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GWU / Sociology / ANTH 1002 / what type of reciprocity that exchange between closely-related people,

what type of reciprocity that exchange between closely-related people,

what type of reciprocity that exchange between closely-related people,


School: George Washington University
Department: Sociology
Course: Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Professor: Grinker
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Socio Anth Midterm SG
Description: Compiled from in class notes and discussion notes that I had previous posted. Some found online. ****Teacher's instructions on the exam included****
Uploaded: 10/14/2015
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Midterm exam will consist of two “Concepts, Processes, and People” terms. You will explain the term and its  significance to the study of anthropology. Please refer to your syllabus for an example and an explanation of the  level of detail and analysis that these questions require. Pay close attention to the models both of identification and  significance.

what type of reciprocity that exchange between closely-related people, without expectation of return?

Please keep in mind that these terms might appear in other domains of life, but your answers on the midterm must  relate strictly to the course readings and lectures, and must refer to actual examples from the texts assigned in the  course. You may only refer to personal examples in an attempt to support explanations rooted in the text. The bulk  of your response should reflect your understanding of course material.  

You will be given three of the following “Concepts, Processes, and People.” Of the three that will appear on your  exam, you will choose two to answer.

Social Fact:  

*social norms- Durkheim  

• things that society says we should be doing or how we should be living  • every way of acting, fixed or not, general in society  

• decisions are colored by society raised in  

who is the linguistic influenced Strauss the most?

• culture wide.....society wide

• going against social facts can lead to some sort of sanction in society  • Durkheim: social facts are everything of social or cultural nature which work  to determine an individual's life. Social facts can be social norms, values,  conventions, rules and other social structures.

• a way of thinking, acting  

• they exert power on individuals  

• they are things “sui generis’, created by humans


• One of the three processes of gift giving(Giving, Receiving, Reciprocity)  • The exchange of goods and services, of approximately equal value, between two  parties

• Generalized reciprocity - a type of exchange between closely-related people;  without expectation of return(ex. parent to child) If you want to learn more check out cs1331 gatech

• Balanced(or symmetrical) reciprocity- a mode of exchange between loosely related individuals or groups; expectation that something of equal value will be  offered in return

who wrote about comparing bushong to the lele people?

• Maus  

• mauss is interested in engaging in a relationship thru gift giving..there's a  system of reciprocity that exists

• renew and think of relationships thru the system of reciprocity....that's what  Mauss wants  

• exchange involves more than goods and services(people and symbols)

• empirical method in ethnographic research  

• tracing movement of exchanges in society  

• ex. potlatch-set of rituals in which people gathered their gifts for  competitive giving  

• Potlatch was a North American type of giving  


Studied by Mauss  

hau- how does the hau work in the giving of taonga?  We also discuss several other topics like fevzi iyigun

• maori example; object is not valuable in itself, but for what it represents  symbolically  

• the object is both desirable and dangerous  

• it has to circulate and not be kept  

• circulation signifiers honor and power and the higher up the • circulation the more honor and power

• the more you give and receive, the more respected you are  

Claude Lévi-Strauss

• studied kinship and blood relations  

• classification(how we classify people)  

• matrilateral cross cousin marriage: people prefer marrying their multilateral  cross cousins  

• you marry your mother's brother's daughter  We also discuss several other topics like a "runup map" shows where

• classificatory kin- someone that's not your kin but you can consider a kin.  • known for structuralism(the way of organizing things)

• culture operates within a structure that people know but are unaware of  • there's a word and there's a signifier that means one thing

• structuralism is used in different disciplines including analyzing language  • myth: he looks at all myths to see similarities  

• breaks down myths into columns---similar meanings uses Oedipus myth  • goal is to help us see what the myth is doing and why it includes that sort of  thing We also discuss several other topics like hexadecimal numbering uses ____ as its base or radix.

• in European culture, there's a myth or story that starts "once upon a time" and  ends with "happily every after”  

• some of the things include; good defeats evil, dreams do come true • Levi-Strauss was not a good fieldworker, he didn't like it

• people told him about their day to day mundane stuff  

• he didn't want that, he just wanted to find out how the mind worked and that  doesn't happen when people have feuds

• he thought maybe he could get down to it thru the study of languages  • culture could be understood as a kind of language  

• Ferdinand De Sausser's linguistic influenced Strauss the most  • Levi-Straus says maybe the same way that people study culture he can use to  study culture  We also discuss several other topics like uconn social psychology

• perhaps culture is organized much the same way that language is to mean one  thing or another  

• He loved linguistics because it helped him define certain things for instance  how people relate to one another

• Strauss was interested in the way the human brain works which will help us  understand human nature

• he was very interested in mythology, getting in the essence of human mind • he's looking at the unconscious structures of culture  

a structural analysis can yield things that one has never seen before  


***functionalism is a response to things that structuralism failed to answer***  structural functionalism: Radcliffe Brown  

looks at how things (imagination) involve certain groups of people  • response to Durkheim; response to the views anthropologists in the 20s, 30s, 40s,  had  

• functionalists wanted to show how ideas and behaviors interact in a society to  form a system If you want to learn more check out rels 1000 textbook notes

• functionalists went out and looked at what people were doing; learned their  language, lived with them

• functionalism: Behaviors serve a function in society, ex. witchcraft in the Azande  • a porter makes perfect pots but he does somethings like sleeping with his wife  when he's supposed to abstain, therefore, witchcraft came into context  • they are rational but the rationality isn't sufficient so they choose witchcraft  • functionalism: rationalize behaviors of non western people  

• these people are not stupid, they just have a different way of thinking  • it doesn't just say they do not know what is going on like the western people  would think  

• structural-functionalism : behaviours serve a function and the function  reenforces social structures  

• expands more on functionalism making it better  

• a mind of functionalism that focuses on how societies maintain social  structures, primarily kinship systems

• focus is not on conflict or change as much as consensus and reproduction of  the system over time  

• Benefits of Functionalism  

• customs and beliefs are "rational" or logical in context  

• helped to dismantle evolutionism  

• importance of kinship, especially unilinear descent, as social structure not just  social relationships  

• emphasis on the whole  

• kinship, econ, politics, etc. as separable only as analytic constructs  • Criticism: the main criticisms of functionalism are:

• 1. confuses causes and consequences  

• 2. functionalism explains stability, but not change  

• 3. lack of attention to power and agency  

Segmentary Lineage

• lineage draws the ethnographer's attention to politics and tension and complexity  of men's relationships to one another  

• relationships helped anthros see that data didn't come from objectivity but from a  dialogic relationships  

• in reality books are produced by a set of relationships between anthro and the  people they live with  

• Evans-Pritchard  

• segmentary lineage system (Nuer): stability and regulation in  acephalous(stateless) societies  

• rationality and "witch craft"(Azande)  


• In Turner’s ‘Rites de Passage’, he talks about a time in an individual’s life when  you dont fit into that society

• talks about three stages  

1. separation  

2. margin(liminality)  

3. aggregation  

• he focuses on the middle part that transitions you into the society…liminality  • a lot of things can happen  

• talks about the Ndembu people in Zambia

• at this phase, because you aren't in society, you are not made to

• participate in society and also cant participate the way that one would in the  future post liminality  

• depending on culture and ritual, the process can be long  

Joking Relationships:

• Rad-Brown, joking relationships take off tensions in families ex. in laws  • joking relationships keep peace in society  

• when you joke with each other, you developed a new kind of relationship that  brings you together  

• combo of friendliness and antagonism +makes other social contexts hostile  • social order= based on relationships  

• joking: 2 people in a relationship, one is by custom allowed to joe with the there  and the other cant take offense  

• 2 types:  

• symmetrical- each person can make fun  

• assymetrical - only one makes fun  

• it builds up kinships

• joke with grandparent to reenforce generational structure and to remove that  age difference that might be caused in a kinship  


• a society that Mary Douglass wrote about comparing them to the Lele people  • live on the Kasau river in DRC in the jungle area  

• economic activities are embedded in society  

• everything the Lele do, the Bushong do better

• the Bushong work earlier and retire later  

• authority structures, age of marriage, all different  

• we cant explain them only in terms of people always want to maximize  • to what extent is this economic situation better explainable in a context that  people always want as much as they can or looking at values  

• Bushong and Lele live different lives making the Bushong richer than Lele  • Bushong are far hardworking while Lele are not at all  

• Environmentally, the Lele live in an area that has less fertile soil but there are  limits to society, thus the differences  

• if you are in a small group of people, there isn't a major need to have tech  development

• to some extent you need a large community to invent or use these tech  developments  

• How these societies are different  

• Bushong had stronger and better made houses  

• Bushong are better fishers ; they invest in canoes and nets  

• Agri: Bushong have a rotation system with their plants  

• there are a lot of ways that these people are different  

• reasons why the Lele dont care:  

• not much incentive to work  

• p.110- Bushong move up by being successful workers, so they work hard  • p.111- Lele: when they get to a certain age, they get status  

• there's no incentive for the Lele to do hard work because it doesn't depend on  status…wives= status, not hard work

• the Bushing are monogamous and Lele polygamous  

• p. 113- Bushong are peaceful, dont have problems with neighbours  • Bushong make effort on individual effort  

Thick Description:

• Geertz is pushing anthropologists to consider what comprises  • interpretive anthro- one that interprets meaning from what people do  • moves away from just seeing it as science science and starts to view it as an  interpretive science  

• gets the idea of "thick description" from a philosopher  

• Lists parameters to thick description  

1. interpretive : practice that should trace manner in which meaning is  ascribed….raw collected data isn't enough, need thick description  2. subject of interpretation (observable) discourse:is the flow of social discourse:  interperative ethnography should produce codes required for decoding social  events  

3. documents discourse as data/evidence (deals with extrovert expressions): data  and interpretation is limited to what local informants tell  

4. microscopic: describe local behaviours and truths

• anthropology requires looking close in order to interpret well • he says what we need is thick description to interpret meaning  • in thick description, you give contextual things from back ground knowledge,  and includes keeping the environment in mind  

• goes beyond facts that are deeper, facts dont suffice

Deep Play:

• related Belanese Cockfight  

• stakes are so high that there's no reason one should be doing it • gain isn't worth the risk  

• utilitarian; ethics based on utility and usefulness. people think everything you do  should serve a purpose and should be rational

• the Balinese get involved because they're more worried about the STATUS than  the $$$$

• status; if you win, you get status, but that's not all...it's part of their culture p. 74-75

• culture; you always bet for village, kin, feuds can be symbolic(either against or  for), brings villages together....social act  

• money; not seen as lost, there's hope that you can get it back  


• "honor of the weak"; shame of being in the face of somebody that is higher  that you in society (ie. women in Bedouin society)

• Hasham, refers to “both the internal state of shyness and shame” which leads  to the outward expression of behaviors of self-effacement which includes  veiling, dressing modestly and aspects of “demeanor such as formal posture,  restraint of eating, smoking, talking, laughing” and most importantly, the  denial of sexuality. - http://sc2218.wikifoundry.com/page/Politics+of+Love +in+Bedouin+Society 

• Lila Abu Lughod  

• these way of thinking helps people to have an explanation  

• assigned(typically men) v. unassigned(typically women)  

• because Abu was interested in women, she saw a diff aspect of power  

• she was interested in how people dealt with power and authority outside these  political structures  

• matriarchy and matrilineal society dont mean the same things

• assigned authorities tend to be exercised thru men

• connection with Bedouin Moral code  

• honor of the weak  

• women’s submission to those with power over them should be given freely, not  forced  

• a woman is powerful and independent, so she follows moral code  • she's in control of her sexuality  

• p,34- to have moral worth, they must show modesty -hasham

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