All Lecture Terms from Ch. 7-11
All Lecture Terms from Ch. 7-11 2200
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by AllieStarks on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 2200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by David Braun in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Genetics in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Terms from Lecture 7 Genetic Linkage Mapping The tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover and are therefore genetically linked Locus Loci the location of a gene on a chromosome Linkage Tendency for two or more nonallelic genes to be inherited together because they are located more or less closely on the same chromosome Complete Linkage No exchange or crossingover genes on a chromosome are inherited together Partial Linkage Crossing over between two genes on nonsister chromatids creates recombinant chromosomes Sister Chromatid the two identical copies chromatids formed by the replication of a single chromosome with both copies joined together by a common centromere Nonsister Chromatid Either of the two chromatids of any of the paired homologous chromosomes Chromosomal Exchange Crossing over The exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids Recombination The process or act of exchanges of genes between chromosomes resulting in a different genetic combination and ultimately to the formation of unique gametes with chromosomes that are different from those in parents Parental Class Original arrangement of alleles on the two chromosomes no recombination Recombinant Class Observed less frequently than parentals new classes not present in parents Coupling cis Two wild type alleles on one homolog and two recessive alleles on other Repulsion trans One wild type and one recessive allele on each homolog Linkage Mapping genetic mapping showing the relative positions of genetic markers along a chromosome that is determined by the recombination frequency during crossover of homologous chromosomes lnterlocus Distance Distance between two genes on a chromosome Recombination Frequency Proportion of recombinant progeny produced in a cross percentage of offspring resulting from recombinant gametes Used to map genetic distance between genes Map Distance The degree of separation of two loci on a linkage map measured in centiMorgans CentiMorgans cM Another name for map unit Map unit Unit of measure for distances on a genetic map 1 map unit equals 1 recombination Crossing Over Generates new combinations of alleles not seen in parents The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that result in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction Chiasma Chiasmata Sites along a chromosome where crossingover physical exchange or recombination occurs between nonsister chromatids 2point mapping Cross between an individual heterozygous at two loci and an individual homozygous for recessive alleles at those loci 3point testcross Cross between an individual heterozygous at three loci and an individual homozygous for recessive alleles at those loci Trihybrid an individual or strain that is heterozygous for three pairs of genes Single crossovers SCOs phenotypes occur much more frequently than DCO phenotypes Double Crossovers DCOs Phenotypes occur in the smallest proportion Noncrossover gamete parenta Contains only the original combinations of genes present in the parents Noncrossover phenotypes occur in the greatest proportion of offspring parental Molecular Mapping Can be genetic mapping or physical mapping Genetic mapping serves to guide a scientist toward a gene and physical maps mark an estimate of the true distance in measurements called base pairs Positional Cloning Cloning a gene based simply on knowing its position in the genome without any idea of the function of that gene Physical Map Map of physical distances between loci genetic markers or other chromosome segments measured l base pairs Genetic Map Map of the relative distances between genetic loci markers or other chromosome regions determined by rates of recombination measured in percent recombination or map units Mapping Crossing over enables us to determine the distance between genes Side Note The amount of crossing over between two loci on a single chromosome is proportional to the interlocus distance Terms for Lecture 8 The Composition of DNA and RNA Pentose Sugar Nitrogenous Base and phosphate group Pentose Sugar Contains 5 atoms of carbon per molecule The pentose sugars of DNA and RNA are deoxyribose and Ribose Deoxyribose the sugar component of DNA one less oxygen atom in its molecule than ribose Ribose the sugar component of RNA ribose has one more oxygen atom in its molecule than deoxyribose Phosphate group A functional group comprised of phosphorus attached to four oxygen it is an important structural component of a nucleotide Nitrogenous base Nitrogenbearing compound with chemical properties of a base Purine adenine guanine have 2 rings one 6 sided and the other 5 sided Pyrimidine cytosine thymine uracil only have one 6 sided ring Phosphodiester bond make up the backbone of the strands of nucleic acid Nucleotide the basic building block of nucleic acids Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate glycosamine consisting of a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on its glycose moiety Bidirectional Replication occurs at both ends of a replication bubble Semiconservative Replication in which the two nucleotide strands of DNA separate each serving as a template for the synthesis of a new strand All DNA replication is semiconservative Semidiscontinuous one parent strand is replicated continuously and the other is replicated discontinuously Leading strand DNA strand that is replicated continuously Lagging strand DNA strand that is replicated discontinuously Replication fork Point at which a doublestranded DNA molecule separates into two single strands that serve as templates for replication Okazaki fragment Short stretch of newly synthesized DNA Produced by discontinuous replication of the lagging strand these fragments are eventually joined together For the following enzymes you will need to know their role in DNA replication DNA Polymerase l Bacterial DNA polymerase that removes and replaces RNA primers with DNA nucleotides DNA Polymerase lll Bacterial DNA polymerase that synthesizes new nucleotide strands by using the 339OH group provided by the primer DNA Gyrase Enzyme that relieves the torsional strain that builds up ahead of the replication fork Initiator proteins Binds to an origin of replication and unwinds a short stretch of DNA allowing helicase and other singlestrand binding proteins to bind and initiate replication DNA Helicase Enzyme that unwinds double stranded DNA by breaking hydrogen bonds Single stranded DNA binding proteins Binds to singlestranded DNA in replication and prevents it from annealing with a complementary strand and forming secondary structures DNA primase or primase Enzyme that synthesizes a short stretch of RNA on a DNA template functions in replication to provide a 339OH group for the attachment of a DNA nucleotide DNA igase Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between adjacent 3 OH and 5 phosphate groups in a DNA molecule You will also need to understand the results of the following experiments Grif th39s transformation expt Avery39s transformation expt Hershey and Chase39s phage expt Chargaff39s base composition expts Franklin s X ray diffraction studies Watson and Cricks 3D model for DNA MeselsonStahl DNA replication expt Terms for Lecture 9 Transcription First step of gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA mRNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase Translation the process in which ribosome create proteins mRNA is decoded by a ribosome to produce speci c amino acid chainpolypeptide Nuceoside Nucleotides without a phosphate group Nucleotide compound consisting on a nuceoside linked to a phosphate group Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA Messenger RNA mRNA premRNA mature mRNA rRNA RNA molecule that is a structural component of the ribosome tRNA RNA molecule that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and transfers it to a growing polypeptide chain in translation snRNA Small RNA molecule found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells functions in the processing of premRNA Template strand The strand of DNA that is used as a template during transcription The RNA synthesized during transcription is complementary and antiparallel to the template strand Nontemplate strand The DNA strand that is complementary to the template strand Promoter DNA sequence to which the transcription apparatus binds so as to initiate transcription indicates the direction of transcription which of the two DNA strands is to be read as the template and the starting point of transcription Consensus sequences 10 35 1 Comprises the most commonly encountered nucleotides found at a speci c location in DNA or RNA Transcription initiation site Terminator Sequence of DNA nucleotides that causes the termination of transcription Upstream refers to nucleotide sequences that proceed speci c codons Downstream refers to nucleotide sequences that come after speci c codons RNA Polymerase l Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes large ribosomal RNA molecules RNA Polymerase ll Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes premessenger RNA some small nucelar RNAs and some microRNAs RNA Polymerase lll Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes transfer RNA small ribosomal RNAs some small nuclear RNAs and some microRNAs Sigma factor Subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase that allows the RNA polymerase to recognize a promoter and initiate transcription Core enzyme Part of bacterial RNA polymerase that during transcription catalyzes the elongation of the RNA molecule by the addition of RNA nucleotides Holoenzyme Complex of an enzyme and other protein factors necessary for complete function Rhodependent termination sequence in bacterial DNA that requires the presence of the rho subunit of RNA polymerase to terminate transcription Rhoindependent termination Sequence in bacterial DNA that does not require the presence of the rho subunit of RNA polymerase to terminate transcription Polycistronic mRNASingle bacterial RNA molecule that encodes more than one polypeptide chain uncommon in eukaryotes TATA box Consensus sequence commonly found in eukaryotic RNA polymerase II promoters usually located upstream of the transcription start site The TATA box determines the start point for transcription 5 UTRleader Sequence of nucelotides at the 539 end of mRNA does not encode he amino acids of a protein 339 UTRtrailer Sequence of nucleotides at the 339 end of mRNA does not encode the amino acids of a protein but affects both the stability of the mRNA and its translation Colinearity Concept that there is a direct correspondence between the nucleotide sequence of a gene and the continuous sequence of amino acids in a protein Pulsechase experiment Enhancer Sequence that stimulates maximal transcription of distant genes affects only genes on the same DNA molecule is cis acting 539 Cap Modi ed 539 end of eukaryotic mRNA consisting of an extra nucleotide methylated plays a role in the binding of the ribosome to mRNA and affects mRNA stability and the removal of introns 339 Poly A tail String of adenine nucleotides added to the 339 end of a eukaryotic mRNA after transcription lntron lntervening sequence in a split gene removed from the RNA after transcription Exon Coding region of a split gene the exons remain in messenger RNA after processing Alternative splicing Process by which a single premRNA can be spliced in more than one way to produce different types of mRNA Capping enzyme Adds the cap onto the 539 end of premRNA PolyA Polymerase Spliceosome Large complex consisting of several RNAs and many proteins that splices proteinencoding premRNA Lariat Looplike structure created in the splicing of nuclear premRNA in which the 539 end of an intron is attached to a branch point in premRNA Terms for Lecture 10 Amino acid Repeating unit of proteins consists of an amino group a carboxyl group a hydrogen atom and a variable R group Polypeptide Chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds also called a protein Peptide bond Chemical bond that connects amino acids in a protein Genetic code particular codons specify the same amino acids in almost all organisms Wobble Base pairing between codon and anticodon in which there is nonstandard pairing allows more than one codon to pair with the same anticodon Degenerateredundant in relation to the genetic code Reading frame Particular way in which a nucleotide sequence is read in codon groups in translation Each reading frame begins with a start codon and ends with a stop codon Initiation start codon The codon in mRNA that specifies the rst amino acid fMet in bacterial cells Met in eukaryotic cells of a protein AUG Termination stop codon Codon in mRNA that signals the end of translation UAA UGA UAG Amino acid tRNA synthetase Enzyme that attaches an amino acid to a tRNA Each aminoacyltRNA synthetase is speci c for a particular amino acid EPA in realtion to ribosome Exit Site Peptidyl Site and aminoacyl site Terms for Lecture 11 Chromosomal mutation Difference from wild type in the number or structure of one or more chromosomes often affects many genes and has large phenotypic effects Deletion Loss of a chromosome section Duplication Mutation that doubles a segment of a chromosome lnversion Rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome has been inverted 180 degrees Paracentric Chromosome inversion that does not include the centromere in the inverted region Pericentric Chromosome inversion that includes the centromere in the inverted region Translocation Movement of a chromosome segment to a nonhomologous chromosome or to a region within the same chromosome Also movement of a ribosome along mRNA in the course of translation Reciprocal translocation Reciprocal exchange of segments between two nonhomologous chromosomes Robertsonian translocation Translocation in which the long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes become joined to a common centromere resulting in a chromosome with two long arms and usually another chromosome with two short arms Inversion heterozygote Translocation heterozygote Euploid when complete haploid sets of chromosomes are present Diploid 2n Aneuploid Variation in chromosome number gain or loss of one or more chromosomes does not have multiple of haploid set Monosomic loss of a single chromosome 2n1 Trisomic 2n1 Nondisjunction When chromosomes or chromatids fail to disjoin separate and move together to one pole during meiosis l or II Down syndrome Characterized by variable degrees of intellectual disability characteristic facial features some retardation of growth and development and an increased incidence of heart defects and other abnormalities caused by the duplication of all or part of chromosome 21 Polyploidy More than two sets of chromosomes are present Monoploid 1n Triploid 3n
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