Motor Skill Development Quiz 4 Study Guide
Motor Skill Development Quiz 4 Study Guide PHED 21200
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lena Sargenti on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHED 21200 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Hongwei Guan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Motor Skill Development in Physical Education at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
Lena Sargenti MSD Quiz 4 Walking Prewalkino movement crawling creeping rolling locomotion with hands held Walking Gait cycle or walking cycle distance covered by two heel strikes of the same foot Phases of Gait Cvcle Swing Phase begins when the foot or toes of one leg leave the supporting surface and ends when the heel or foot of the same leg recontacts the ground Support Phase the time when balance is maintained on only one foot Single support phase Ex right foot is in swing phase while left foot is in support phase Double support phase when both feet are in contact with the supporting surface Walking development infant must have suf cient leg strength to support the body weight and be capable of maintaining a state of equilibrium Independent walking requires Leg strength Equilibrium phase based on structure of the movement Movement pattern of independent walking Initial movement pattern short quick rigid steps toes point outward and the infant assumes a wide base of support In addition the infant makes a atfooted contact with the ground instead of heeltotoe and carrys the arms in a high guard position arms are rigid they do not swing freely in opposition to the legs This is most commonly seen in children by 12 months of age normal range 917 months As balance improves the infant will bring its legs closer together Toeing out decreases during the rst 4 years of life and then remains fairly stable during the teens Factors affecting Walking walking with external loads walking with and without shoes Running The natural extension of walking characterized by an alternate support phase ight phase and recovery phase Support phase leg absorbs the impact of the striking foot supports the body and maintains forward motion while accelerating the body39s center of gravity as the leg provides thrust to propel the body forward Inexperienced running will strike the ground with the full sole More experienced runner will strike the ground closer to the ball of the foot Flight phase thrust leg calls for more involvement of the hip knee and ankle to provide full extension to generate maximum thrust Recoverv phase once the body has been thrust into the air by the vigorous extension of the support leg the support leg enters a phase of recovery This leg which has been projected backwards must be quickly brought forward to repeat its function in the next running cycle The experienced runner exes the knee so the heel of the foot of the recovery leg comes very close to making contact with the buttock The knee and thigh are then swung forward until the thigh is practically parallel with the running surface In contrast the inexperienced runner does not achieve a degree of knee exion sufficient to bring the heel close to the buttock Similarly insufficient hip exion keeps the thigh from forming a right angle with the body s trunk Running amp arm action Beginning arms are exed and held in high guard position More adult like arms are lowered and hang free but do not help running speed by working in opposition to legs arms swing across midline of body Experienced arms are in opposition to legs elbows exed at 90 degrees vigorous pumping action toward not across midline Factors affecting running muscular strength and balance Two approaches in the analysis of locomotor movement Compartment approach leg and arm action changes that are expected to occur within each body segment also in the book it says component not compartment Total body approach total body con guration Gallahue s Fundamental Movement Phase lnitia Stage rst goal oriented attempts exaggeratedinhibited use of body poor rhythm and temporalspatial sequencing Eementary stage better control rhythm and temporal spatial sequencing still restricted or exaggerated some mature elements missing Mature stage mechanically ef cient coordinated controlled all elements present Jumping A fundamental movement that occurs when the body is projected into the air by force generated in one or both legs and the body lands on one or both feet Hopping a form ofjumping in which the propelling force is generated in one leg and the landing is accomplished on the same leg Leap landing occurs on the nonpropelling leg Vertical jump body is thrust upward Horizontal jump body is propelled both upward and outward 4 phases preparatory takeoff ight and landing Preparatory crouch hip knee and ankle exion and backward swing of arms Takeoff rapid vigorous extension of the hips knees and ankles along with a vigorous swing of the arms in the direction of desired travel Flight vigorous extension launches the body into an airborne phase Landing during the airborne phase the extended legs are brought forward and ahead of the body s center of gravity as landing is anticipated Key is to land with the heel of the foot It is also important to ex the hips knees and ankles again upon landing this is to absorb the force Gallop a forward step followed by a lead onto the trailing foot Same leg always leads Skip forward step followed by a hop on the same foot requires a duel task of one leg there is alternation of the leading leg balance may be dif cult Slide the slide is the same as the gallop except instead of moving forward the slide is performed in a sideways direction Dif cult because the child must face ahead while moving in a sideways direction End of chapter 13 Locomotor skills walk run jump l combination slide hop gallop skip Manipulative throw catch kick dribble strike
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