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ASTR - Midterm Study Guide

by: Kara Ott

ASTR - Midterm Study Guide ASTR 11200

Marketplace > Rowan University > ASTR 11200 > ASTR Midterm Study Guide
Kara Ott
GPA 4.0
Exploration of the Solar system
Andrew Watson

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About this Document

This study guide includes all of the material that Prof. Watson talked about in our review class as well as other important information from the chapters! I will also be posting a picture of my no...
Exploration of the Solar system
Andrew Watson
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kara Ott on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 11200 at Rowan University taught by Andrew Watson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.

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Date Created: 10/14/15
ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes Midterm Study Guide o Astronomical Unit AU Earth s average distance from the sun 150 million km 0 Light year 1v distance light can travel in a year 10 trillion km 0 While the universe as a Whole continues to expand individual galaxies and galaxy clusters do not expand 0 Universal Hierarchy 0 Earth gt Stellar systems gt Galaxies gt Groups and Clusters gt Superclusters vs voids Which are an under concentration of matter gt universe gt Multiuniverse o MKS system gt Meter Kilogram Second I Meter standard unit of length I Kilogram standard unit of mass I Second standard unit of time o Prefixes o Nano n 109 0 Micro u 10 6 o Milli m 103 o Giga G 109 0 Mega M 106 0 Example conversion of frequency f Hz l s 0 Once every 2 minutes gt 12min x 1min603ec 11203 120 Hz 0 Example conversion 0 1 lbin3 into kgcm3 o 1 kg 2211b and 1 in 254cm o 1 lbin3 x 1in32543in3 x 1kg221b 1kg36cm3 0 Difference between speed and velocity Velocity has direction and magnitude Whereas speed only has magnitude ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe further objects are moving away more quickly 0 Doppler Effect of light object emitting light has its light redshifted or blueshifted depending on whether it is moving away from us or towards us 0 On cosmic calendar which compresses history of Universe into one single year Earth forms in early September life arose on Earth in September and humans first walked on Earth just a few hours before midnight on 1231 0 Theory agrees with vast majority of observations whereas a law is some empirical relationship that was discovered before we knew WHY it worked 0 What is science 0 Process of building a logical mathematical model of a natural phenomenon which agrees with observation as best as possible 0 Pseudoscience fundamentally contradicts one or more aspects of the scientific method 0 Pseudoscientific claims might I Be vague exaggerated untestable I Forbid testing by others I Fail to make progress I Refuse to acknowledge criticism 0 Acceleration of gravity g1 causes falling objects to fall faster by 98 m s approximately 10 m s with each passing second therefore g 10 m s2 ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes Angular momentum circling momentum any object that is spinning or moving along a curved path has angular momentum The Space Shuttle and all other orbiting objects stay in orbit because they are constantly falling around the Earth They are in a constant state of free fall making them weightless Newton s Laws of Motion 0 l An object moves at constant velocity if there is no net force acting upon it Also an object in motion tends to stay in motion and an object at rest tends to stay at rest 0 2 Force mass X acceleration Fma o 3 For any force there is always an equal and opposite reaction force A cloud of interstellar gas contracts because its own gravity has more gravitational PE when it s spread out than when it shrinks The lost PE is converted to thermal energy making the center of the cloud hot Basic Kinematics 0 Position X X y X y 2 etc 0 Velocity AXAt velocity is a vector 0 Speed V speed is not a vector 0 Acceleration AvAt acceleration is a vector 0 Change in position Xfinal Xinitial AX ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 Basic Dynamics 77 O Momentum p mv where p and v are vectors 0 Angular momentum L p X r where L p and r are vectors AND X is cross not multiplication this is explained more below 0 Force massacceleration 0 Conservation of Energy Momentum and Angular momentum 0 Universal Law of Gravitation 0 Every mass attracts every other mass through gravity 0 The strength of the gravitational force attracting any two objects is DIRECTLY proportional to the product of their masses ie If you double the mass of one of the objects the force of gravity between them doubles o The strength of gravitational force between 2 objects DECREASES with the square of the distance between their centers ie If you double the distance between two objects the force of gravity is weakened by a factor of 22 or 4 Fg GM1M2d2 0 Where Fg force of gravitational attraction G gravitational constant 667 X 1011 m3kg X s2 M1 and M2 masses of the 2 objects d distance between their centers 0 LrXp ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 1 Where L is angular momentum r is radius of orbit X is cross NOT MULTIPLICATION and p is momentum 2 rXp r p sine V 3i o Kepler s Law 0 All planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus I Ellipses have 2 foci I Circles are special ellipses Where both foci are in the same spot I Eccentricity is greater when foci are more spread apart 0 As a planet moves the imaginary line connecting the sun and the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times 0 A planet s orbital period P in years is related to its semimajor aXis a in AU by P2a3 ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 Light from the Sun or a light bulb is called white light because it contains all colors of the rainbow o No light therefore no color gt Black 0 Understand wave anatomy A is wavelength a is amplitude Waugh 0 Four basic ways light interacts with matter 0 Emission light bulb emits Visible light 0 Absorption hand near light gt warmer hand because hand absorbs energy 0 Transmission Some forms of matter gas and air allow light to pass through or transmit them 0 Re ection Scattering light bouncing off matter in the same general direction re ection or randomly scattering o Longer wavelength Lower frequency ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes Shorter wavelength Greater frequency E hct hf c speed of light kf In order from shortest to longest WAVELENGTH on the electromag spectrum 0 Gamma rays gt X rays gt ultraviolet gt visible light gt infrared gt microwaves gt radio waves Atomic number number of protons in an atom Atomic mass number combined number of protons and neutrons Isotope version of element with different number of neutrons than usual Atoms contain energy in 3 ways I They possess mass energy in amount mc2 by virtue of their mass I They possess KE by virtue of motion I They contain electrical PE that depends on arrangement of electrons around nucleus ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 3 basic tvpes of spectra 0 Continuous spectrum gt when rainbow spans broad range of wavelengths without interruption ex light bulb 0 Emission light spectrum gt thin cloud of gas emits light only at specific wavelengths therefore spectrum has bright emission lights against black background 0 Absorption line spectrum gt see most of the continuous spectrum but cloud absorbs lights of specific wavelengths Con nuous radiation SOU rce Line radiation SOUFCQ 0 Doppler Effect o If an object moves toward us light waves bunch up between us and the object so spectra is shifted to shorter wavelengths blue shifted ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 If an object moves away from us light waves spread out between us and the object so spectra is shifted to longer wavelengths red shifted We can determine the rotation rate of distant objects by measuring the width of its spectral lines 0 Examples of how light interacts with objects 0 A chair looks red gt It scatters red light and absorbs other colors 0 The sun melts ice gt Molecules in ice absorb sunlight and gain energy 0 Earth s atmosphere bends light The sun looks squished at sunset because light from the lower portion of the sun passes through more atmosphere and therefore bends slightly more than light from the upper portion 0 Refracting telescope operates like eye uses transparent glass lenses to collect and focus light ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes Re ecting telescope uses precisely curved primary mirrors to gather light Mirror re ects gathered light to a secondary mirror that lies in front of it Telescopes are like giant eyes that collect more light 0 Light collecting area tells how much total light a telescope can collect at one time o Angular resolution the smallest angle over which we can tell that two dots or stars are distinct I Human eye has angular resolution of about 1 arcminute 3 meaning two stars can appear distinct only if they have at least this much angular separation in the sky I Interference of beams of light with each other limits the telescope s angular resolution I Diffraction limit angular resolution a telescope could achieve if it were limited only by interference of light waves 0 Depends on diameter of telescope s primary mirror and wavelength of light being observed 0 Diffraction limit is larger for longer wavelength light ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 Only radio waves Visible light and small parts of the infrared spectrum can be observed from the ground 0 Kuiper Bel much like asteroid belt but farther from sun and composed of comet like objects rather than rocky asteroids 0 Features that are clues to how SS formed 0 Patterns of motion along large bodies I Planets orbit and rotate in organized way nearly circular orbits on same plane I Most planets and the Sun rotate in same direction I Most large moons have similar properties 0 Two major types of planets I Terrestrial planets Earth like 4 inner planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars 0 Small dense rocky metal cores few moons no rings I Jovian planets Jupiter like 4 outer planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 Large lower density rings many moons made up of H He and H compounds o Asteroids and comets I Asteroid belt found between Mars and Jupiter mostly just asteroids found here I Oort belt much further from sun may contain a trillion comets this cloud is roughly a spherical shape 0 Exceptions to rules I Only Earth has large moon in inner 4 planets I Only Uranus is sideways o 4 categories of robotic missions to other worlds 0 M goes past once and never returns I Cheaper can obtain higher resolution photos can be sent to visit multiple planets o Orbiter orbits world it s visiting allowing long term study 0 Lander probe land on surface or probe planet s atmosphere by ying through it ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 Sample return mission makes round trip to bring back sample of other worlds I The only ones to date are to the moon and an asteroid o By studying composition of the sun other stars the same age and interstellar gas clouds we learned that the gas that made up the solar nebula contained about 98 H 85 He and 2 all other elements combined 0 Three processes that altered density temperature and shape as the solar nebula shrank 0 Heating temperature increased gravitational energy gt kinetic energy gt thermal energy the Sun formed in the middle where temp amp density was highest 0 Spinning increase in rotation rate represents conservation of angular momentum the greater the angular momentum the more spread out it will be 0 Flattening natural consequence of collisions between particles in spinning cloud random motions of original cloud became more orderly as cloud collapsed and changed lumpy original shape into a attened disk ASTR 11200 Week 1 Notes 0 Four major categories of solar nebula 0 Hydrogen and helium 98 of solar nebula I These never condense in space Hydrogen compounds 14 of solar nebula I Can solidify into ices when temp is under 150 K Rock 04 of solar nebula I Condense into solid bits of mineral between 500 K and 1300 K Metal 02 of solar nebula I Condense into solid form between 1000 K and 1 600 K We think most of the exceptions to the rules came from collisions or close gravitational encounters Giant impact hypothesis suggests that Mars sized object hit Earth at speed and angle that blasted Earth s outer layers into space Example to explain radioactive dating Potassium 4O l9 protons 21 neutrons decays and one of its protons turns into a neutron therefore it now has 18 protons and 22 neutrons and is now Argon 40 Meteorites have not melted or vaporized since they first condensed in solar nebula the oldest ones show that they formed about 455 billion years ago which marks beginning of accretion in solar nebula age of 88 is 455 billion years


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