Article Summaries Part 2
Article Summaries Part 2 PSC1001
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Date Created: 12/10/14
1 9 h 2 conflicts and violence will also occur between states within the same civilization a less intense b less likely to expand the west vs the rest 1 west is at its peak power 2 conflict within the civilization is unlikely 3 uses international institutions military power and economic resources to run the world the way it wants to 4 world politics will be a conflict between the west and the rest a alternatives i isolation ii assimilation iii balance develop economic and military power and cooperate with others against the west modernize but not westernize the torn countries 1 countries where the society is split between civilizations 2 to redefine civilization identity a political and economic elite must be onboard b public has to be willing c recipient civilization has to be willing to accept the state confucianislamic connection 1 cooperation between countries that don t want to join the west 2 western countries are reducing their military power 3 non western countries are expanding their military power 4 conflict between west and confucianislamic states focuses mainly on nuclear chemical and biological weapons delivering them and achieving that goal implications for the west 1 west should promote cooperation within its own civilization and maintain good relations with those outside of it 2 west will have to accommodate non western modern civilizations B 1022 Religion and Politics 1 A Globalized God Thomas a b d religion is spreading 1 supported by demographics 2 increasingly urban 3 disintegrating relationship between the West and Christianity Christian and Islamic Resurgence 1 spread of Pentecostalism and evangelical Protestantism a subscribe to authority of the Bible b believe they need to proselytize nonchristians c key factor in christianity s worldwide transition d appealing to middleclass values around the world 2 Islam a revival beyond extreme Islamic fundamentalist movements b islamic world extends beyond the Arab world Religious Renewal in Asia 1 China Pentecostalism and evangelical a tacitly allows established religions Christianity and neoConfucianism to practice freely b concerned about Chinese muslims minorities clashing 2 religion in Asia is less individualistic more communal 3 India religiously diverse a social tensions have a significant religious dimension Russia and the Orthodox Church 1 Orthodox Christianity enjoying revival after communist suppression 1 standards of assessment a does this strategy promise to be more effective than the alternatives b difficulty successes are more ambiguous than failures g apparent successes 1 611 suicide attacks 19802001 led to significant policy changes a gains in 80s and 90s were modest not high interest for the target s security or wealth b contributed to rise of suicide terrorism h Hamas and Islamic Jihad suicide campaigns 1 Israel made significant concessions 2 Oslo Accords committed to withdrawing IDF from Gaza and the West Bank already 3 terrorist organizations counted it as a success i limits of suicide terrorism 1 unlikely to achieve ambitious goals j policy implications 1 concessions are not the simple answer a partial incremental or deliberately staggered concessions are the worst 2 occupation of more countries may increase the number of terrorists coming at us ll Case Studies A 1031 Institutional Stability and Change in the UK 1 A Very Peculiar Revolution Britian s Politics and Constitution 19702011 Lipsey a Constitutional Change 1 constitution set of rules and understandings which determine how the country is governed a Britain doesn t have a written one i makes it easier to amend 1 no justification 2 changes don t have to relate to each other b Major Changes i Britain enters the EU because it wanted a wider free trade area to attempt to overcome the British economy s resistance to change 1 much of law impacting businesses and citizens is made by the EU a parliament is no longer sovereign 2 Labour government incorporated the European Convention on Human Rights into British law a separation of powers between the judiciary executive and legislative arms ended 3 social context determining judicial activism changed a constant judicial review of ministerial decisions ii Devolution to Scotland and Wales because Scotland didn t like the rightwing government and Wales didn t want to be left out 1 1st attempt 1970s failed 2 2nd attempt 19971998 success a result of referendums in the two countries iii Reform of the House of Lords 1999 because of a strong argument that the reform would make the House stronger 1 got rid of most of the hereditary seats 2 ended eternal permanent Tory majority 2 energetic government policy 6 2009 decreased c income dispersion trends follow the phases of transitional macroeconomic crisis d inequality experience is unique from Wester countries 1 combined with high rates of income mobility a individual poverty and wealth tended to be short term 2 average inequality tends to be much lower e explosion of wealth in Russia happened when Putin claimed to be reigning in big business f wealth of rich follows same cycle as wealth of regular Russian g Russia bound to have high income inequality upon the collapse of the command economy bc 1 geography a some areas are less desirable than others and thus require incentives b natural resources are more concentrated in a few areas i by pursuing competitive advantage certain areas are more profitable than others 2 legacy of Soviet planning a pattern of industrial plants and cities has now economic logic organized to be less vulnerable to European invasion b high transportation costs c enterprises had to compete with companies with lower costs i many gradually died off 3 political economy a response to recessions reduce wages i less unemployment ii increase income inequality b wage flexibility supported by institutional elements i low minimum wage increases competition ii significant portion of salary discretionary bonuses h Political Ramifications 1 several arguments a concentration of wealth allows rich to corrupt politics b extent of inequality determines how tolerant elites are of democracy c political consequences depend on the income bearing assets at stake 2 difficult to clearly relate Russia s flipflopping between democracy and autocracy directly to increased inequality i inequality is an important part of the political context 1 perception by the public significant factor a Russian interpretation of socioeconomic status differs greatly from US interpretation b Russian attitudes are changing as the country s macroeconomic trajectory stabilizes j Can Putin deliver 1 leader must use the state to redistribute wealth a Putin has exploited fear of economic instability b needs to change his strategy 2 needs to make institutional changes C 117 Guest lecture by Julian Waller Russia and the Ukraine Crisis 1 Watching the Eclipse Vladimir Putin s New AntiAmericanism Remnick a January 2012 Michael McFaul appointed US Ambassador to Russia b Putin didn t like how close to the US Russia was becoming under Medvedev so he decided to run and win again 1 sparked protest 2 Putin pushed antiAmericanism in law and the media 3 Putin worked to turn Russia against the US a media accused McFaul of trying to finish the revolution c McFaul was a very liberal prodemocracy student 1 the state transformed activism into cover for revolutionary motives 2 b d c administrative capacity exceptional 6 just surviving doesn t make the regime resilient a authoritarian resilience results from reliable survival tactics not adoption of innovative political strategies b regimes have been unable to address the systematic weaknesses i political illegitimacy ii corruption iii misalignment of interests between regime and its agents iv political exclusion of the middle class v predatory state policies that victimize and alienate disadvantaged social groups 7 straightforward explanations a economic performance i perform well survive longer b diversified portfolio of methods for keeping power 8 still must contend with absence of procedural legitimacy 9 perceived resilience probably conceals fatal weaknesses The Keys to CCP Survival 1 refined repression a limits political freedoms and civil rights b stays out of private lives c organized political opposition BAD d selective repression 2 economic statism a stateowned enterprise b party has control over economic elites 3 political cooptation a pacifies middle class b CCP is a party of elites c harder for lowerstatus groups to organize and become effective political forces Behind the Facade of Authoritarian Strength 1 shortterm success can jeopardize longterm survival and effectiveness a regimes breed corruption b future of the CCP uncertain Limits of Political Cooptation 1 autocracies exclusionary political coalitions 2 can t coopt everyone a the ones left out gt opposition leaders 3 effectiveness limited by questionable loyalty of recruited social elites Activist Opposition 1 middle class activist groups threaten the Party 2 to combat CCP needs a new economic strategy i less investment intensive and socially costly b replace repression and cooptation with some form of political liberalization 3 regime is not resilient a survival based on economic performance b repression will become less effective as opposition groups grow Why China Will Democratize Liu and Chen 8 Economic Development Trends 1 The Performance Legitimacy Thesis a the Chinese Communist Party CCP will be safe as long as the economy keeps growing b commonly held view c criticism i international experience refutes it 2 a PAN centerright probusiness b PRI centerleft pro business c PRD left wing i privatization of more than 1000 companies in 80s and 90s 1 created new economic elite 5 Calderon began assault on cartels after taking office in December 2006 a possibly to distract from Lopez Obrador s refusal to leave office and to rally legitimacy b accused of going soft on Sinaloa cartel i gone harder on them recently c seen as over compensation 6 kingpin strategy a like US deck of cards strategy in post Saddam Iraq b 2009 listed 37 drug capos most wanted c consequence i fragmentation of narcotrafficking into smaller warring ultraviolent factions 7 state is extremely fragmented a has more than 2000 police agencies 8 metropolitan Guadalajara Silicon Valley of Mexico a flourishing meth trade b grew when US cracked down on American meth c meth is good i highly addictive ii no middle man because seller can cook it iii not dependent on environmental factors 9 Mexico is predicted to become the worlds largest meth producer 1 0 corruption is everywhere 11 Army and police are not coordinated 12 power shift between Mexican government under the PAN and Mexican organized crime a before 2000 PRI government crime groups prospered by the government called all the shots b government is obviously not calling the shots now i middle class citizens more afraid of a drug leader getting caught 13 cartels a Sinaloa familybased b Zetas military controls entire east coast of Mexico c killings are brutally violent and meant to be cautionary d cartels are not specific to certain parties 14 the poor are worried they will get tagged with drug charges 15 no one trusts the police 16 everyone who can afford it lives in high security communities Criminal Subversion of Mexican Democracy Shedler a 2000 Vicente Fox PAN 1 violent competition among cartels b 2006 Felipe Calderon 1 fight against drug cartels defines presidency a military force 2 police disconnected violence gets worse c drug war also includes violence against civilians d Mexican state commits criminal violence on a large scale e sources of violence 1 entryexit points and transport routes for drugs f crisis is bad but not that bad 1 must define normal a Latin America has 8 of the world s population and 42 of its homicides Boko Haram is more effective and has fewer financial resources than the Nigerian military and police Nigeria fails to provide security and basic public goods for it s citizens US and allies should help Nigeria with broader security concerns northern Nigeria lacks political power Nigerian citizens need to push for state building efforts The Jobs Crisis behind Nigeria s Unrest Meagher 8 b d 1 corruption savage market reforms and integration into the global economy led to poverty and unemployment Frustrating Growth 1 exuberant growth recently a Nigeria has the resources substantial oil exports and the market large population to drive sustained economic recovery 2 reformers are changing inefficient subsidies and corruption 3 but poverty still rises bc a oil creates few jobs b local industry suffers from poor infrastructure c population increases but the number of jobs doesn t d high youth unemployment 4 discontented population The Aggrieved North 1 regional and ethnic inequalities a poverty improves in South but not the North b Muslim states have the highest unemployment c North highly illiterate 2 the North s economy declined under liberalization and integration a agriculture primary source of employment suffered recently b rural economy can t support such a high population c urban economy declined i infrastructure decayed ii competition from Asian textile companies iii high urban unemployment 1 the unemployed get recruited into political thuggery Enter Boko Haram BH 1 BH started in the northeastern city Maiduguri 2 drew followers from marginalized elements of northern society 3 rural base was assaulted gt attacks on police stations in the north gt increased radicalizationn and violence gt clash in 2009 killing more than 800 BH members 4 BH returned in 2010 more radical 5 August 2011 suicide bomb at the UN headquarters moved BH into international spotlight 6 since January 2012 BH attacks have expanded across northern Nigeria 7 some local sympathy with BH s critique of political misrule but little support of violence 8 BH has increased the economic problems of the North a banned motorcycle taxis b increased spending on security gt decreased spending on fixing the economy 9 strong military response is counterproductive a only escalates BH Sectarian Strife 1 clash between Christians and Muslims of Jos a Christians politically dominant b Muslims economically dominant 2 decreased economic opportunity increased education among Muslims increased conflict Conflict in the Delta 1 has one of the highest levels of education in the country a dispersed ethnic configuration i conflicts are local and can be resolved without disrupting the entire state ii EXCEPTION HinduMuslim cleavage 4 Political Leadership a Nehru prioritized democracy i made India manageable 1 regional leaders were elected and had the legitimacy to handle local conflicts 2 state does not have to get involved in every conflict that occurs 3 Indira Gandhi s attempt to centralize the state showed how unmanageable it could be 5 Biggest threat to Indian Democracy a BJP threatens ndia s subcultural pluralism i could potentially turn India into a cultural dualism where a Hindu majority rules over a nonHindu minority 2 The Paradoxes of Indian Politics Vanaik 8 a b the modern political structures have not matched up with the country s level of economic development overdeveloped state underdeveloped civil society widespread national political instability but democracy survives no party is capable of replacing Congress but Congress is declining agricultural elites are loosing economic and social significance because of modernization but they still have power in regional parties and within the caste system caste vs religious confrontation 1 caste confrontation strengthens India a oppressed vs oppressor leads to resolution of conflicts 2 religious confrontation weakens India a not oppressed vs oppressor situation conflicts don t get resolved they just keep going back and forth Hinduness has more of a social and political impact than Musimness does India middle class does not reflect the average India regional parties have more power in electing politicians than they do in lobbying their actions once the are in office the strongest defenders of the bourgeois are they parties that claim to be anti bourgeois regime 1 micro level violent and authoritarian 2 macro level democracy The Struggle for Women s Empowerment in India Bagchi Rape 1 Nirbhaya rape case a sparked legal changes i shift in the burden of proof to the accused 1 guilty until proven innocent ii marital rape is not included 1 if a rapist convinces his victim to marry him he goes free iii state lacks a full spectrum support system for victims b New vs Old India i women move to townscities and become more independent new India ii they become the target of old India 1 loss of power and control is unacceptable c India needs to raise better sons i sons aren t taught to respect the word no Economic Independence 1 significant gender gap 2 family structure makes it easier for women in India to balance work and family than women in Western countries b rentier nature of the state enhanced the problem by increasing the amount of money the state has at it s disposal c state affiliated agencies facilitate distribution of patronage 3 dual sovereignty preserves elite conflict by ensuring that one group is never completely eliminated f Divided They Rule and Survive 1 fragmentation of the state opportunity for collapse in two ways a one overthrow from within b two seizure by a group outside of the state c but neither has happened yet 2 use of of force a more effective and less risky because softliners and reformers are highly fractured 3 elite divisions have a voice in the media a newspapers are not coordinated w each other or the reformists in parliament 4 atomization of the state a modernization undermined and reconfigured collectivism vertical divisions in society divisions based on who is getting paid by whom b authoritarian nature of society social groupsactivist groups are intentionally small and informal to avoid detection 5 fragmented authoritarianism works to block regime decay and collapse from elite cleavages g Prospects for Democratization of a Fragmented Autocracy 1 elite based pacts democratic transition negotiated by elites a cooperation among elites would be difficult 2 mass mobilization a softliners are too fragmented b society is too atomized c wary of social mobilization 2 The Spring of Hope and Winter of Despair Amanat a 1979 Iranian Revolution vs Arab Spring 1 Arab Spring a no charismatic leader b cannot be defined as ideological c lacks the radical left groups to push the revolution over the edge d early revolutions show signs of democratic commitment i civil society ii religious tolerance e demands of a new urban middle class i less likely to become enchanted by extremist messages f fate of the military is not tied to the money of the deposed dictators i double edged sword 1 could facilitate progress towards an open society or 2 foster an autocratic regime g BUT i fascination wpolitical Islam among the urban poor and lower middle class and the more educated middle classes ii lslamists appeal to the ordinary people iii visible resentment toward Israel and dominance over Palestines in Occupied Territories 2 regardless of what it is the result of the Arab Spring will change the Middle East forever
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