Study Guide PSYC 218 - 01
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
PSYC 218 - 01
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Sandozz on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 218 - 01 at Radford University taught by Lara Barbir in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Radford University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Study Guide Exam 2 Low self esteem usually temporary can develop into other problems depressionanorexia increasing adolescent esteem 1 identify the problem 2 provide emotionalsocial support 3 foster achievement 4 help adolescents cope Identity Erikson s Idea about Identity Identity vs Identity Confusion Intimacy vs Isolation Developmental changes Identity vs Identity Confusion Psychosocial moratorium Personality and role exploration try out different roles Vocational roles become central to identity developmental Identity is a self portrait composed of many pieces career identity politics religious relationship achievement intellectual identity sexual identity culture interests personality physical appearance Four Stages of Identity Marcia Identity diffusion Identity foreclosure Identity moratorium Friday December 18 y Friday December 18 y Identity achievement crisis a period of identity development third dimension ruminative or excessive exploration Narrative approach Developing changes in Identity Identity consolidation individuality and and connectedness Ethnic Identity Bicultural Identity Emotional development 6 primary emotions I sadness 2 surprised 3 happiness 4 disgust 5 anger 6 fear Emotion feeling or affect that occurs when a person is in a state or interaction that is important to them Hormones Emotion and Experience mood swings may be related to variability on hormone levels pubertal change is associated w negative emotions hormone in uence is small Emotional competence being aware that the expression of your emotions affect relationships how you adapt w negative emotion understanding and being aware of emotional stages Personality Development Stability Change Personality big five factors 1 Oppeness Friday December 18 y 2 conscientiousness 3 extraversion 4 agreeableness 5 neuroticism emotional stability Other test is the Neo Personality Inventory optimism having a positive outlook on the future and minimizing problems Temperament An individuals behavioral and character way of responding categories easy difficult slow to warm up Goodness of fit the match of a person s temperament and environmental demands they have to cope with Gender The characteristics of people as males and females Gender roles a set of eXpectations applied your gender Biological In uences on Gender Puberty and Sexuality Freud and Erikson Anatomy is destiny Individuals genitals in uence their behavior Evolutionary psychology and gender survival of the fittest Social In uences Friday December 18 y social role theory gender differences mainly result from the contrasting roles of females and male power and status differences Parents in uence by action and example In uence their adolescent children Social cognitive theory of gender emphasizes that childrenadolescent gender developments is in uenced by their observation and imitation of others Siblings play a role in gender socialization Peers peer approval vs disapproval peers can socialize gender behavior Schools and teachers teachers may have biases against both girls and boys most teachers are female Socio emotional similaritiesdifferences males more physical aggressive girls more verbalrelationally aggressive Communication females rapport talk males report Bandura social cognitive theory behavior persor cognition social environment Gender schema theory gender organized thinking gender typed behavior schemas of what is gender appropriate and inappropriate Gender stereotyping it s pervasive Expressive female vs instrumental males Brain Structure Males have bigger hypothalamus the 4 F s Friday December 18 y Female brain 10 smaller with more uids in the brain Males have more visuospatial skills in the brain Adolescents are very egocentric heightened sense of self Imaginary audience and personal fable The Self Self understanding the way you view yourself Self esteem and self concept knowing yourself and what motivates you more introspective Piaget self understanding is a social construct theory Abstraction and Idealism the uctuating self contradictions within the self real vs false self social comparison self conscious self protection The unconscious self Factors that affect your identity Age development disabilities religion Ethnicity Friday December 18 y Socio economic status sexual orientation indigenous nation of orgin gender Self esteem the global evaluation dimension of the self Self concept Domain Specific evaluation of the self Eight different domains Scholastic athletic social physical appearance behavioral conduct close friendship romantic appeal job competence Narcissism self centered and self concerned person Prosocial behavior females view themselves as more empathic prosocial and more kindconsiderate Emotion and regulation Females more eXpressive and de code more self regulated Friday December 18 y Gender Controversy Evolutionary psych gender differences are extensive and caused by adaptive problems they have faced across their evolutionary history Gender in Context macro exo meso microsystem individual starts at indiv and goes outward Gender role classification masculinity femininity androgyny Androgyny the presence of a high degree of masculinity and femininity Context culture and gender roles girls education is still lagging behind boys education increasing evidence of gender equality easier to teach androgyny to girls than boys easier to teach before middle school Development changes and junctures proposed idea with the onset of puberty girls and boys experience an intensification in gender related expectations Chapter 6 Sexuality mixed messages about sex in the US media adolescents increasingly have outlets to sexuality explicit websites Developing an Sexuality managing sexual feelings sexual identity emerges in the context of physical factors social factors and cultural factors social norms related to sex involves an indication to sexual orientation Sexual scripts Friday December 18 y A stereotyped patterns of role prescriptions for how individuals should behave sexually Tolman 2012 described the double standard for girls Risk Factors early sex linked to risky behavior poverty socio econmic status familyparentingpeer factors school related issues familyparentingpeer factors attention problems Self regulation positive youth development that focuses to improve sexual outcomes on adolescence Emerging Adulthood those having sex in adolescence are more prone to risk in emerging adulthood Sexual Minority AttitudesBehavior in Adolescence first same sex attraction sexual behavior labeling themselves as gaylesbian until middle 20th century people were only considered same sex attraction or heterosexual Developmental pathways same sex attraction struggle with hiding those feelings in their childhood do not engage in heterosexual dating Friday December 18 y recognize sexual identity in adolescence much more uidity GayLesbian Identity Disclosure coming out process feel different at an early age boys try to deny homosexual feelings DiscriminationBias homophobia self devaluation passing hiding ones sexual identity mixed results on suicides committed by sexual minority adolescents often face substance abuse targeted for Violence and have sexual risk taking behaViors can be discriminated by family friendsschools and community Self Stimulation Mostly done by males 15 of adolescents attach a stigma with masturbation Contraceptive use don t always use contraceptives younger adolescents like likely to use than older adolescents Europe uses more contraceptivesbirth control than USA Abortion Friday December 18 y big debate in the USA easier to obtain in other countries adOlCSCCHtS aren t psychologically affected by abortion legal abortion comes with few risks if performed in the first few weeks Consequences of adolescents mom premature lower birth weight neurological problems childhood illness moms drop out low socio economic status background Adolescents as parents 15 adolescents girls receive proper prenatal care in first 3 months Children lower intelligent tests and more behavior problems Most adolescents fathers aren t involved lower income less education more kids Reducing adolescent pregnancy seX education and planning access to contraceptives the life options approach broad community involvement and support 10 Friday December 18 y STI s contracted through seX needles or bodily uid Viruses AIDS Genital HerpesW arts Bacteria Gonorrhea Syphilis and Chlamydia HIVAIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome attacks your bodies immune system most concern is in Saharan Africa aids concern for drug users individuals with other STI S young gay males African Americans and Latinos heterosexual transmission has increased as well Genital Herpes caused by a large family of Viruses l in 5 have GH no cure Genital Warts difficult to test fore small painless bumps HPV most commonly acquired in 15 24 can be linked to cancer Gonorrhea neisseroa gonorroeae burning snesation while pee Syphilis 11 Friday December 18 y increased from 2004 2008 if untreated can progress through 4 phases Primary Secondary Latent Tertiary Chlamydia most common among all age groups women run 70 risk of contracting male risk 25 50 can cause pelVic in ammatory disease 1 preventable cause of female infertility RapeSexual Harassment women feel like they don t have authorityrights rape isn t easily determined males usually angry at females dateacquittance rap raped by someone they know trauma can cause PTSD depression anXiety that lasts for months to years 12
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