Midterm study guide
Midterm study guide HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
Popular in History
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Midterm Study Guide IDs Atlantic Cr ole o Knowledgeable of European African and AmericanCaribbean culture do to exposure on the Atlantic slave trade route or travels 0 Usually know native Lang and English know Euro customs o A complimentary term to be considered an Atlantic Cr ole 0 Could use Atlantic Cr ole background to advantage 0 Contact with traders o quotlinguistic dexterity cultural plasticity and social agility 0 Ex Two Princes of Calabar Cahokia o Mississippian society quotmoundbuildersquot 0 Est in 1100 CE population 10000 0 Located in presentday St Louis area 0 Favorable location due to junction of MS and MO Rivers 0 Fertile agricultural land 0 Linked to other communities via trade 0 Hierarchical social structure wcommoners as subjects of the chief Great League of Peace 0 Iroquois quotpeople of the longhouse o M00CS gt Mohawk Oneida Onondaga Cayuga Seneca 0 New York area 0 Coalition of 5 tribes to maintain peace and solve disputes diplomatically rather than militarily 0 Words not weapons 0 Mutual defense cooperation and peace 0 Ritualscustoms 0 Annual meeting of Grand Council Central fire at Onondaga Deer antlers wore by chiefs from the tribes Bundle of arrows analogy Women chose who would succeed a chief Wampum beads as gifts Gift giving Pipe smoking Seating arrangement around fire at meetings OOOOOOOO Reconquista 0 Spain 0 1400s 0 Attempt to rid Spain of its Muslims 0 Type of religious holy war to rid Spain of Muslims and unite Spain under Christian rule 0 Around the time of Ferdinand and Isabella 0 Married to unite Spain under one kingdom o Reconquista of Granada in 1490s 0 1492 last Muslim rulers surrender Spain free from Muslim rule 0 During large standing army after lots of unemployed males 0 Unemployed used as crew for sea exploration 0 Legacy granting of encomiendas land to soldiers who served Treaty of Tordesillas o 1494 Land claim disputes between Spain and Portugal 0 Pope involved 0 Divided world into two halves I Spain got Western half all of N America Caribbean most of S America I Portugal got Eastern half Portugal Africa Hernan Cort s 0 Spanish explore gt quotConquistadorquot o Conquered the Aztecs quotMexica people 0 15191521 Won bc of better weapons armor more soldiers disease smallpox Used enemies of Aztecs as allies Used Malintzin has translator and for her knowledge local politicstribal affairs Goal of defeating Aztecs access to silver deposits OOOO Malintzin o Aztec woman who aided Cort s o Translator and Advisor about local politics and tribal affairs 0 Intermediary bwn tribal and Spanish culturerelations Joint Stock Companies 0 Type of colony holder 0 Company given title to colony with goal of making money off it from productionexport o Investors bought company stock which was used to set up the colony quotstart up cost I Profit firm colony meant to repay the investors and entice more investors o Desire of companies and merchants to monopolize on a market s trade aided in promoting crossAtlantic exploration and colonization 0 Ex Jamestown and Virginia Company Bartolom de las Casas 0 Spanish Franciscan in a New World mission 0 Critical of Spain s treatment toward the Natives o Wrote about what he saw and what was wrong 0 Placed blame on Conquistadors and encomienda system 0 Conquistadors viewed Natives as free labor to exploit 0 Encomienda system perpetuated the need for labor so the Spanish used the Natives Walter Raleigh 0 English captain involved with the two attempts to settle at Roanoke o Roanoke o 1585 0 First attempt conflict with Natives fails so settlers leave 0 Second attempt 1587 families rather than single men WR leaves and return in 1890 but only found the word quotCroatoanquot o Roanoke important bc of elements of early English settlement patterns 0 Brought tobacco to English opposed by King James 1 Roanoke o 1585 0 First attempt single men conflict with Natives fails so settlers leave 0 Second attempt 1587 families rather than single men WR leaves and return in 1890 but only found the word quotCroatoanquot o Roanoke important bc of elements of early English settlement patterns Powhatan 0 Indians that the Jamestown colonists encountered 0 People Powhatan Chief named Powhatan o Kidnapped John Smith in December of 1607 0 Was going to execute him but Pocahontas intervened 0 Relationship between the Europeans and Powhatans wasn t very good 0 Colonists demanded the Powhatans give them food 0 Frequent fighting between the two groups in the 17th century 0 Powhatans unable to push the English out King Philip s War 0 Issues land encroachment by the English and differing view of land ownership 0 Natives saw the sale of land in terms of land usage rather than permanent ownership ie land was only held onto as long as it was agriculturally productive 0 Conflict between colonists and Wampanoag 0 Location Plymouth 0 King Phillip Metacomet Native name 0 Worked to try to keep the peace between the colonists and the natives o 1671 colonists Wampanoag surrender weapons thus making the Wampanoag defenseless o Wampanoag refused King Phillip starts preparing for war 0 King Phillip tries to create a multitribal coalition against the English fails o 1674 Christianconverted Native tells the colonists where King Phillip is hiding out o Natives learn of this treason and kill the Native 0 In retaliation the colonists take 3 Wampanoag and kill them I 1st time English colonists kill Natives for the killing of another Native 0 The Narragansett pledged neutrality but offered to be a safe haven for noncombatants o 1675 war starts 0 Wampanoag and colonists engage in attacks and counterattacks o Wampanoag attack the Narragansett who eventuallyjoin the war 0 King Phillip is killed by a fellow Native 0 Result of the war final breaking of Native power in New England region 0 30 of colonists died 60 of Native population eliminated o In retrospect the colonists saw the war as a form of civil disobedience by the Natives o In retrospect the Natives placed the blame on the colonists for their greed for land Bacon s Rebellion 0 1670s watershed event in VA colony that hardened slavery along race lines 0 Governor of VA colony William Berkeley 0 1674 Nathaniel Bacon English aristocrat arrived in VA colony 0 Thought he was entitled to Governorship o Started a rivalry with Berkeley 1675 fighting between Natives in Maryland and Virginia begins King Phillips s War also going on in the New England region 0 KPWar Berkeley was worried about a panNative alliance against the colonists 0 Worked to try to keep peace between the Natives and Euros and prevent war 0 Bacon on the other hand wanted to fight the Natives Berkeley has Bacon captured but later releases him Bacon and his supporters start attacking Native villages Bacon issues a statement to all present and ex indentured servants and slaves of Berkeley 0 Statement if you join me I will free you 0 Coalition of white indentured servants and black Africans forms to aid Bacon Bacon and his new coalition force burn Jamestown Berkeley issues a statement to the new coalition forces gt Stop fighting and freedom granted Bacon dies and the fighting ends Berkeley won Significance led to rise of chattel slavery in the colonies o Chattel slavery labor system based solely on enslaved Africans 0 To prevent another alliance between white indentured servants and enslaved Africans get rid of the indentured servant system and only use slavery 0 Thus the main system of unbonded labor shifted from white indentured servants to black enslaved Africans making unfree labor a racebased system Anglicization inheritance of British culture imitatemimic British lifestyle Trying to stay and be British was a way for elites to maintain social status Relied on copying British living and importing British goods Make the quotNew World seem less newforeign by making is resemble Britain Opposite of creolization bc Anglicization accepts the old and rejects the new Creolization adaptation and experience creates changes in culture 0 creole culture defined by surroundings not origininheritance Blend old British culture with new culture of Africans Natives 0 Culture of intermix between old and new traditional and colonial o Tug between imperial id and new experiences New dress new food new traditions new habits accents Regional cultures developed that made colonial regions distinct from each other Albany Plan 0 1754 colonial assembly convenes at Albany 0 Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson propose the quotAlbany Plan I Type of government where the colonies would govern themselves 0 Modeled like that of the Iroquois with the colonies working together I Would have a colonial Parliament that was coequal with the British Parliament I Plan was defeated by the colonists French and Indian War 0 17541763 0 British nationalism in the colonies was high 0 Started over a dispute about territoryland ownership between the British and French 0 1754 George Washington leads the Virginia militia to ambush the French 0 Ambush was a failure and Washington and militia were captured 0 This battle was the first of the war 0 Conflict spread to Europe where the war was known as the Seven Years War 0 French allied with Native Americas 0 British allied with colonists who were more than willing to enlist and help their mother country 0 1759 British defeated the French and captured Quebec 0 1763 Treaty of Paris gt Britain gets land east of MS River Florida New France Quebec 0 The war also manifested itself in Asia 0 East India Company British trade company fought against piratesFrench navy I Acted as a military surrogate as it took on a military role by fighting the French I EIC conquered Bengal gt stocks increase and profit booms I Question gt could a company like the EIC take over land I British crown gave EIC right to control Bengal and a loan of 400000 pounds 0 1765 HMS Victory was commissioned and set sail display of British victory and power 0 Postwar concern within Britain about expanding empire 0 Britain prided itself of having an empire built by trade rather than conquest like Spain 0 Problem new land acquisition after war was contradictory to claim of built by liberty 0 Effects of the war 0 British debt skyrocketed gt question of how to deal with the debt where to get S Changes in imperial policiesColonial policy changes Peacetime army in the colonies Impose strict borders Send out surveyors to establish boundaries and make maps Direct rule over new subjects in Quebec Native American land and Bengal 0 Direct rule vs letting those people have selfrule o Postwar in the colonies o Colonists felt they should take over land gained by the Treaty of Paris 0 Colonists wanted to expand into the Ohio River Valley OOOOO Pontiac s War 0 17631764 0 Pontiac Ottawa chief in Ohio region 0 Native Americans vs British 0 Unlike the French the British didn t acknowledge Native s customs when it came to trade and interaction and diplomacy 0 Bad relations developed which led to war gt Britain won 0 Biological warfare used gt British gave Natives smallpoxinfested blankets 0 Post war Britain adopts a more French model of relations wNatives o practiceacknowledge customs and rituals of the Natives when conducting business Proclamation of 1 763 0 Created a dividing line along the frontier between Native American land and 13 colonies 0 Goal prevent colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mtns o Prevent any potential conflicts wNatives bc Britain couldn t afford another war 0 But Britain was unable to stop the flow to illegal crossing to the frontier land Virtual representation 0 Idea that representatives in English Parliament represent all people in the nation 0 Representation didn t actual representative from your area was sent to Parliament 0 Some English cities Manchester Birmingham not represented so what made colonies diff 0 Was Britain s response to colonists Continental Congress petition to KG3 Intolerable Acts Coercive Acts 0 PostBoston Tea Party passage of the Coercive or Intolerable Acts 0 Boston Port Act gt closed the Boston port 0 Administration ofJustice Act gt British people could only be tried in British counts not colonial courts 0 Quartering Act gt colonist could be forced to house British soldiers 0 Quebec Act gt special treatment to French Catholics and changed the borders of Quebec to encompass more of the Ohio Valley region 0 Massachusetts Government Act gt Mass to be ruled directly by the British took colonial government power away from the colonists o In response to the Coercive Acts the Continental Congress was formed 0 Congress sent a petition to King George III and asked him to repeal the Coercive Acts I Said King had the power to defy Parliament and do what he thought was right Marquis de Lafayette 0 French general who fought wthe colonists o Helped train colonists how to fight better how to use weapons etc 0 Saw American Rev as the culmination of Enlightenment ideals of liberty rights freedom 0 Fighting tangible expression of ideological values 0 Involved in French Revolution Thomas Jefferson 0 Declaration of Independence o 3rel President 0 Secretary of State 0 DemocratRepublican 0 Limited federal government 0 AntiNational Bank 0 ProFrench Revolution 0 More Francophile than Anglophile o Yeomen farmer seen as ideal virtuous citizen 0 Politics should include common people as long as they re white and male 0 Politics isn t only for the rich or elite 0 Power base was Southern planters and Western farmers o Virtuous citizen 0 Yeoman farmer Alexander Hamilton 0 Secretary of Treasury o Federalists Leader Alexander Hamilton Strong federal government Increase taxes ProNational Bank Direct political power should lie with the elites Fear of mob rule if politics opened up to all people Restore ties wGreat Britain Critical of the French Revolution Party base was urban workers property holders the educated and elites 0 00000000 Toussaint L ouverture Haiti Santo Domingo French colony 0 Sugar cane production gt labor intensive so large slave population 0 Slaves outnumber white plantation owners 1791 slave revolt against white masters Full scale revolution ensued and was led by Toussaint L Overture 1794 France abolished slavery in Haiti trying to appease the slaves and restore peace 1802 Napoleon sent troops to recapture the island 0 L overture was captured and died in 1803 Simon Bolivar Even with Napoleon s brother on the throne in Spain Spanish colonies claimed allegiance to the Spanish monarchy and took on more selfrule 1814 Spanish monarchy returns and tries to reestablish absolute power over the colonies o Colonies resist and stage a series of revoltsindependence movements Simon Bolivar Leader of many independence movements in Latin America After winning independence for colonies he was often name president of the new state President of many states so he consolidated them into one state called quotGran Colombia 0 By 1830s Gran Colombia was falling apart 0 Divided into many states that make up present day South America 1825 New Peru became quotBoliviaquot named after Simon Bolivar Sperm whale 1790s New England economic staple whaling Whale oil used in lamps Whale bones used in female dresses and corsets Whale ivory used in carvings Sperm whales were sought after because they provided two key products 0 Ambergris I type of compound found in whale s digestive tract I Used in perfumes I Was worth its weight in gold 0 Spermiceti I Found in front head region of whale by blow hole I Used in cosmetics lubricants oil and candles 1818 whalers turn to Pacific and Indian Oceans as new whale pods found Hunting locations spread out over the world gt meant that whalers had access to global markets Whalers became cosmopolitan and helped spread US trade by tapping into global trade network Louisiana Purchase Thomas Jefferson Area of interest was New Orleans port because it was a trading post for western famers Napoleon had wanted to reestablish a French empire in America and cut off the New Orleans port to American farmers Americans upset 0 Loss of Haiti and looming European wars derailed Napoleon s plan so he decided to sell the Louisiana territory to get money for his wars Lewis and Clark expedition set out in 1804 o lst transcontinental expedition started Atlantic coast end Pacific coast 0 Expedition had several goals I Develop relations with Natives I Expand trade out West and in the Pacific region I Surveymap layout of land French Canadian trader Charbonneau and his pregnant wife Sacagawea Sacagawea o Served as an intermediary between the Natives and the expedition o Knew local languages Knew local politics 0 Served as a cultural interpreter for both the Natives and explorers Expedition reached the Pacific in 1805 Return in 1807 During the expedition Lewis and Clark laid claim to the Oregon Territory 0 Great Britain and Russia also had laid claim to that area Expedition successful in establishing good relations with some Native groups like the Shoshone 0 But had issuesconflict with the Sioux Jay s Treaty British exports flooded US markets while American exports were blocked by British trade restrictions and tariffs The British occupation of northern forts that the British Government had agreed to vacate in the Treaty of Paris 1783 as well as recurrent Native American attacks in these areas also frustrated Americans Britain s impressments of American sailors and seizure of naval and military supplies To avoid war it Britain Washington sent John Jay to England to work out a treaty 0 June 1795 Jay s Treaty I Meant to ease tension between the US and Great Britain and reach a compromise on Britain s presence in the Northwest Territory I Seen by DemocraticRepublicans as being too proBritish o DemocraticRepublicans protested the Treaty and burned effigies of Jay I GB to surrender northwestern posts already agreed to in 1783 I a commercial treaty with Great Britain that granted the United States quotmost favored nation status but seriously restricted US commercial access to the British West Indies I All other outstanding issues including the CanadianMaine boundary compensation for prerevolutionary debts and British seizures of American ships were to be resolved by arbitration Quasi War 1790s undeclared naval battles with France 1796 France decreed that trade ships from neutral countries trading wBritain would be seized 0 France rejected the US envoy that was sent over to protest the decree 1797 another US delegation sent to France 0 France would only meet wdelegates if they provided monetary compensation ie bribe 0 US refused and this event became known as the quotXYZ Affair 1799 a new delegation was sent to France gt managed to diffuse the situation and avoid a full out war undeclared Quasi War still going on War of 1812 US upset with British impressment and Britain s role in arming the Natives US war aims 0 Free trade on the sea and rights of sailors o Expel British from America all areas except Canada 0 Pacify the Natives for US expansion westward Britain distracted with European Napoleonic Wars so it allied with Natives like Tecumseh US army was small and untrained Fighting mainly occurred in the Northwest Territory and along the Canadian border US attempted a 3 pronged attack of Canada failed 0 Managed to invade and sack York 0 1813 Battle of Thames gt Tecumseh killed I Death of Tecumseh death of panNative alliance to fight off Americans 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend gt defeat of the Red Sticks 1814 British forces invaded and burned Washington DC 1814 Battle of Fort McHenry gt US victory inspired The Star Spangled Banner War goes to a stalemate December 1814 Treaty of Ghent I Britain promised to evacuate from America I Both sides pledged peace w Natives I Hammered out the CanadaUS border I No mention of impressmentsailors rights 0 January 1815 Battle of New Orleans I British invaded New Orleans I US army led by General Andrew Jackson gt defeated the British I Led to high US nationalism OOOOO I Battle fought after the signing of the Treaty but people in America didn t know that so this victory made people think that the US won the war 0 Legacies of the war I Andrew Jackson seen as a war hero and signaled the start of his political career I End of first 2party system in US as the Federalists die out o DemocraticRepublicans left gt quotEra of Good Feelings under Monroe 0 Era of Good Feelings less political division and partisanship I 2quot l Barbary War was occurring during this war 0 US won that war and tribute system ended I US gained more prestige on the international stage I Nationalism for Canada and beginning of its emergence as a nation 0 Cling to fact that it was able to burn Washington I Natives negative impacted o In SE Natives ceded land to US Creeks and Red Sticks punished Treaties wtribes est reservations east of Mississippi 0 Native gave the land they were currently on to the US and in return got new land further west Lost Great Britain as an ally as Britain pushed out of America Era of Good Feelings 0 18205 0 End of first 2party system in US as the Federalists die out o DemocraticRepublicans left gt ushers in quotEra of Good Feelings under Monroe 0 Era of Good Feelings less political division and partisanship Cotton gin o 1793 0 Eli Whitney o Sped up time to process cotton gt Separated cotton fibers from bowels o Aided in cotton rising aslynchpin of South s economy 0 Bc more cotton produced more slaves needed to operate the gins gt slavery increases in South Second Great Awakening o Transatlantic religious revival movement gt preachers traveled between Great Britain and US 0 Started in Britain and moved over to America 0 Early 19th century peaked from 18201840 0 Variety of religious denominations involved gt most influential Baptist and Methodism o Revival meetings were nondiscriminate in terms of what denominations could attend o Came as a response to social anxiety produced by Industrial Revolution and Market Revolution 0 Anxiety over modernization gt are these technology and labor changes for the better 0 Revivals meant to uplift and reform society gt promote American exceptionalism o Believed in idea of virtue and individual responsibility 0 Perfectability of mankind o Reform of the individual better citizens better country 0 SGA spurred many social reform movements Temperance AntiSlavery Missionary work 0 1801 Cane Ridge Revival in Kentucky 0 Mass revival meeting 0 Spurred the Restoration Movement I Movement away from denominations I Focus on early Christianity gt beginning of Christian fundamentalism I Goal hasten second coming of Christ hasten the coming of the millennium o Revivalism in Northeast region New England and New York 0 Before SGA educated elites embraced Enlightenment principles of reason and deism o Yale University I PreSGA hub of Enlightenment teaching I Timothy Dwight revivalist preacher on Yale campus I 18021820s With SGA Yale changed curriculum to teach its studentsseminaries about traditional religion rather than Enlightenment reason 0 Charles G Finney gt revivalist preacher in Rochester NY I Goal energize believers I Dual message live a life of the Gospel and work to make this life better 0 Upstate NY I quotBurned Over District Lots of revivals gt Areas burned over wreligious zeal 0 Increase in evangelical religion 0 Transportation revolution aided spread of revival message moving preachers across the US 0 SGA spawned many new religious sects o Millerites I Believed the second coming of Christ would occur on October 21 1844 0 Didn t happen gt October 22 quotDay of Great Disappointment 0 Many Millerites left and formed a new sect see next bullet 0 Seventh Day Adventists I One of the key founders was Ellen White gt vision about missionary work 0 Mormons I Founder Joseph Smith 0 Lived in Buried Over District of NY 0 Had a religious experience gt revelation about location of gold tablets that contained the story of a long lost European group in America 0 Story of this revelation The Book of Mormon 1830 o Mormon Church believed in early fundamental Christianity 0 Practiced polygamy gt not popular with society at large 0 Caused Smith and followers to move out to L In IL Smith was jailed and then killed by a mob Successor was Brigham Youth who helped settle the Mormons out in Utah as a way to escape the control of the US government Utah as under benign rule of Mexico at the time o Oneida Community I Founder John Humphrey Noyes Believed that Christ had already come Believed that it was possible to live sin free 1848 established utopian group called Oneida Community 0 Communalism I Everyone is equal I No individual attachment to something or someone 0 You shouldn t love anything more than you love the community 0 Complex marriage I Everyone is married to everyone quotfree love I Controlled procreation I No motherbaby attachment 0 Radical ideas about gender roles I Ex women didn t wear corsets and wore loose clothes 0 quotGeneral criticism group meetings I Community meetings where people pointed out the flaws of each other 0 To have money to support the community the community created silverware quotflatwarequot 0 Community petered out in the 1880s 0 SGA also spurred lifestyle movements change behavior to be more simplereligious o Grahamites I Founded by Sylvester Graham I Idea of quotstay cool gt avoid anything that could inflameexcite the body 0 SGA and slavery Vegetarian diet Wore loose clothes Took cold showers Developed the graham cracker as a bland food product Grahamite cereal developed by Harvey Kellogg Corn Flakes o Slavery was seen as America s fundamental sin 0 Religious revivals influenced enslaved AfricanAmerican religion 0 Nat Turner was a preacher and a slave who used the Bible to encourage other slaves to rise up and break out of slavery I Led to Nat Turner Rebellion failure 0 SGA and missionary work 0 American missionaries worked in both the domestic and foreign spheres 0 American Missionary Society gt was antislavery and worked to abolish slavery 0 American Bible Society gt spread the Bible and the Gospel 0 American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missionaries ABCFM 1810 1St American agency to send Americans abroad to spread Christianity Hawaii 0 quotdiscoveredquot by James Cook in 1778 o Named the islands quotSandwich Islands 0 First European to be recorded as reaching the islands 0 Islands were not united under one kingdom but were ruled by individual rulers residing on each island 0 Kamehemeha l began to united the islands under one kingdom o Died in 1819 o Kl s son Kamehemeha ll took over 0 Also ruling wK II was his mother Keopuolani highest ranking female in HI and his firstfavorite wife Ka ahumanu 0 Hawaiian society was hierarchical based on social status 0 Ruling elites at top and laborers at bottom 0 Had a reciprositytribute system where lower class gave tribute and gifts to upper class I Solidified view that lower class is subordinate to elites 0 Henry Opukaha ia gt model for Hawiian conversion 0 Born in 1792 during wars of unification lost family 0 Sailed to America and went to Yale I Meet son of Timothy Dwight who took him in and taught him Christianity and general education skills I Schooled at a quotHeathen School 0 School meant to taught foreigners Christianity and civilized lifestyle I After his death he was seen as a model of the good work that missionary activity could do 0 Showed that Hawaiians were people that could be converted I Pacific creole o 1820 first group of ABCFM missionaries arrive in Hawaii 0 Goal change Hawaiian culture and religion but not politics 0 Missionaries dealt wKll Keo and Ka ah o Keo and Ka ah were responsible for abolishing the kapu system I Kapu system rules regarding eating 0 Males and females had to eat separately 0 Certain foods were prohibited in accordance wtraditional Hawaiian religion and beliefs 0 Keo and Ka ah also helped est missionary schools for the children of elites and of missionaries I Ex Punahuo school Worcester v Georgia 0 Court cases at Supreme court level gt Worchester vs State of Georgia 0 Georgia had declared that missionarieswhites were not allowed in Cherokee Territory and said that those already in the Territory had to leave 0 Samuel Worchester a white missionary refused to leave 0 Worchester was arrested and fought his case in court 0 Supreme Court ruled that Georgia had no authority over Cherokee Territory I Only the national government had authority over Cherokee Territory Andrew Jackson 0 Supporter of Indian Removal 0 Opposed the presence of Native Americans on land that could be used for white settlers 0 Indian Removal Act 1830 o Nullified previous treaties between US and Natives in regards to Natives holding land in SE and E Coast Created Indian Territory for Natives to be moved to Indian Territory Oklahoma Forceful removal of Natives to Indian Territory Opponents to removal Davy Crockett gt created friendship rift bn him and Jackson Most Americans supported the removal gt interested in gaining land to farm 0000 Monroe Doctrine o 1823 Monroe Doctrine 0 US shares ideological interests wnew American republics 0 US will not interfere wEuropean colonies that already present in the W Hemisphere o No new European colonies in the Western Hemisphere I Goal end European colonialization in Western Hemisphere 0 Monroe Doctrine was a moral and political statement that argued against colonialism and was meant to support the establishment of Republican governments o Seen as a way to expand US interestsinfluence in the W Hemisphere o lst clear statement that W Hemisphere was in US sphere of influence 0 Europeans ignored the Monroe Doctrine because they knew that the US was not powerful enough to back up its threats Manifest Destiny 0 Western expansion shaped and driven by ideal of quotManifest Destiny 0 Coined in 1845 by John L Sullivan in regards to the annexation of Texas 0 notion that US has duty as destined by Divine Providence to expand westward to Pacific 0 1811 John Quincy Adams called for a unification of the whole North American continent o Believed it was the destiny of the US to take over North America 0 18121860 era of Manifest Destiny 0 18205 and 18305 obstacles to Manifest Destiny gt presence of Spanish and Natives Knownothings o Antiimmigrant AntiCatholic political party 0 quotKnowNothing members claimed to knownothing about the party when people asked them about it o 1854 height of KN Party gt won many offices in midterm elections 0 Goal limit political influence of immigrants keep political offices for Am Protestants 0 Goal undermine Catholic parochial schools gt no government funding for them 0 American public schools taught Protestant valuesviews so Catholic immigrants had set up Catholic schools so there children could be taught in line with Catholic doctrine o 1855 fall of KN Party gt accepted the KansasNebraska Act regarding slavery 0 Those who left the party were absorbed into the Republican Party
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