GGSFinalExam.pdf GGS 103
Popular in Human Geography
Popular in Geography
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madiha Azimi on Wednesday December 10, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to GGS 103 at George Mason University taught by Professor Mulhollen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 382 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 12/10/14
Circulates money within the community and are responsible for the intemal functioning of the city 0 multiplenuclei model The postulate that large cities develop by peripheral spread not from one central business district but from several nodes of growth each of specialized use The separately expanding use districts eventually coalesce at their margins It also describes a common urban residence pattem corresponding to different ethnic groups ethnic status concentric zone model A model describing urban land uses as a series of circular belts or rings around a core central business district each ring housing a district type of land use It also describes a common urban residence pattern corresponding to different family life stages family status Wed2e or sector model A description of urban land uses as wedge shaped sectors radiating outward from the central business district along transportation corridors The radial access routes attract particular uses to certain sectors with highstatus residential uses occupying the most desirable wedges Thus it also describes a common urban residence pattem corresponding to different levels of socioeconomic status social status urbanized area The edge of the urbanized area is visible as the boundary where urban development meet the open countryside 0 metropolitan area The boundary of the metropolitan area is often just a line on a map that is not apparent on the ground 0 multiplier ef39fectEXists in which every new basic sector job creates additional nonbasic jobs When news media report that a new manufacturing plant will create a certain number of new jobs in addition to those at the plant they are referring to the multiplier effect gentri cation The movement into the inner portions of American cities of middle and upper income people who replace low income populations rehabilitate the structures they occupied and change the social character of neighborhoods 0 re21DDortionment The process and outcome of a reallocation of electoral seats to defined territories such as congressional seats to states of the US 0 nation state and nationstate Nation refers to a reasonably large group of people with a common culture that occupy a particular territory They are bound together by a strong sense of unity arising from shared beliefs and customs As a result nations share one or more important cultural traits such as religion language history Values and political institutions Nations have an attachment to a particular territory and their identity is intimately associated with that territory E State is synonymous with Country A politically organized territory Administered by a sovereign govemment Recognized by a significant portion of the intemational community A state must also contain 0 a permanent resident population 0 an organized economy 0 NationState A formallyorganized state whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity Japan Denmark and Poland are examples of nationstates Such an arrangement minimizes con icts and makes for strong states ghe n21ture of post WWII African boundaries centrifugal forces Challenges to State Authority Organized Religion 0 Nationalism Separatism Devolution 0 Regional Autonomous Movements centrinet21l forces Promoting State Cohesion 0 Nationalism Unifying Institutions 0 Organization and Administration 0 Transportation and Communication 0 nationalism elongated state States with a long narrow shape 0 Only a handful of these 0 Ex Chile over 2500 miles long but only 90 miles wide 0 prorupted state An otherwise compact state with a large projected extension 0 Proruptions are created for 2 reasons 1 To provide a state with access to a resource such as water Congo stretches to Atlantic Ocean 2 To separate two states that would otherwise share a border Afghanistan separates Russia from Pakistan 0 fragmented state State with several discontinuous pieces of territory 0 Technically any state that has offshore islands is considered fragmented fragmentation is particularly significant for some states 0 Motor Vehicle codes 0 geopolitics how spatial relations among regions in uence their current and past political activities and political relations 0 greenhouse effect Heating of the earths surface as shortwave solar energy passes through the atmosphere which is transparent to it but opaque to reradiated longwave terrestrial energyalso increasing the opacity of the atmosphere through addition of increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases that trap heat anthroDogenic caused or produced by humans site Each city is part of a larger economy that has reciprocal connections situation Each city is part of a larger economy that has reciprocal connections 0 landlocked and doublvlandlocked countries a state that lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by several other countries 14 out of the 54 countries in Africa are landlocked 0 Remnant of European colonialism 0 Access to a seaport is critical because it facilitates international trade Bulky goods are usually transported by ship 0 Landlocked states are at the mercy of other states for the use of their seaports Approximately onefifth of the world39s countries are landlocked and have no access to the oceans There are 43 landlocked countries that do not have direct access to an ocean or ocean accessible sea such as the Mediterranean Sea They have the disadvantageous situation of needing to rely upon neighboring countries for access to seaports There are two special landlocked countries that are known as doublylandlocked countries completely surrounded by other landlocked countries developed outward from several nodes of growth not just one Certain activities have specific locational requirements and are based on separately expanding clusters of contrasting activities Patterns of social status agree with the sector model People of similar status are grouped in sectors that fan out from the innermost urban residential areas If a number of people Within a certain social group increase they tend to move away from the central city and move to old neighborhoods Patterns of family status agree with the concentric model Young families with children would rather live in farther than the city On the other hand old families young professionals families whose children have left them tend live closer to the city Patterns of ethnic status agree with the multinuclei model In the US many single ethnic groups such as Chinatown or little Italy exist and defend cultural segregation Also people who live near the central business districts are usually people who plan to not have any children Increasing number of lesbian and gay couples and families are choosing to live in the suburbs as well as many immigrants
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