli Women with the umbrella walking through basketball game Circadian rhythm the biological clock regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle REM Sleep rapid eye movement a reoccurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur Muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active Kicks in about an hour after fall asleep Alpha waves the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state Hallucinations false sensory experiences such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus Delta waves the large slow brain waves associated with deep sleep Sleep cycle repeats about every 90 minutes Adults average 78 hours of sleep per night Melatoninsleep inducing hormone Why do we need sleep why sleep evolved a Sleep protects a Sleep helps us recuperate a sleep helps us restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day s experience a Sleep feeds creative thinking a Sleeping supports growth Review sleep stagespg 91 Sleep loss is a predictor of depression lack of sleep leads to lower level of functioning make you gain weight effects our immune system slows reactions and increases errors on visual attention Major sleep disorders n Insomniapersistent problems in falling or staying asleep I Narcolepsy people who have sudden attacks of overwhelming sleepiness usually lasting less than 5 minutes a Sleep apnea people with this intermittently stop breathing during sleeping a Night terrors target mostly children Characterized by a high arousal and an appearance of being terri ed occur during NREM 3 sleep within two hours of falling asleep and are rarely remembered Why we Dream a To satisfy out own wishes o Manifest content pg 99 o Latent content a To le away memories I To develop and preserve neural pathways a To make sense of neutral static a To re ect cognitive development MODULE 7Hypnosis pg 103 NOT HEAVILY COVERED IN CLASS MOLDULE 8 Drugs Substantive use disorder continued substance craving and use despite signi cant life disruption and or physical risk Psychoactive drug a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods Tolerance with repeated use achieving the desired effect requires a larger dose Addiction compulsive craving 0 drugs or certain behaviors such as gambling despite known adverse consequences Withdrawal the discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an addictive drug or behavior Types of Psychoactive Drugs n Depressants drugs such as alcohol barbiturates and opiates that reduce neural activity and slow body functions 0 Alcohol slowed neutral processing memory disruption reduced selfawareness and selfcontrol expectancy effects o Barbiturates tranquilizers depresses nervous system activity prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety ln larger doses they can impair judgment and memory 0 Opiates morphine and heroin Depress neural functioning n Stimulants drugs that excite the neural activity and speed up bodily functions 0 Nicotine a stimulating and highly addictive drug in tobacco o Meth chemically related to its parent drug amphetamine but has a greater effect Triggers the release of dopamine o Ecstasy MDMA both a stimulant and mild hallucinogen Releases stored serotonin and blacking its reuptake n Hallucinogens distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input 0 LSD a powerful hallucinogen also known as acid 0 Marijuana Biological In uences amp Psychological and SocialCultural ln uencesit depends MODULE 9Prenatal Development Nature vs nurtureexperiences shape the way we think and act Zygotes the fertilized egg it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo Embryo the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Fetus the developing human organism from 9 weeks after to conception to birth Teratogens agents such as toxins chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Fetal alcohol syndrome physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman s heavy drinking In severe cases symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions Stages 0 Zygote weeks 12 0 Embryo weeks 38 0 Fetus 9th week on Teratogens interfere with prenatal development drugs viruses radiation alcohol and harm it o The newborn o Newborn abilities Preference and need or social stimuli like faces Re exes like quotrootingquot turning towards the mother s nipple Sensory discrimination vision is the weakest sense Habituation begin to lose interest in something showing that they have seen something before MODULE 10 Infancy and Childhood Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating Cognitive Development 0 Jean Piaget Swiss psychologist Kids are active thinkers Said that children s schemas change over time through 0 Assimilation associating physical characteristics with a common thing such as cats having fur and a tail and assuming a squirrel is a cat 0 Accommodation 1 Stage 1 sensorimotor thinking thinking through senses and movements 0 Object permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived 2 Stage 2 Preoperational Thinking Limited perspectivetaking abilities egocentrism o Preschoolers are fooled by appearances which is related to the inability to conserve the amount of liquid changing when it is poured into different sized glasses 0 Conservationprinciple that properties such as mass volume and number remain the same despite change in the form of objects 0 Egocentrism the preoperational child s difficulty taking another s point of view 0 Theory of mind People s ideas about their own and other s mental statesabout their feelings perceptions and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict 3 Concrete Operational Thought Can perform basic mental operations about concrete things can conserve 4 Formal Operational Thought Can think abstractly and hypothetically 0 Attachment The close emotional tie that forms with caregivers in infancy o Harlow s Monkeys stranger anxiety imprinting and temperament 0 Parenting Styles 0 Authoritative Parents impose rules and expect obedience o Permissive parents submit to their children s desires o Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive Brain Development 0 Outcomes for children in understimulating orphanages have varied and depend upon 0 Nutrition 0 Length od deprivation 0 Age of adoption 0 Study in Romaniachildren fared the best if they were adopted before 6 months of age 0 The most common de cits are in social interaction and cognition MODULE 13 Gender and Sexuality Secondary sex characteristics nonreproductive sexual traits such as female breasts and hips male voice quality and body hair Gender role a set of expected behaviors for males or for females Gender identity the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role Gender development 0 Social learning theorygender roles are learned through imitation and consequences 0 Gender schema theorywe rst learn schemas cognitive concepts for gender in our culture then we match our behavior to t the schema assimilation o quot lam a girl so I wear dressesquot howwhere do we learn gender norms 0 Peers family media 0 Sex is genetic and gender is a social construction of what you should do with that Aggression 0 Physical or verbal behavior meant to harm others 0 Developmental patters o More physical in younger children 0 Verbal aggression increases with age 0 Gender differences in physical vs relational aggression Contributing factors to aggression 0 Biology 0 Environment Peers Family Observational learning 0 Cognitive processes 0 Bullying


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