PSC 2101: Scope and Methods Midterm Study Guide
PSC 2101: Scope and Methods Midterm Study Guide PSC 2101
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Cramberg on Wednesday December 10, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 2101 at a university taught by Balla in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 586 views.
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Date Created: 12/10/14
0 identify components of scienti c knowledge 0 knowledge obtained through objective observation experimentation and logical reasoning 0 unbiased observation I uses senses to observe and record phenomena and then describes and explains the observations as accurately as possible 0 verification I acceptance or rejection of a statement regarding something known must be in uenced by observation need tangible evidence 0 empirical I testable grounded in information using data manipulation of variable nonnormative based on objective determinations not what should be but what is 0 transmissible 39 explicit methods so that others can analyze and replicate ndings 0 cumulative 39 both substantive findings and research techniques are built upon previous studies 0 general I holds for more than specific research quest has broader implications 0 explanatory I systematic empirically verified understanding of why a phenomenon occurs describes results before explanation of why probabilistic rather than absolute 0 parsimonvl simplicity 0 tentative I open to new information can tell us about previous knowledge and observation falsifiability can be rejected when opposing evidence is presented 39 distinguish between the dependent and independent variables in scienti c studies 0 independent variable 39 measurements of phenomena thought to in uence affect or cause other phenomena observable characteristics of phenomena that are hypothesized to explain in uence or cause change in dependent variables 0 dependent variable I variable thought to be caused depend upon or be a function of an independent variable observable characteristic of phenomena that we would like to describe and explain 0 Ex Formal education leads to higher income I Education independent variable I Income dependent variable 0 state different ggpes of hypotheses 0 directional hypothesis 39 af rmative statement that an independent variable and dependent variable are associated with one another 0 null hypothesis I statement that there is no relationship between an independent an dependent variable 0 identify units of analysis in scienti c studies 0 units of analvsis I individuals or aggregations of individuals to whom our variables and hypotheses apply specifying of the types or levels of political actors to which the hypothesis is thought to apply 0 state and identify the ecoggical fallgg 0 ecological fallacy the use of information that shows a relationship for groups to infer that the same relationship exists for individuals when it does not actually exist applying findings about an aggregation of individuals within the aggregation falsely 0 Ex Democrats are more likely to support a sales tax hike than are Republicans 0 analyzing individuals yet data only supports aggregate information 0 cannot assume this unless the aggregate is 100 democratic 0 identify the level at which variables are measured 0 nominal values assigned to variable represent only different categories I Ex Jewish Christian Muslim coded 01 2 0 ordinal observations compared by having more or less of an attribute I Ex high school some college associate s degree 4 year degree coded 0123 0 interval intervals between categories have meaning how much larger or smaller I 195019621977 coded 0 12 27 0 1 full mathematical properties of numbers I code same value as measurement variable ie of bills vetoed by President 0 apply reliability and validity as standards for assessing measurements 0 reliability 39 extent to which a measurement technique applied to the same unit of analysis yields the same result 39 testretest method 39 measure a phenomena at two points in time for the same set of units using the same technique 39 reliability increases as difference between the values of the two measurements decreases 39 problems time passing over and underestimating 39 split halves method 39 phenomenon measured at a single point in time by using two or more components for measurement 39 hinges on fact that the two components measure equally well 0 validity I extent to which a measurement technique actually measures the phenomenon it is supposed to measure L face validity extent to which a measurement technique seems to measure what it is supposed to on the face of it subjective assessment expert consensus strengthens face validity I construct validity extent to which a measure is related to measures of other variables in ways that are hypothesized
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