Final Key Terms
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 12/10/14
Definititon Significance 1014 amp 1022 Culture and Identity political identity the ways that individuals gender Political identities form a set of categorize themselves and interests that has the power to others and how they understand unite people the power relationships of domination and oppression that exist between groups primordialism an approach to understanding primordialist interpretation of the Primordialism serves as on identity that assumes that collapse of Yugoslavia conflict possible explanation of the identity is something people are was an eruption of ancient origins of identity born with or that emerges hatreds through deep psychological processes in early childhood given one s family and community context constuctivism an approach to understanding constructivist interpretation of Constructivism serves as a identity that assumes that the collapse of Yugoslavia possible explanation of the political identities are malleable elites stoked the conflict by origins of identity even if they often appear to be manipulating identities primordial and suggests that we think of identity as an Clash of Civilizations Samuel evolving political process rather P Huntington than as a fixed set of identity categories clash of civilizations Huntington proposes that the Muslims vs Christians in This article has been very next major conflict will be a Nigeria influential especially after the cultural conflict between terrorist attacks on 911 The civilizations He labels article supports the civilizations as the highest constructivist view of identity cultural entity and asserts that democracy is a product of western civilizations 1022 Religion and Politics secularization a gradual decline in the societal France Secularization has been importance of religion highlighted as a cultural change that accompanies economic growth Most wealthy democracies are secular modernization theory suggests that democracy Taiwan Modernization is thought to be a is not simply a function of key factor in the democratic economic growth but rather transition that it is a function of the cultural changes that accompany economic growth 1024 Ethnicity Gender and LGBT Identities gender gap the differences between women pre1970s women tended to The gender gap is an obstacle and men reflected in social vote conservative to effectiveness of democracy political intellectual cultural or States attempt to overcome the economic attainments or gender gap with quotas and attitudes reserved seats party candidate quotas Definititon parties must put forth a certain percentage of femaleminority candidates can be formal or informal France attempted to use party quotas required 50 women ineffective parties would rather pay the fine than comply with the quota Significance Party candidate quotas tend to be more effective when used to increase representation of women because gender is a cross cutting identity reserved seats a certain number of seats in the state s legislature are set aside reserved for womenminority members 84 out of the 545 seats in the Indian Parliament are reserved for scheduled castes Reserved seats tend to be more effective when used to increase representation of ethnic groups because ethnicity coincides with political cleavages 1029 Political Violence political violence the use of force by states or nonstate actors to achieve political goals terrorism undermines state legitimacy eliminate all members of particular ethnic religious or national groups through mass murder revolution armed conflict within a Russian Revolution revolutions are civil wars in sovereign state between which the insurgents win insurgents and the state in which both the state and the insurgents claim the allegiance of a significant proportion of the population authority over the state is is forcibly transferred from the state to the insurgents and the insurgents subsequently bring about wholesale political change civil war armed combat within the Syria in the Arab Spring most largescale political boundaries of a sovereign state violence since WWII has taken between parties that are subject place within states rather than to common authority at the start between them of hostilities terrorism threatened or actual use of PFLP hijacking airplanes logic to terrorism by violence for political purposes understanding the logic states by nonstate actors directed can work to find the most particularly against civilian effective deterrent targets genocide a coordinated plan seeking to Rwanda classification of genocide often is accompanied by a demand for international intervention thus these circumstances hardly involve only the victims and the leader 1031 Institutional Stability and Change in the UK Westminster model the United Kingdom democratic system of governance also seen in India successful system of a full fledged long standing democracy conducive to change parliamentary sovereignty principle that all power in the UK comes from Parliament In actuality this means that the majority party in Parliament has sovereignty and can legislate and execute policies at will UK Parliament Parliamentary sovereignty allows for rapid changes in government policy because the system lacks checks and balances Tony Blair Definititon Significance reformed Labour Party into New British Prime Minister 19972007 Labour Margaret Thatcher British Prime Minister credited with remaking the Tory 19791990 Party introduces neo liberalism and vigorous anti statism David Cameron current British Prime Minister formed a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats Labour Party moderate leftist party that represents the working class and supports the welfare state one of the major parties in the UK s two party system Conservative Party Tories generally advocates for lower taxes and smaller government represents capitalists and the privileged associated with paternalism one of the major parties in the UK s two party system Liberal Democratic Party social economic liberals received 23 of the vote in the 2010 election which led to the creation of a coalition government New Labour Third Way result of Tony Blair s reforms rejected leftright division embraced market solutions role for statesocial justice new version of one of the major parties in the UK s two party system 115 Russia Deepening Authoritarianism triple transition the postcommunist transition included geographic transitions economic transitions and political transitions 39 larger state to smaller state 39 shock therapy 39 semipresidential system shows that the communist regime was not localized to the political sphere it affected all aspects of the state shock therapy a program of rapid economic Postcommunism Russian shows priority of liberalization intended to economy industrialization introduce market mechanisms in place of state control inequality the extent of the gap between gap between the Russian elite one of the costs of shock the rich and the poor and the lower class therapy Vladmire Putin current president of Russia uses managed democracy to maintain power while loosely governing the country oligarchs name given in Russia in 1990s to a small group of businessmen who used connections to state officials to enrich themselves and then to take control of the state itself Mafia show absence of rule of law and abundance of corruption managed democracy regime is not authoritarian but not democratic either it seeks to imitate an authoritarian regime through rigged elections Russia 117 Guest Lecture Russia and the Ukraine Crisis 1112 China A Booming Economy under Dictatorship preserves power with least amount of effort Mao Zedong Definititon born in 1893 son of a well to do peasant personified the Chinese Communist Party which he helped found in 1921 and led until his death in 1976 Significance blended communist ideas of Marx and Lenin with his own to incorporate the peasantry Deng Xiaoping architect of the reform era facilitated economic reform which may eventually transition the country to democracy Xi Jingping current president of China tightened control on the state resiliences vs last gasp of the partystate Chinese Communist Party Leninist single party apparatus and single most powerful institution in China since 1949 dominates the partysate Cultural Revolution 19661976 Mao mobilized young people against technocrats and sent many elites to the countryside to reconnect with the strife of the peasantry period of totalitarian rule weeded out many top leaders Tiananmen Square May 4th 1919 Chinese students intellectuals and others protest the cession of several Chinese territories hitherto held by Germany to Japan state response to protest shows that political reform was not on the agenda 1114 Mexico Fragile Political Institutions Mexican Revolution after Porfirio Diaz reneged on his promise to hold free elections in 1911 Francisco I Madero led a revolt against his dictatorial rule resulted in the 1917 Constitution was a movement of the elites and the masses 1917 Constitution created a federal system checks and balances between the executive and legislative branches of government and an independent judiciary also included extensive labor rights and a system of communal land ownership The 1917 Constitution sets up liberal institutions and establishes a commitment to social inclusion and progress Mexican miracle 19401970 when the Mexican economy grew 6 percent annually on a average based on a strategy that called for heavy state intervention in the economy driven by the social commitment in the 1917 Constitution PRI Institutional Revolutionary Party focused on maintaining power no real firm ideology coopted elites and social groups was deeply intwined with the state had a handle on the drug cartels Definititon Significance PAN National Action Party formed as lost control of the state to the a reaction to leftwing policies of drug cartels see Mexico PRI President made up of articles conservative businessmen and intellectuals Felipe Calderon elected President in 2006 PAN Presidency defined by lost in 2012 to PRI candidate crackdown on drug cartels led offensive against the drug traffickers Enrique Pe a Nieto elected President in 2012 PRI most attractive candidate in current President 2012 election because of his party affiliation stateled economic strategy of economic Mexico largely ineffective forced into development development that gives the neoliberal reform by the IMF government a central role as the promoter of capital formation the government rather than the market decides where to direct investment resources drug war extremely grisly violence as a the drug war is causing the result of conflicts involving the state to lose its monopoly on numerous drug cartels the use of legitimate force operating in Mexico 1119 Nigeria Oil Ethnic Conflict and Corruption Republic of Biafra a majority Ibo state in the shows ethnic conflict in Nigeria southeast of Nigeria that escalated by presence of oil seceded from the remainder of the country in 1967 was reabsorbed into the country in 1970 after a brutal civil war that killed more than a million people Niger Delta an oil rich region in the south of conflict over the area shows the Nigeria which has suffered from resource curse at work severe pollution related to the extraction of oil and years of fighting between insurgents and government forces Sani Abacha Nigeria s most repressive corruption props up the neo military dictator who assumed patrimonial state power in a coup in 1993 and ruled until his death in 1998 Goodluck Jonathan accidentally became election of 2011 was the fairest President reelected in 2011 election but also the most violent the northern and southern regions of the country were extremely divided Boko Haram extremely violent militant shows the state s loss of lslamist group monopoly on the use of legitimate force political patronage Definititon the distribution of state resources such as government jobs or private goods to ordinary citizens in exchange for their political support Nigeria political relationships tend to be clientpatron relationships Significance undermines the legitimacy of the state 1121 Puzzles of Indian Democracy Mohandas Gandhi the inspirational architect of non violent resistance to colonial rule helped transform Congress into a mass party in the 1920s and was the conscience of the nationalist campaign until his assassination by a Hindu nationalist militant in January 1948 instrumental in uniting India social customs sanctioned by religion Nehru one of the major Congress chose democracy over Party leaders in the fight for industrialization heavily freedom and independent impacted the state s political future caste inherited divisions attached to basis of political mobilization Indian Administrative Service the most elite and prestigious of allIndia civil service the IAS staffs virtually all of the most senior positions in state and central governments as well as many state enterprises It is recruited mainly through a national and very competitive annual examination though some places in each state s IAS cadre are also reserved for promotees from the state s own civil service decline in prestige reflects the better opportunities in the private sector BJP Hindu Nationalism strong assertive policy of emphasizing Hindufuva or Hinduness in politics and is often seen as hostile to minorities opposes secular norm in Indian politics Congress Party founded as an elite organization devoted to greater Indian representation in government transformed by Gandhi and Nehru in the 1920s into a mass organization demanding self government for India fosters national unity statenation Thanksgiving state acknowledges the existence of many different nations within its borders encourages loyalty to the state India more realistic model manages tensions better than repression Definititon 123 Revolution and Religion in Iran Significance Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Shah 19411979 open to the West ousted by the 1979 Revolution democratic interlude during rule fostered debate and united Marxists and clerics by their hatred of the West and modernization goal Guardian Council a group of 12 senior scholars of Islamic jurisprudence and civil law who determine whether the laws and actions of government officials are in conformity with Islamic principles shows the role of religion in the regime Mahmoud Ahmadinejad popularly elected president hard line towards the West crackdown on dissenters social conservatism Ahmadinejad was not supposed to win the election but he did Ayatollah Khomeini leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution brought about the revolution Mohammad Khatami elected president in 1997 and then again in 2001 Khatami was not supposed to win the election but he did Velayate Faqih theory of Islamic governance in Iran set forth by Ayatollah Khomeini in which the just Islamic society is led by the highest religious jurist who is the final arbiter on all matters of governance shows role of religion in the regime Revolutionary Guard branch of military founded after the revolution in Iran to advance Islamic revolutionary principles and to prevent internal dissident by enforcing moral codes purpose is to protect regime from military shows divide in the regime
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