AFG: test 2
AFG: test 2 P SC 1113 030
Collin County Community College District
Popular in American Federal Government
P SC 1113 030
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Popular in Political Science
P SC 1113
verified elite notetaker
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by elzbietaag on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to P SC 1113 030 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Tyler Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
American Federal Government Test 2 study guide Everything for test 2 0 From joiners to loners gt A nation ofjoiners Robert Putnam s Bowling Alonequot Subtitled the collapse and revival of American communityquot 0 The collapse last quarter of the 20th century 0 The revival online If so implications The 19505 and 1960s Postdepression post WW2 number of community groups increases each year 0 Increasing af uence and education as well 0 Church attendance booms The quotthreat of leisurequot Heeding the call of Kennedy the torch has been passedquot 0 Number of parents who would like to see children go into politics doubles A result problem solving Segregation still the norm 0 New isms rise feminism environmentalism Community improvement takes off proactive versus reactive Social capital what is it 0 Connections between individuals Norms of reciprocity and trust that arise from connections 0 1916 the individual is helpless socially if left to himselfquot 0 Bene ts our personal interests private goodquot 0 Bene ts the world around us Public goodquot Participation transforms post 1970s 0 Serving as an of cer in a cluborganization down 42 Served on a committee down 39 0 Attending a town meeting 35 0 Attending apolitical rally down 34 Signed a petition down 22 0 Social capital and Lobbying gt A nation ofjoiners cont Apolitical changes in the 1970s and 19805 0 Social visiting declines 9 Dinner at your neighbors house 9 Visiting with neighbors Family dinners less common 0 Fast food restaurants up sit down restaurants down 9 Time crunches 0 Card playing down casino gambling up 0 No more monopoly at home now its just penny slots Decline in spending time with neighbors League bowling down thus the quotbowling alonequot metaphor Robert Putnam uses Charitable giving declines What happened Disillusionment war scandal 0 Evolution new ways of doing things 0 Too much bonding within groups not enough bridging across groups Consequences Do you think people in general today lead as good lives honest and moral as they used toquot 0 From 50 in 1952 to 27 in 1998 0 Trust in other declines especially among young people Is Social Capital disappearing Answer probably not as much as we think 0 We re just arriving at the sum in a different way might need new measures 0 Example explosion of singleissue interest groups 0 Example technological effects 0 That said still implications on political world Is there something fundamentally different about our generation that might affect these trends 0 Technology has made us impatient We still do the same things Do you believe organizing in the internet can accomplish the same things that organizing in person can Why or why not 0 Yes we can still exchange information o No engineering clubs for example cant build anything o It just depends on the club Private goods vs public goods Are connections built virtually equally as bene cial How much are politicians politics to blame for how social capital is changing Groups and strategies USA today Gallup question 0 Would you say the government is pretty much run by a few big interests looking out for themselves or that it is run for the bene t of all the peoplequot A question that follows 0 quotDo you think that quite a few of the people running the government are crooked not very many are or hardly any of them are crookedquot Todays goal 0 Get beyond these stereotypes while recognizing that occasionally they exist 0 Develop a broader sense of how lobbying works Beyond direct contact Baumgartner and Leech many think of lobbying as direct contact two people in a room 0 Another assumption lobbying is about getting elected of cials to vote a certain way 0 Reality these instances do exist but lobbying more regularly involves many players many moments Berry s four strategies of lobbying Information Constituency in uence Confrontation Law 0 Lobbying ideology party gt Groups and strategies Lobbying as information Testifying at legislative or agency hearings Conducting and publishing research 0 Holding press conferences Lobbying as constituency in uence and confrontation Building coalitions with other groups Harnessing membership to channel passion toward speci c individuals 0 Protests and boycotts Lobbying as law 0 Filing lawsuits or amicus briefs for court cases Drafting legislation or regulations The Roadblock of collective action 0 The NRA says it has 45 million members Lets say the NRA wanted to lobby someonesomething how many of those members would be willing to do something o If everyone did a little the action would be successful 0 Problem of collective action many have disincentives cant or wont do a little even though they want the end result Burden of creating change shared by few bene ts shared by many more socalled free ridersquot Minimize disincentives Many disincentives time related Solution simpler ways to participate Other disincentives passion related Solution nd new arguments gt Ideology and party identi cation What do liberals believe Ideologies Ideology related set of beliefs about goals of society Also about how to achieve that order Liberalconservative spectrum often used in shorthand by elites Survey ndings on de ning liberal and conservative 1 in 4 spending related answer 1 in 4 capitalism vs social programs answer business vs government 1 in 4 change vs status quo answer 1 in 7 abortion answer moralityreligion answer workingbusiness answer In other words no consensus 0 Parties Old and New Media gt Pa le Party Identi cation An attachment to a political party Term originated with quotMichigan Schoolquot Campbell Converse Miller Stokes Research done across 19505 ask people about their party attachment at regular intervals The most stable of attitudes they found Where does party ID come from Socialization 0 School 9 Peers 9 Family 0 Media Group identi cation quotRunning tallyquot of recent outcomes Why does it change The tally might change An issue might topple it Who leads the party might cause you to rethink What Party ID does Serves as screen for information causing selective exposure Changing relationships with those around us 0 Strong predictor of issue positions Serves as strong cue in voting CCMS funnel of causalityquot argument gt Independents and Third Parties 4 20th Century Independent successes 1912 Theodore Roosevelt gets 274 88 EV electoral votes 1924 Robert Lafollette gets 166 13 EV 1968 George Wallace gets 135 46 EV 1992 Ross Perot gets 19 0 EV Why did they succeed Name recognition Coherent messagemovement Money to spend Roadblocks to third party success 0 Public attachment and record of voting for 1 of 2 parties 0 Voters must see third party as a credible alternative and not just a spoiler Ballot access laws drain time money 0 Democrats and republicans are good at rigging the competition for independents 0 Strange laws that make it hard 0 New party is a startup need candidate organization media and tons of money Cooptation of their ideas by existing parties 0 Their ideas get stolen by existing partiesHOW RUDE What would the message be beyond the existing parties woes 0 Don t vote for the existing parties vote for us What do independents believe 0 Left leaning on some issues and right leaning on other issues 9 Prolife and anti gun o Prochoice and progun Pure independence and learning independence the questions 0 Traditional 7 point question asked by ANES reveals much 0 Do you consider yourself a Republican Democrat or Independent 0 For those who claim a party Would you consider yourself a strong or a not very strong RDquot For independents Do you this of yourself as closer to the Republic or Democratic Partyquot Gives us 7 points SD WD LD I LR WR SR 0 Number who initially say they re independent rising However most of these people say they lean Only 11 say they re independent and have no leaning Two types of independents Some are educated and have interest Dalton s apartisans Some aren t as educated have little interest Dalton s apoliticals Apartisans more political knowledge constantly gathering info active on issues Apoliticals opting out entirely 0 Media Use and Bias gt Media Usage The question 0 Where do you get most of your news 0 Why do you use the sources you do Feelings about old mediaquot 0 What do we like and dislike about television news 9 Hard to nd an unbiased news station 0 You have to wait for news while online you can get it instantly 9 Schedule driven What do we like and dislike about newspapers Physical copy 9 Not easily updated 9 Deadline driven 0 You don t need the internet to get the news Broader old mediaquot trends 0 Television radio newspaper business sharply down across many metrics over the past 20 years 0 By quotmany metricsquot we re talking usage advertising dollars revenue 0 Internet usage for news more than doubled since 2006 The how of new media 0 82 used a desktop or laptop to get news 0 54 used a mobile device phonetablet Most Americans using new technology to access old mediaquot sites online 0 USA today 9 New York Times 0 20 of the top 25 news destinations online have an old mediaquot legacy Digitalonly sites 0 Small on economics big on visitors Huf ngton Post 45 million unique visitors monthly Buzzfeed 17 million unique visitors monthly o A comparison Washington Post s website at 19 million Why do we care Rapidly changing marketplace Unequal access to marketplace Fears about information quality in some venues 9 Who is fact checking the websites 0 Results how well equipped are Americans to develop attitudes make decisions gt The modern media A big event from the past 810 weeks 0 The pope came to the US 0 GOP debate Lunar Eclipse Second screen phenomenon Internet and television usage simultaneously 0 Popular not just in news 0 Especially popular during live news events debates elections SOTU Example over 1 in 4 Americans did this Election Night 2012 0 Different purposes Example debate viewers report using internet to fact check get mediafriend opinions How might the second screen phenomenonquot affect news consumption and learning 0 Split focus could end up in missing something Information democratization The increasing involvement of private citizens in the creation distribution exhibition and curation of civically relevant informationquot Historical Patterns 0 Information is topdown Public as weak players receivers only Changing the model 0 Messages increasingly bottomup Technology facilities this costwise Creates greater diversity in messages 0 What active citizenshipquot means is changing Concern does it lead to misinformation at times 0 Media Bias should you run gt Information Biases and Newsworthiness NBC ran stories on a former Benghazi Committee staffer the upcoming Democratic debate the Cleveland police shooting bombing in Turkey a parade in North Korea an acrobat a football team etc Why are these stories chosen Start sad and then end on a happy note News a mirror News re ecting reality is unrealistic Outliersdeviations get coverage negativity overcovered positively undercovered Practical considerations keep some things from being covered Practice ofjournalism rests on judgments by humans as such subjectivity reigns Producers editors publishers what is newsworthyquot but also quotwhat will attract audiencesquot Lippmann news is more like searchlight picture a lighthouse Fear a consistently skewed searchlight Graber s 5 Elements of Newsworthiness Strong impact make you identify Violencecon ictdisasterscandal excite you Familiarity make you understand Proximity close to home Timely and novel freshness originality Bennett s potential media biases Political allowing personal views to affect which stories are being told how stories are being reported Personalization downplay the big picturesystem focus on human element individual actors Dramatization crises emotions get more play Fragmentation immediate gets play stories fade quickly AuthorityDisorder negativity threats to system get attention 0 Running and Navigating gt The decision to run In out or on the fence Do we thinkJoe Biden will run for President Why or why not 9 His son died so he s fragile 9 He s stayed in the public eye 0 Media tries to keep him in the news 0 People are trying to convince him to run Questions of motivation Do you want this or are you being dragged in Does your family want this too Can you handle the 247 nature of campaigning Questions of resources Can you raise money 0 Do you have credentials Do you have time 0 Do you have bases of support 0 Can you get endorsements Questions of organization 0 How would you assemble a staff 0 What about access to outside help pollsters consultants media eld organizers Am I regional National Questions of history 0 What about my political past might haunt me 9 Why you voted a certain way 9 Old decisions you made as a governor mayor etc o What about my personal past might haunt me o Affairs 9 Divorces 9 Smoking o Is your past fair game If so what s fair game 0 Do you think your social media presence ma come back to haunt you someday Questions of opportunity o Is this the right year o Is this the right electorate Who might be my challengers What do my challengers already have going for them 0 How might national conditions play a role Answers of opportunity 0 Potential or actual politicians consider damage to reputation with loss 0 Look for weak or retiring incumbents Look for districts where the message will resonate Look for cycles where tidesissues will buoy them 0 Keep in mind not all candidates follow these rules the issue promoters the party placeholders The 2016 Presidential election is still over a year away Does the campaign feel too long Or should we want a campaign this long A concern The permanent campaign 0 President Obama thinks about how to help his legacy also the party brand 0 Democrats in congress how can they take back the House hold the Senate help presidential candidates gt 0 Republicans how can they hold onto the House keep the Senate and win back the White House 0 De nition of the permanent campaign melding of governing and campaigning Politicians govern not necessarily to help society but to hold onto power The good and bad of permanent campaign 0 Good does it force politicians to listen more Good does it offer more opportunities to participate Bad too much short term thinking 0 Bad rise in combativeness The invisible primary The 2016 presidential calendar 0 February 1 Iowa caucuses February 9 New Hampshire primary 0 Goal capture as George HW Bush called it The Big Moquot momentum How Start early 0 Not just potential candidates who careeites of all sorts do too 0 Result Invisible Primary throughout 2015 0 Invisible Primary networking between candidates and elites to potentially build electorally useful relationships 0 Vocabulary gt Free rider problems the dif culty that exists when individuals can enjoy the outcome of an interest group s efforts without having to contribute such as by becoming members of the group Interest group an organized group of individuals sharing common objectives who actively attempt to in uence policymakers Material incentive a reason to join an interest group practical bene ts such as discounts subscriptions or group insurance Pluralist theory a theory that views politics as a contest among various interest groups at all levels of government to gain bene ts for their members Purposive incentive a reason to join an interest group satisfaction resulting from working for a cause in which one believes Solidary incentive a reason to join an interest group pleasure in associating with likeminded individuals Labor force all of the people over the age of sixteen who are working or actively looking for jobs Publicinterest group an interest group formed for the purpose of working for the public goodquot Examples are the American Civil Liberties Union and Common Cause gt Righttowork laws Laws that ban unions from collecting dues or other fees from workers whom they represent but who have not actually joined the union Trade organizations an association formed by members of a particular industry such as the oil industry or the trucking industry to develop common standards and goals for the industry Trade organizations as interest groups lobby government for legislation or regulations that speci cally bene t their members Direct technique any method used by an interest group to interact with government of cials directly to further the group s goals Independent expenditure an expenditure for activities that are independent from not coordinated with those of a political candidate or a political party lndirect technique any method used by interest groups to in uence government of cials through third parties such as voters Lobbying all of the attempts by organizations or by individuals to in uence the passage defeat or contents of the legislation or the in uence the administrative decisions of government Lobbyist an individual who handles a particular interest group s lobbying efforts Political action committee PAC a committee that is established by a corporation labor union or special interest group to raise funds and make campaign contributions on the establishing organizations behalf Rating system a system by which a particular interest group elevates rates the performance of legislators based on how often the legislators have voted with the group s position on particular issues GOP a nickname for the Republican Party grand old partyquot Political party a group of individuals who organize to win elections operate the government and determine policy Realignment a process in which the popular support for and relative strength of the parties shift and the parties are reestablished with different coalitions of support Dealignment among voters a growing detachment from both major political parties Coalition an alliance of individuals or groups with a variety of interests and opinions who join together to support all or part of a political party s platform Majority party the political party that has more members in the legislature than the opposing party Minority party the political party that has fewer members in the legislature than the opposing party Primary a preliminary election held for the purpose of choosing a party s nal candidate Electorate all of the citizens eligible to vote in a given election National convention the meeting held by each major party every four years to nominate presidential and vicepresidential candidates write a party platform and conduct other party business National party chairperson an individual who serves as a political party s administrative head at the national level and directs the work of the party s national committee National party committee the political party leaders who direct party business during the four years between the national party conventions organize the next national convention and plan how to support the party s candidate in the next presidential election Party activist a party member who helps to organize and oversee party functions and planning during and between campaigns and may even become a candidate for of ce Party identi er a party identi es himself or herself as being a supporter of a particular political party Party platform the document drawn up by each party at its national convention that outlines the policies and positions of the party Party ticket a list of a political party s candidates for various of ces ln national elections the party ticket consists of the presidential and vice president candidates Patronage a system of rewarding the party faithful and workers with government jobs or contracts Precinct a political district within a city such as a block or a neighborhood or a rural portion of a country the smallest voting district at the local level Solidarity mutual agreement among the members of a particular group Ward a local unit of a political party s organization consisting of a division or district within a city Third party in the US any party other than the two major parties Republican or Democratic Twoparty system a political system in which two strong and established parties compete for political of ces Agents of political socialization people and institutions that in uence the political views of others Media newspapers magazines television radio the internet and any other printed or electronic means of communication Peer group associates often close in age to one another may include friends classmates coworkers club members or religious group members Political socialization the learning process through which most people acquire their political attitude opinions beliefs and knowledge Public opinion the views of the citizenry about politics public issues and public policies a complex collection of opinions held by many people on issues in the public arena Biased sample a poll sample that doesn t accurately represent the population House effect in the case of a polling rm a consistent tendency to report results more favorable to one of the political parties than the results reported by other pollsters Public opinion poll a survey of the public s opinion on a particular topic at a particular moment Push poll a campaign tactic used to feed false or misleading information to potential voters under the guise of taking an opinion poll with the intent to push voters away from one candidate and toward another Random sample in the context of opinion polling a sample in which each person within the entire population being polled has an equal chance of being chosen Sample in the context of opinion polling a group of people selected to represent the population being studied Sampling error in the context of opinion polling the difference between what the sample results show and what the true results would have been had everybody in the relevant population being interviewed Straw poll a nonscienti c poll in which there is no way to ensure that the opinions expressed are representative of the larger population Gender gap the difference between the percentage of votes cast for a particular candidate by women and the percentage of votes cast for the same candidates by men Solid south a term used to describe the tendency of the southern states to vote Democratic after the Civil War Grandfather clause a clause in a state law that held the effect of restricting voting rights to those whose ancestors had voted before the 1860s It was one of the techniques used in the South to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote Literacy test a test given to voters to ensure that they could read and write and thus evaluate political information This technique was used in many southern states to restrict African American participation in elections Poll tax a fee of several dollars that had to be paid before a person could vote This device was used in some southern states to discourage African Americans and low income white from voting White primary a primary election in which African Americans were prohibited from voting The practice was banned by the Supreme Court in 1944 Voteeligible population the number of people who are actually eligible to vote in an American election Votingage population the number of people residing in the US who are at least 18 years old Australian ballot a secret ballot that is prepared distributed and counted by government of cials at public expense used by all states in the US since 1888 Elector a member of the electoral college Electoral college the group of electors who are selected by the voters in each state to of cially elect the president and vice president The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of that state s representatives in both chambers of Congress General election a regularly scheduled election to choose the US president vice president and senators and representatives in Congress General elections are held in the even numbered years on the Tuesday after the rst Monday in November Poll watchers a representative from one of the political parties who is allowed to monitor a polling place to make sure that the election is run fairly and that fraud doesn t occur Special election an election that is held at the state or local level when the voters must decide an issue before the next general election or when the vacancies occur by reasons of death or resignation Winnertakeall system a system in which the candidate who receives the most votes win In contrast proportional systems allocate votes to multiple winners Caucus a meeting held to choose political candidates or delegates Closed primary a primary in which only party members can vote to choose that party s candidate Credentials committee a committee of each national political party that evaluates the claims of national party convention delegates to be the legitimate representatives of their states Delegate a person selected to represent the people of one geographic area at a party convention Direct primary an election held within each of the two major parties democratic and republican to choose the party s candidates for the general election Voters choose the candidates directly rather than through delegates Nominating convention an of cial meeting of a political party to choose its candidates Nominating conventions at the state and local levels also select delegates to represent the citizens of the geographic areas at a higherlevel party convention Open primary a primary in which voters can vote for a party s candidates regardless of whether they belong to the party Primary election an election in which voters choose the candidates of their party who will then run in the general election Campaign strategy the comprehensive plan developed by a candidate and his or her advisers for winning an election Opposition research the attempt to learn damaging information about an opponent in a political campaign Political consultant a professional political adviser who for a fee works on an area of a candidate s campaign Political consultants include campaign managers pollsters media advisers and get out the votequot organizers Independent expenditure an expenditure for activities that are independent from not coordinated with those of a political candidate or a political party Soft money campaign contributions not regulated by federal law such as some contributions that are made to political parties instead of to particular candidates
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