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Socio Anth Midterm SG

by: Nangesian Lekilit Waters

Socio Anth Midterm SG Anth 1002( Grinker, Social Anthropology)

Nangesian Lekilit Waters
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Prof. Grinker

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About this Document

Compiled from my notes in class and discussion that I had already posted. Also used an online source
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Prof. Grinker
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nangesian Lekilit Waters on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 1002( Grinker, Social Anthropology) at George Washington University taught by Prof. Grinker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/14/15
Midterm exam will consist of two Concepts Processes and People terms You will explain the term and its signi cance to the study of anthropology Please refer to your syllabus for an example and an explanation of the level of detail and analysis that these questions require Pay close attention to the models both of identification and significance Please keep in mind that these terms might appear in other domains of life but your answers on the midterm must relate strictly to the course readings and lectures and must refer to actual examples from the texts assigned in the course You may only refer to personal examples in an attempt to support explanations rooted in the text The bulk of your response should re ect your understanding of course material You will be given three of the following Concepts Processes and People Of the three that will appear on your exam you will choose two to answer Social Fact social norms Durkheim things that society says we should be doing or how we should be living every way of acting fixed or not general in society decisions are colored by society raised in culture widesociety wide going against social facts can lead to some sort of sanction in society Durkheim social facts are everything of social or cultural nature which work to determine an individual39s life Social facts can be social norms values conventions rules and other social structures a way of thinking acting they exert power on individuals they are things sui generis created by humans Reciprocity One of the three processes of gift givingGiving Receiving Reciprocity The exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value between two parties Generalized reciprocity a type of exchange between closelyrelated people without expectation of returnex parent to child o Balancedor symmetrical reciprocity a mode of exchange between loosely related individuals or groups expectation that something of equal value will be offered in return Maus mauss is interested in engaging in a relationship thru gift givingthere39s a system of reciprocity that exists o renew and think of relationships thru the system of reciprocitythat39s what Mauss wants exchange involves more than goods and servicespeople and symbols o empirical method in ethnographic research tracing movement of exchanges in society eX potlatchset of rituals in which people gathered their gifts for competitive giving Potlatch was a North American type of giving Hau Studied by Mauss hau how does the hau work in the giving of taonga maori example object is not valuable in itself but for what it represents symbolically the object is both desirable and dangerous it has to circulate and not be kept circulation signifiers honor and power and the higher up the o circulation the more honor and power the more you give and receive the more respected you are Claude LeviStrauss studied kinship and blood relations classificationhow we classify people matrilateral cross cousin marriage people prefer marrying their multilateral cross cousins you marry your mother39s brother39s daughter classificatory kin someone that39s not your kin but you can consider a kin known for structuralismthe way of organizing things culture operates within a structure that people know but are unaware of there39s a word and there39s a signifier that means one thing structuralism is used in different disciplines including analyzing language myth he looks at all myths to see similarities breaks down myths into columnssimilar meanings uses Oedipus myth goal is to help us see what the myth is doing and why it includes that sort of thing in European culture there39s a myth or story that starts quotonce upon a timequot and ends with quothappily every after some of the things include good defeats evil dreams do come true LeviStrauss was not a good fieldworker he didn39t like it people told him about their day to day mundane stuff he didn39t want that he just wanted to find out how the mind worked and that doesn39t happen when people have feuds he thought maybe he could get down to it thru the study of languages culture could be understood as a kind of language Ferdinand De Sausser39s linguistic in uenced Strauss the most LeviStraus says maybe the same way that people study culture he can use to study culture perhaps culture is organized much the same way that language is to mean one thing or another He loved linguistics because it helped him de ne certain things for instance how people relate to one another Strauss was interested in the way the human brain works which will help us understand human nature he was very interested in mythology getting in the essence of human mind he39s looking at the unconscious structures of culture a structural analysis can yield things that one has never seen before Functionalism functionalism is a response to things that structuralism failed to answer structural functionalism Radcliffe Brown looks at how things imagination involve certain groups of people response to Durkheim response to the views anthropologists in the 20s 30s 40s had functionalists wanted to show how ideas and behaviors interact in a society to form a system functionalists went out and looked at what people were doing learned their language lived with them functionalism Behaviors serve a function in society eX witchcraft in the Azande a porter makes perfect pots but he does somethings like sleeping with his wife when he39s supposed to abstain therefore witchcraft came into context they are rational but the rationality isn39t sufficient so they choose witchcraft o functionalism rationalize behaviors of non western people these people are not stupid they just have a different way of thinking it doesn39t just say they do not know what is going on like the western people would think structuralfunctionalism behaviours serve a function and the function reenforces social structures o eXpands more on functionalism making it better o a mind of functionalism that focuses on how societies maintain social structures primarily kinship systems focus is not on con ict or change as much as consensus and reproduction of the system over time Bene ts of Functionalism customs and beliefs are quotrationalquot or logical in context helped to dismantle evolutionism importance of kinship especially unilinear descent as social structure not just social relationships emphasis on the whole kinship econ politics etc as separable only as analytic constructs Criticism the main criticisms of functionalism are c l confuses causes and consequences o 2 functionalism eXplains stability but not change 3 lack of attention to power and agency Segmentary Lineage lineage draws the ethnographer39s attention to politics and tension and compleXity of men39s relationships to one another relationships helped anthros see that data didn39t come from objectivity but from a dialogic relationships in reality books are produced by a set of relationships between anthro and the people they live with EvansPritchard segmentary lineage system Nuer stability and regulation in acephalousstateless societies rationality and quotwitch craftquotAzande Liminality In Turner s Rites de Passage he talks about a time in an indiVidual s life when you dont fit into that society talks about three stages 1 separation 2 marginliminality 3 aggregation he focuses on the middle part that transitions you into the society liminality a lot of things can happen talks about the Ndembu people in Zambia at this phase because you aren39t in society you are not made to participate in society and also cant participate the way that one would in the future post liminality depending on culture and ritual the process can be long Joking Relationships RadBrown joking relationships take off tensions in families ex in laws joking relationships keep peace in society when you joke with each other you developed a new kind of relationship that brings you together combo of friendliness and antagonism makes other social contexts hostile social order based on relationships joking 2 people in a relationship one is by custom allowed to joe with the there and the other cant take offense 2 types symmetrical each person can make fun assymetrical only one makes fun it builds up kinships joke with grandparent to reenforce generational structure and to remove that age difference that might be caused in a kinship Bushong a society that Mary Douglass wrote about comparing them to the Lele people live on the Kasau river in DRC in the jungle area economic activities are embedded in society everything the Lele do the Bushong do better the Bushong work earlier and retire later authority structures age of marriage all different we cant explain them only in terms of people always want to maximize to what extent is this economic situation better explainable in a context that people always want as much as they can or looking at values Bushong and Lele live different lives making the Bushong richer than Lele Bushong are far hardworking while Lele are not at all Environmentally the Lele live in an area that has less fertile soil but there are limits to society thus the differences if you are in a small group of people there isn39t a major need to have tech development to some extent you need a large community to invent or use these tech developments How these societies are different o Bushong had stronger and better made houses Bushong are better shers they invest in canoes and nets Agri Bushong have a rotation system with their plants there are a lot of ways that these people are different reasons why the Lele dont care c not much incentive to work p l 10 Bushong move up by being successful workers so they work hard o p l l l Lele when they get to a certain age they get status there39s no incentive for the Lele to do hard work because it doesn39t depend on status wives status not hard work the Bushing are monogamous and Lele polygamous p 113 Bushong are peaceful dont have problems with neighbours Bushong make effort on individual effort Thick Description Geertz is pushing anthropologists to consider what comprises interpretive anthro one that interprets meaning from what people do moves away from just seeing it as science science and starts to view it as an interpretive science gets the idea of quotthick descriptionquot from a philosopher Lists parameters to thick description 1 interpretive practice that should trace manner in which meaning is ascribed raw collected data isn39t enough need thick description 2 subject of interpretation observable discourseis the ow of social discourse interperative ethnography should produce codes required for decoding social events 3 documents discourse as dataevidence deals with extrovert expressions data and interpretation is limited to what local informants tell 4 microscopic describe local behaviours and truths anthropology requires looking close in order to interpret well he says what we need is thick description to interpret meaning in thick description you give contextual things from back ground knowledge and includes keeping the environment in mind goes beyond facts that are deeper facts dont suffice Deep Play related Belanese Cockfight stakes are so high that there39s no reason one should be doing it gain isn39t worth the risk utilitarian ethics based on utility and usefulness people think everything you do should serve a purpose and should be rational the Balinese get involved because they39re more worried about the STATUS than the status if you win you get status but that39s not allit39s part of their culture p 7475 culture you always bet for village kin feuds can be symboliceither against or for brings villages togethersocial act money not seen as lost there39s hope that you can get it back Hasham quothonor of the weakquot shame of being in the face of somebody that is higher that you in society ie women in Bedouin society Hasham refers to both the internal state of shyness and shame which leads to the outward expression of behaviors of selfeffacement which includes veiling dressing modestly and aspects of demeanor such as formal posture restraint of eating smoking talking laughing and most importantly the denial of sexuality httpsc22l8wikifoundrycompagePoliticsofLove inBedouinSociety Lila Abu Lughod these way of thinking helps people to have an explanation assignedtypically men v unassignedtypically women because Abu was interested in women she saw a diff aspect of power she was interested in how people dealt with power and authority outside these political structures matriarchy and matrilineal society dont mean the same things assigned authorities tend to be exercised thru men connection with Bedouin Moral code honor of the weak women s submission to those with power over them should be given freely not forced a woman is powerful and independent so she follows moral code she39s in control of her sexuality p34 to have moral worth they must show modesty hasham


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