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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Little on Friday December 12, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 431 at Miami University taught by Sarah Dumyahn in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Principles and Applications of Environmental Science in Wildlife Studies at Miami University.
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Date Created: 12/12/14
Rebecca Little IES 431 Final Review Dr Sarah Dumyahn 5 December 2014 1 Land Use Change 98 The presence of humans has caused for a lot of land use change since the 1700s It is estimated that we have affected up to 50 of the land surface Most of this land has been transformed for agricultural purposes but a lot has also been transformed for physical infrastructures such as buildings and roads The land use change has drastically reduce available habitat for native species and ecosystem services have been lost such as carbon sequestration biological medicinal compounds and water ltration The pre settlement forest cover of the United States is 46 and today only about 30 of the nation is forested As the human population increases nationally land use change continues to be more environmentally destructive Question 1 Short answer What four major land use changes have taken over natural ecosystems Answer 1 1 Protected recreational lands 2 Urban areas 3 Intensive agriculture 4 Subsistence agriculture small scae farms 2 Human Population Growth 912915 The current global human population is estimated to be around 73 billion and we are adding about 80 million more people to the earth every year We are projected to hit 9 billion by the year 2050 As human population increases our threat to the environment is increasing The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment claimed that quotOver the past 50 years humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food fresh water timber ber and fueld this has resulted in a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earthquot If so much has been lost already then what is the capacity of harm from the human population increase In short the resource pool is staying the same while those accessing are coming more often in higher numbers with higher demands To address human population growth demands global education of carbon footprints and consumption are necessary as a beginning preventative measure Question 2 Short answer Why is human population growth and environmental threat Answer 2 There are more people accessing or exploiting a set amount of natural resources that do not have the ability to quickly replenish themselves 3 Green Revolution 917922 In the past fty years industrial agriculture has steadily increased food production through the usage of monocultures GMOSS irrigation fertilizers herbicides pesticides and intensive farming practices This is referred to as the Green Revolution However these practices are highly unsustainable For one they are highly input intensive 70 of global water usage is for agriculture and most irrigation systems are inefficient plants are only able to access about 20 of that water supply Most of the water runs off or evaporates Other chemical applicants and GMOS are harmful to biodiversity Habitat loss through deforestation and extending cropland is also harmful to biodiversity Chemical applicants are degrading the quality of soil and water systems Although food production increased drastically through the Green Revolution inputs are expensive and harmful to the environment to the point of being unsustainable Question 3 Short Answer What three major changes took place in farming and food production during the green revolution Answer 3 1 Usage of monocultures with GMOS 2 Increased agricultural inputs irrigation fertilizer herbicides and pesticides 3 Producing more than one type of crop on one plot of land annuaHy 4 Air Poution924926 Air pollution is a constantly growing problem in the United States It is estimated that the nation releases 150 million metric tons of air pollution annually Even though that the less that 5 of the world39s population lives in the US we still produce 25 of global air pollution This means that we have the greatest CO2 emissions per capita The problem of air pollution began to be addressed in the late 1800s when big cities regulated exhaust and smoke emissions It wasn39t until the 19505 that national policy began to appear Although there were previous examples of air pollution policy controls the Clean Air Act of 1970 is most important as the most complex statue in the US The goals of the clean air act included reducing toxic air pollutant s acid rain and vehicle pollution The six major pollutants were identi ed as S02 NOx O3 Pb and particulate matter The Mandated National Ambient Air Quality Standards NAAQS set primary standards which protected human health and secondary standards which protected buildings forests water crops and other non health related values In 1990 the Clean Air Act went under dramatic revision and became more strict as one of the most effective statutes in mitigating environmental damage Question 4 Multiple Choice Which of the following were identi ed as major pollutants in the Clean Air Act Circle all that apply a S02 b As c Nox d 03 e Particulate matter f Kr Answer 4 a c d and e are all correct 5 Water Quality and Pollution 10131015 There is a very limited supply of freshwater and human impacts are threatening the sacred resource through pollution Water serves an important role in just about every natural and unnatural process When measuring water quality you are measuring whether or not it is suitable for a particular use based on physical chemical and biological characteristics Pollutions can take many forms For example there is pathogens biological bacteria metals salts acids inorganic pesticides plastics and pharmaceuticals organic The presence of these chemicals in our water system is threatening to our quality of life Consequences of water pollution are wildlife diseases health risks eutrophication loss of habitat and wildlife and economic impacts The Clean Water act of 1972 supports policy and management of healthy water systems Because of this the EPA uses the watershed management approach that monitors 4000 watershed and helps reduce water pollution Question 5 Describe a point and non point pollution source and give an example foreach Answer 5 1 A point source discharge pollution from a speci c location pipes ditches sewers 2 Nonpoint source 34 of pollution diffuse with no speci c location where they enter the water suburban developments city streets homes forestry croplands animal feedlots 6 Solar Energy 101 Solar energy is an alternative energy resource that harnesses sunlight with photovoltaic cells and converts the heat into electrical power Solar energy is becoming an increasingly popular energy resource worldwide because of its versatility Anyone can choose solar energy whether you39re an electric company a skyline building or a small homeowner Solar panels can be places on tops of buildings and in expansive elds designed to harness concentrated solar energy There are many bene ts to solar energy including the fact that it does not emit greenhouse gases Question 6 Make an argument to your parents on why you think they should or should not invest in solar energy Answer 6 It is a smart economic and environmental choice for my parents to convert to solar energy If they make the investment now they could end up making money in the long run Plus they are saving the environment and lessening their carbon footprint With solar energy they are able to use the clean energy they produce and sell what they don39t need back to the electric companies So if you think about it the more solar panels that they invest in now the greater the chance of a long term monetary and environmental return This is not an opportunity to pass up our neighbors will thank you later and hopefully in uence them to make green choices as well 7 Invasive Species 1027 Invasive species are a threat to natural areas worldwide They are quotorganisms that thrive in a new territory where they are free of predators diseases or resource limitation that may have controlled their population in their native habitat Often times invasive species are from far away places where natural predators did not coevolve These species can travel naturally through wind water and animal migration and then can also travel as a result of human activities Sometimes invasive species are evenly purposely introduced to a new area as a bio control against something else that is harming the environment Invasive species are able to take over when there are abundant resources with little completion and no natural predators Question 7 List List 3 impacts of invasive species Answer 7 All of the following are correct 1 Changes to nutrient availability 2 Competition for resources 3 Obstructing waterways 4 Damage to property amp utilities 5 Aesthetic Cultural Impacts 8 Protected Areas 113115 Protected areas can exist on the international federal state and local levels in the US The Bureau of Land Management the US Forest Service the Fish and the Wildlife Service protect approximately 635 million acres of land across the nation These lands have many uses including recreational uses historicalcultural conservation and providing ecosystem services The land is being protected from exploitation surrounding human development energy exploitation timber harvest roads and invasive species Question 8 Short Answer List three things that are preserved through protected areas and why they are important Answer 8 1 Scienti c exploration Protected areas are protecting things that we may not even know exist yet With preservation we are more able to discover species and their value before with force them to extinction 2 Habitat amp biodiversity a set space for ora and fauna to ourish naturally 3 Recreation for everything from camping to snowboarding and hiking as a way to relax and enjoy the intrinsic value of nature 9 Waste 11211124 The way that we handle our waste becomes more and more serious as human population continues to grow and becoming more af uent Consumption rates and therefore amount of waste produced are highest in the most af uent of countries We were taught in class that the EPA de nes waste as quotany garbage or refuse sludge from a wastewater treatment plant water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility and other discarded material including solid liquid semi solid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial commercial mining and agricultural operations and from community activities Waste management is imperative to the health of communities In 2012 54 of our municipal waste approximately 164 million tons of waste went to land lls The problem of what to do with our waste is growing bigger and bigger Land lls such as Rumpke are developing growth strategies and strategies to reduce waste production and ltering waste into recycling streams They are increasingly expensive to operate as a result of strict environmental regulations Question 9 Multiple Choice Which of the following are true about practices to contain waste at sanitary land lls Select all that apply A Compacted daily and covered with dirt B Require an impermeable clay or plastic liner C Leachate and rainwater contained captured D Methane gas burned or captured for energy E Land lls used to be really expensive but now government subsidizing has made them more convenient and cheap Answer 9 A B C and D are true E is false 10 Sustainable Deveopment121 There are many different correct ways to de ne sustainable development but the underlying meaning is that sustainable development supports humans using resources at a rate the resources can be replenished This ensures resource availability for future generations The de nition of sustainable encompasses social economic and environmental factors of development In other words if a practice is sustainable economically and socially but not environmentally it is not sustainable Sustainable development is a holistic problem solving strategy Question 10 Extended Response Use the holistic approach of sustainable development strategies to propose a solution for the following problem In a rural community in Ghana many women and children are dying of respiratory illnesses caused by the smoke from wood burning res The natural environment around the community is being destroyed as wood is continuously harvested for human consumption The people spend many hours working to harvest enough wood for energy to accommodate basic needs How can this community solve their energy needs protect their forest environment protect their respiratory health and leave the working citizens with more time for other activities Answer 10 For a multi faceted problem a multi faceted solution is necessary 1 Quick product solution The Wonder bag httpnb wonderbagcom was created as a solution for wood burning res The bag keeps pots of food cooking for long hours without the need for any other heat For each bag purchased in rst world countries a bag is donated to those overseas in need This product saves time and energy consumption 2 Reforestation education amp community programs to rebuild the destroyed habitat that will aid in improving air quality 3 Alternative energy sources The goal is to completely stop using wood burning res as an energy source It is smart to get this community on the right track and start them off with clean energy resources If this community is near a water supply a hydroelectric infrastructure could be created If there is a lot of annual sunlight houses can be equipped with sunroofs and solar energy panels 4 Along this transition the health and environment of the community is being preserved To build and maintain the modern infrastructure local jobs will be created Those who spent most of their time working harvesting wood and tending to the res will be able to choose to spend their times doing other things including replanting trees The respiratory illnesses caused by current practices will be mitigated and the community health can continue to improve as they relocate their time energy and resources
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