Test 1 Study Guide!
Test 1 Study Guide! SOP3004
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOP3004 at Florida State University taught by Christopher Beck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Test 2 Study Guide CH 4 68 and Emotions Emotions 1 Affect a The emotional feeling tone or mood attached to an event or thought b Affect is the valence of evaluation towards an event It can either be positive or negative Causes spike is physiological arousal c Patients with damage to the prefrontal corteX are not aroused when presented with dramatic images They also have trouble making everyday decisions d Affect teaches us avoid risky situations because of the possible punishment Patients with prefrontal corteX damage never learn this 2 Theories of Emotion a Emotion is a specific evaluative reaction to an event Mood is a general disposition or state b James Lange Theory i Incorrect ii Our eXperience of emotions is our awareness of physiological responses to emotionally arousing stimuli iii Emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events iv External stimulus gt Physiological reaction gt Interpretation of physical reactions gt Emotional reaction c CannonBard Theory i Incorrect ii Emotions arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective eXperience of emotion iii We feel emotions and eXperience the physiological reactions simultaneously So we react to the stimulus and feel the emotion at the same time d SchachterSinger Theory i Correct ii To experience emotion one must be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the arousal iii AKA two factor theory of emotion iv Physiological arousal and cognitive labeling are the two main components of emotion v Feeling arousal is not enough we must also identify the arousal to eXperience an emotion vi Stimulus gt Physiological Arousal gt Cognitive Appraisal gt Emotion e Misattributing Arousal i When we mistake what is causing us to be aroused ii When arousal arises for one reason but we give it another cognitive label so it produces a different reaction than it would if it was labeled correctly iii We tend to mistake fear arousal for romantic arousal 3 Emotions and Behavior a Old View Emotions are bidimensional i Arousal ii Valence iii The effect on behavior depends on these levels b New View Domain Speci city i The effect of the emotion is dependent on that specific emotions ii Emotions motivate behavior 1 Disgust Avoid disease 2 Sadness Seek social support 3 Sexual Arousal Find a romantic partner 4 Love Maintain a relationship 4 Emotional Expression and Perception a Emotional expressions are universal because they are functional and necessary for survival b People are usually very good at identifying emotion i Cross culturally and cross species as well ii Expectations and stereotypes affect our perception of emotions iii Our own emotional state also affects perception iv Women are quicker and better at judging emotions 5 Displaying Emotion a Factors affecting emotional display i Cultural differences ii Power differences iii Gender differences b Displaying emotion is not the same as what we feel CH4 1 Attitudes a An evaluative reaction toward someone or something It could be favorable unfavorable indifferent ambivalent etc Attitudes are different than beliefs Attitudes are poor predictors of behaviors changing attitudes does not cause a change in behavior Our attitudes will predict our behavior is other in uences are minimized the attitude corresponds closely with the predicted behaviors and the attitude is potent Attitudes come from i Affect A person39s feelings or emotions about the subject ii Behavior The way the attitude we have in uences how we act and behave iii Cognition The person39s beliefs or knowledge about the subject Feelings in uence attitudes because they are evaluative reactions The Mere Exposure Effect i Likeability increases with more eXposure ii More pleasant associations develop iii Subliminal eXposure has this effect as well 2 Cognition and Attitude a Cognition in uences attitudes i People have beliefs about the properties of the subject ii People like information that is easier to process 1 Negative and ugly things are harder to process 2 If something is easier to read then people will have more positive attitudes towards it They think it is true and enjoy reading it more 3 1e when a recipe is easier to people rate it as half as difficult and day it will take half as long They also are more willing to try it iii Rhyming is easier to read and easier to remember so people think a rhyming statement is more true 3 Behaviorally Based Attitudes a b An attitude based on observations of how one behaves towards the subject Self Perception Theory People do not know how they feel until they see how they behave Classical conditioning is behavioral attitude formation i Pair something we already like or dislike with a neutral stimuli ii Once we learn the association the previously neutral stimuli will now be associated with the good or bad feelings Operant Conditioning i Developing a positive attitude towards behaviors that are rewarded Social Learning Learn attitudes through observation i ie You see others having fun playing a game and you think you will have fun as well 4 Consequences of Attitudes a They tend to cause bias b Attitude Polarization Our attitudes become more extreme by convincing ourselves that we are right c Attitudes are strong vested interests 5 Measuring Attitudes a Dual Attitudes i Explicit Attitudes Controlled and conscious evaluative responses 1 Predicted verbal behavior and explicit behavior 2 Come from recent experiences 3 You can simply just ask for an explicit attitudes because they are affected by social desirability They are measured in creative ways ii Implicit Attitudes Autonomic unconscious evaluative responses 1 Predicted nonverbal behavior 2 Come from early experiences iii There is a weak relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes is very weak potentially because of social desirability b IAT tests measures these by measuring accuracy and reaction time i The easier pairings and faster responses are taken to indicated stronger unconscious associations c GNAT tests measure implicit attitudes by only hitting space bar when you see positive words or attractive women i Priming is also used d Developmental Source Hypotheses Implicit attitudes stem from past and are likely forgotten experiences of childhood Explicit attitudes come from recent experiences 6 Cognitive Dissonance a When behaviors and attitudes are inconsistent causes cognitive dissonance which is an unpleasant state of psychological arousal which makes us change something to reduce dissonance b It is easier to change attitudes because we can not take back behavior c Attitude change is more likely if there is insufficient justification for a behavior CH 6 l Conformity a A change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure b Can be good or bad ii iii 1 Waiting in line for your turn 2 Tipping 3 Showing team spirit 1 Drinking and driving 2 Joining in racist behavior Indifferent 1 Clothing choice c Views are often dependent on culture We conform because of mirror neurons They are activated when we watch others Chameleon Effect Our behavior passively and unintentionally changes to mimic those we are around We like this f Informational In uence Our behavior is shaped by the evidence about reality we get from others 2 The Classics a Sherif i ii iii iv b Asch ii iii iv vi Visual Perception experiment Subjects sat in a dark room and viewed a light Then asked how much it moved 1 Alone 2 Groups of 3 Took advantage of autokinetic effect A xed light from a dark view would appear to move around erratically Individual estimates will begin to conform to group norms Informational In uence Sherif 1 People assume the majority is correct 2 Private acceptance Join 6 other people sitting at a table for a visual perception task Indicate which of 3 comparison lines is identical to a standard line and give answer out loud Confederates gave wrong answer to questions 37 of people conformed with rest of group even though they were obviously wrong 75 of people conformed at least once Normative In uence Asch 1 People fear social rejection 2 Public compliance 3 People Conform Because a Unanimity i Agreeing with other people involved As long as there is one other person we are more likely to join them b Cohesion i Extent to which members of a group are bound together ii We are more in uenced by those who we feel close too c Status i Higher status people have more impact d Public Response i People conform when responses are given publicly e Group Size i The more people doing something the more likely we are to conform 4 Obedience a Acting in accord to a direct order or command b Milgram experiments i Participant is the teacher and confederate is the learner ii Teacher shocks learner for errors iii A shocking number of people gave harmful shocks just because they were told to iv The proximity and authority of the authority figure effected how much the participants shocked the confederate c People respond to orders from authority figures and person39s dressed like authority figures more often People also response quicker to wealthy figures d Signals from authority figures evoke difference because we assume they are right e We sometimes blindly follow authority f Power of the Situation i Evil comes from social forces CH7 1 Persuasion a Real life examples i Politics ii Purchasing iii Getting out of sticky situations iv Getting into good situations b 2 Routes to Persuasion Elaboration Likelihood Model i Central Route When interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts 1 Deep processing 2 Audience is analytical and motivated 3 Processing is high elaborate and includes agreement 4 Cogent arguments evoke enduring argument ii Peripheral Route When people are in uenced by incidental cues This is shallow processing 1 Audience is not analytical or involved 2 Processing is low effort and uses peripheral cues and heuristics 3 Cues trigger liking and acceptance but may only be temporary iii We choose the central route when 1 We are highly involved 2 The issue is relevant 3 We are motivated 4 When we are able to pay close attention to the arguments 5 Causes long term attitude changes iv We choose the peripheral route when 1 We are not as focused 2 The issue is not relevant 3 We are not motivated 4 When we can not pay close attention to the argument 5 We use heuristics 6 Causes short term attitude changes 2 Elements of Persuasion a The Communicator Who presents the argument i Credibility 1 Expertise Knowledgeable rate of speech confidence 2 Trustworthiness Look in eye argue against self interest ii Attractiveness and Liking 1 Physical Attractiveness 2 Similarity a Subjective preference We like similar better b Objective fact We like experts better b The Message i Reason is more persuasive for intellectuals ii Mood when we are in a good mood we are more responsive to persuasive messages Humor good mood Fear Persuasive c How the Message is Communicated i ii Repetition Personal experiences d The Audience 1 ii iii iv Age Forewamed is forearmed Need for cognition Stimulating thinking makes strong messages more persuasive and weak messages less persuasive 3 Persuasive Techniques a Footinthedoor Technique i Gain the target39s compliance with a small task and then ask for a related large one b Lowball Technique i ii Start with low cost request and then reveal hidden fees Get an agreement to a speci c arrangement and then change the terms of the arrangement c Bait and Switch Technique 1 ii Draw people in with an attractive offer but that offer is not actually available only a less attractive offer is Advertise a low price on a particular item describe a course that is unwise say that deal is no longer available then suggest an alternative to switch to with a higher price d Labeling 1 ii iii iv Assign a label to someone and make a suggestionrequest that is consistent with that label You look like the type of person that People respond better to positive labels Assign a target a label then seek compliance with a label consistent request e Maintaining Consistency and The Norm of Reciprocity i Norm of reciprocity we will respond favorably to each other by returning bene ts for bene ts f DoorintheFace Technique i ii Backing down from a larger to a smaller request is a concession They did something nice for us Feel obliged to reciprocate with a concession of their own We should do something nice for them in return g That s Not All Technique i Initial request immediately followed with a discount or bonus h Fast Approaching Deadline Technique 4 Ways to Resist Persuasive Messages a Be alert to product placement i Works because people do not realize they are being in uenced ii Being warned helps b Attitude Inoculation Makes people immune to changing their attitudes by introducing them to a small weak dose of arguments against the position c Reactance Theory i People feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened gt Reactance is aroused gt Perform the threatened behavior CH8 1 Groups a A group is two or more people who interact for more than a few minutes and in uence one another b When you perceive a group you see a single unit instead of the individual members c Factors that determine whether or not we perceive a group are i Proximity ii Similarity iii Shared Fate iv Entitativity How much the group is seen as a single unit 2 Feeling Part of a Group a Minimal Group Paradigm Leads to i Increase liking of ingroup ii Decreased liking of outgroup iii More empathy for ingroup iv Group Serving Bias 1 If they succeed we worked as a team 2 If the fail We had an off day 3 Social Facilitation a The tendency to perform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present b Social inhibition The presence of others makes performance worse because the arousal may impede our ability c EasylWell learned task Others aid in performance i Dominant responses are aided d C DifficultNovel task Others hinder performance i Novel responses are hindered Social Facilitation The strengthening of dominant responses due to the presence of others 4 Social Loa ng a b When people exert less effort when effort is pooled by a group Personal effort decreases in group sizes because people think they are not being evaluated If individuals are evaluated then social facilitation occurs if they are not evaluated social loafmg occurs 5 The Effects of Crowds a b c The presence of others increases arousal and diffuses responsibility People in groups feel anonymous Deindividuation The loss of selfawareness and lack of evaluation apprehension in groups When you are more anonymous you feel less responsible 6 Groupthink a b The thinking that occurs in groups when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant other realistic appraisals are overridden Overestimate the group i Illusion of invulnerability ii Belief in groups mortality Close Minded i Rationalization ii Stereotyped view of opponent Pressure toward uniformity i Conformity ii Selfcensorship iii Mind Guard Those who protect group from information that disagrees with group stance iv Illusion of unanimity Preventing Groupthink i Be impartial Do not begin with a position ii Encourage critical evaluation assign a devil39s advocate iii Occasionally subdivide group and then reunite iv Welcome critiques v Have final meetings to address lingering concerns
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