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by: Dylan Notetaker

ExamIIreview.pdf BIO 100

Dylan Notetaker
Intro to Biology
Dr. Brammel

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Exam 2 Study Guide: CH. 3 - The Organic Molecules of Life CH. 4 - Inside the Cell CH. 5 - The Dynamic Cell CH. 8 - Cellular Reproduction CH. 9 - Meiosis and the Genetic Basis of Sexual Repro...
Intro to Biology
Dr. Brammel
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dylan Notetaker on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 100 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Dr. Brammel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Eastern Kentucky University.

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Date Created: 10/14/15
Bio 100 Exam II Review Sheet Fall 2015 The topics listed on this sheet will be the subject of most of the exam questions The review sheet is not intended to be a substitute for class attendance and may not contain 100 of the topics covered in class although nearly all the topics listed below will be on the exam If you cannot answer these questions you will not do well on the exam and need to invest more time in preparation Feel free to ask questions via e mail or before during or after class Chapter 3 Only the material from slides 17 23 will be included on the exam starting at protein structure Describe the four levels of protein structure we discussed and in the case of secondary structure provide two examples of this type of structure 0 Primary Amino acid sequence 0 Secondary portions of chain from helices pleated sheets 0 Tertiary overall threedimensional shape of interacting secondary structures 0 Quaternary more than one polypeptide chain interacting Describe the three dimensional structure of DNA 0 Deoxyribose as sugar 0 Double helix 0 Complementary base pairing I Adenine A with Thymine T I Cytosine C with Guanine G Describe the components of a nucleotide 3 parts 0 Phosphate O 5carbon sugar 0 nitrogencontaining base What sugar is found in DNA in RNA 0 Ribose Chapter 4 Describe the two microscope types discussed at the beginning of the chapter and the uses of each 0 Light Microscope I Limited by properties of light and less descriptive 0 Electron Microscope I Overcomes limitation by using beams of electrons I More descriptive Why are cells so small 0 Surfacetovolume ratio 0 Adaptations to increase surface area I Microvilli in the small intestine increase area for absorptions of nutrients Be able to describe the six types of cell proteins we discussed in Chapter 4 0 Microtubules 0 Intermediate filaments O Centrioles 0 Motor proteins allow cell and organelles to move 0 Cilia O Flagella propulsion What is the cell theory 0 All organisms are composed of cells 0 All cells come from preexisting cells Describe the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell 0 Prokaryotic cells include bacteria and archaea domains I Smaller and simpler in structure and very successful I They have cell walls and appendages containing Flagella Fimbriae and conjugation pili O Eukaryotic cells are protists fungi plants and animals which are much larger than prokaryotic cells I They have a membrane bounded nucleus housing DNA I Compartmentalized and contain organelles Describe the three types of cell junctions discussed in the chapter and at least one example of where each is found in the body What are plasmodesmata 0 Plant cells connected by channels through cell walls 0 For exchange of water and small solutes Describe the cell membrane and the orientation of phospholipids in the membrane 0 Regulates passage in and out of a cell 0 Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins I Polar heads face watery liquid I Nonpolar tails face each other 0 Fluidmosaic model What are ribosomes and what do they do 0 They are sugars which carry out protein synthesis in the cytoplasm 0 Some free in cytoplasm but many attached to endoplasmic reticulum Be able to describe the function of chloroplasts lysosomes mitochondria Golgi apparatus the nucleus and the cytoskeleton O Chloroplasts use solar energy to synthesize carbohydrates through the process of photosynthesis and found in Plants and Algae O Lysosomes digest molecules or old cell parts 0 Mitochondria Found in Plants and animals break down carbohydrates to produce ATP cellular respiration needs oxygen produces carbon dioxide 0 Golgi apparatus modifies lipids and proteins sorts and packages them in vesicles 0 Nucleus stores genetic information chromatin diffuse DNA protein some RNA nuclear envelope double membrane nuclear pores permit passage in and out 0 Cytoskeleton network of interconnected protein filaments and tubules Do plant cells have mitochondria 0 Yes it is found in plant and animal cells Describe the function of the mitochondria the function of a chloroplast O Mitochondria I Breaks down carbohydrates to produce ATP I Cellular respiration needs oxygen produces carbon dioxide 0 Chloroplasts I Use solar energy to synthesize carbohydrates through the process of photosynthesis I Plants and algeae Describe the unique situation regarding the DNA of chloroplasts and mitochondria O Chapter 5 What is entropy 0 Relative amount of disorganization 0 Every change leads to an increase of disorder 0 Only way to maintain or bring about order is to add energy Where is the energy stored in ATP 0 Potential energy What are the first and second law of thermodynamics energy laws What do they say and how is this relevant to the discussion of movement of energy through an ecosystem 0 First Law conservation of energy I Energy cannot be created of destroyed it can change form 0 Second Law I Energy cannot change form without loss of usable energy I Heat is the least usable form What are enzymes what type of molecule 0 Protein molecule What do they do 0 Speed up reactions 0 Lower amount of energy required for a reaction How do they work 0 During a reaction the substrate within an enzyme reacts as a catalyst speeding up the reaction by decreasing the amount of energy needed Define activation energy substrate and active site 0 Activation energy energy needed to cause molecules to react with one another 0 Substrate fits in the active site and is what changes in the enzyme 0 Active site accommodates substrate like a lock and key specific to one substrate What is induced fit 0 Model that describes enzymes slight shape change What is a metabolic pathway 0 Series of linked reactions I Product of one reaction because the reactant of the next reaction I The letters E1 E6 represent enzymes 0 Protein molecules speed up reactions What happens when a metabolic pathway is interrupted O Define diffusion 0 Moving a solute from high concentration to lower concentration Define osmosis Be able to describe it using both the solute and water concentration 0 Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane What happens to a cell placed in a hypertonic hypotonic and isotonic solution 0 Hypertonic shriveled cell cytoplasm shrinks from cell wall 0 Hypotonic cells swell bursts normal turgid cell 0 Isotonic normal cells normal cell Is this different for a plant cell and an animal cell 0 Yes above listed Animal cellplant cell 0 Animal cell will burst when placed in hypotonic solution Why are transport proteins needed by the cell 0 To regulate what goes in and out of cell Define diffusion and active transport and explain whether or not energy is required for both 0 Active transport cells expend energy requires transport protein 0 Diffusion passive transport where substances move from high to lower concentration no energy required What is bulk transport 0 Macromolecules are often too large to be moved by transport proteins 0 Vesicle formation takes them in or out of cell 0 Exocytosis movement out of cell Chapter 8 How many autosomes and sex chromosomes are found in a human cell 0 46 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes XY male or XX female Describe the steps of the cell cycle and what happens in each step 0 Interphase G1 S G2 0 M Mitotic stage Prophase metaphase anaphase telophase and cytokinesis What are the steps of interphase and what happens in each step 0 G1 growth occurs as organelles double 0 S DNA synthesis 0 G2 growth occurs as cell prepares to divide During which phases of the cell cycle are the chromosomes visible 0 M mitotic Phase In what stage is a cell such as a nerve cell that will not divide again 0 G0 Describe the stages of mitosis and what takes place in each step On the exam you will need to indentify pictures of cells in each of these steps 0 Prophase O Metaphase 0 Anaphase O Telophase What is a centromere 0 Holds two sister chromatins together during DNA replication What happens to the chromosome number during mitosis If you start with 46 chromosomes how many do you have at the end 0 Chromosomes are duplicated and 46 will be produced Describe the role of a tumor suppressor gene and a protooncogene O Protooncogenes code for proteins that promote the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis I When mutated they become cancercausing genes called oncogenes 0 Tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that inhibit the cell cycle and promote apoptosis I When mutated their products no longer inhibit the cell cycle or promote apoptosis What are cell plates and role do they play in cell division 0 Cell plate newly formed plasma membrane 0 During cytokinesis new membrane releases molecules that form new plant cell walls Describe the characteristics of a cancer cell 0 Cancer a disease of the cell cycle in which cellular reproduction occurs repeatedly without end What are sister chromatids O Duplicated chromosomes joined at the centromere How are sister chromatids related to one another they are identical 0 Each sister chromatid has identical DNA What is apoptosis 0 Programmed cell death 0 Cell fragments engulfed by white blood cells 0 Normal part of growth and development I Tadpole tail I Webbing between human digits Chapter 9 How are homologous chromosomes related to one another they have alleles at equivalent locations know what this means 0 Chromosomes contain the same genes but in different form 0 Alleles are different forms of the same gene 0 Humans have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes Where do homologous chromosomes come from O Humans have two of each chromosome diploid 0 One of each pair is maternal one paternal How are X and Y chromosomes different from homologous chromosomes 0 They do not have a second copy What are alleles 0 Alleles are different forms of the same gene What do the terms diploid and haploid mean 0 Diploid means there are two of each chromosome 0 Haploid means one of each chromosome What cells are diploid and haploid in the life of an organism Somatic cells nonreproductive cells and the gametes O Eukaryotic cells are diploid and prokaryotic cells are haploid What is accomplished by meiosis O 4 daughter cells are created Be able to describe the steps of meiosis I and II and answer questions such as these 0 What impact does meiosis I and II have on the number of chromosomes in cells I Meiosis I four sister chromatids aligned forming a Tetrad I Meiosis II Two cells have formed each containing two sister chromatids aligned forming a Dyad 0 What occurs at anaphase of meiosis I versus meiosis II I Anaphase I Homologues separate and dyads move to poles I Anaphase II sister chromatids separate becoming daughter chromosomes that move to the poles 0 Which of these is more similar to mitosis I Telophase because daughter cells form during this phase in mitosis and meiosis What are the two major sources by which genetic variation is introduced into offspring O Crossing over 0 Independent assortment Describe crossing over describe independent assortment O Crossing over I Occurs when chromosomes pair and physically exchange segments 39 As a result of recombination maternal chromosomes actually contain segments from paternal chromosomes and Vice versa 0 Independent Assortment 39 50 chance that chromosomes end up on one side or the other When does crossing over occur 0 During Prophase I and Metaphase I


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