POL201Exam2StudyGuide.pdf POL 201
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Wiseman on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL 201 at University of Arizona taught by Barbara Norrander in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introduction to American Government in Political Science at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
101415 10 17 PM POL 201 Exam 2 Study Guide 1 Constitutional basis for civil rights major laws and court cases Equal protection clause of the 14th amendment 1868 All persons born or naturalized are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside No state shall deny to any person Within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the 3 law Court Rulings on Civil Rights mmm SUSPECT Race Ethnicity STRICT Compelling state Government SCRUTINY interest must prove law narrowly most likely tailOred least struck down restrictive means QUASlSUSPECT Gender lNTERMEDlATE Furthers an Laws often Scammquot important state struck down Interest NONSUSPECI Wealth Age RATIONAL BASIS Legitimate state Laws often interim upheld Court Cases Dred Scott V Sandford 1857 o Ruled blacks not citizens and had none of the rights and privileges of citizens Black Codes l3th amendmentprohibit slavery 1865 14th citizenship to blacks equal protection and due process 15th right to vote Reconstruction 18651876 2 Types of segregation in US History and tactics used to enforce this Jim Crow Laws Grandfather clauserights for whites Plessy V Ferguson 1896 0 Separate but equal doctrine De Jure Claim of right De facto in fact whether by right or not Civil Rights Movement 0 O O O 0 NAACP 1909 Civil Disobedience 1955 Montgomery bus boycott 1960 Lunch counter sitin marches voter registration drives Brown v Board of Education 1954 O O O O Aftermath Massive Resistance Resegregation of schools BusingMagnet Schools Congressional Responses 0 O 0 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Public accommodations 1964 24th Amendment I Poll Taxes Voters Rights Act 1965 I Literacy tests I Preclearance criteria overtun in 2013 Civil Rights Act of 1968 Housing 3 History of US policies toward various minority groups Latinos O O O Discrimination in employment and schools negative ethnic stereotypes Civil Rights Groups I LULAC 1929 I United Farm Workers 1965 Segregated schools I Tempe 1925 Adolfo Romo Dr sues I 1930 LULAC loses desegregation case I 1947 Mendes v Westminster I Underfunded E San Antonio School District V Rodriques 1973 U Bilingual education 0 Employment I Working conditions equal pay unionization D Strikes and unions for agricultural workers miners I Restaurants and other public venues I WWI and WWII veterans return to job discrimination and poor schools for children 0 Political Rights I 1904 Gonzalez V Williams E Not alien not citizen I 1917 Jones Act grants citizenship I Suspect classi cation extended to ethnicity U Hernandez V Texas 1954 I Voting Rights Act extension covers language minorities 0 Immigration I 1986 Immigration reform and control act U Legalization for some employer sanctions Asian Americans 0 Immigration exclusions I 1790 Naturalization Act I 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act I 1924 Immigration Act I 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 0 Employment and land ownership restrictions 0 Violence 0 Indians 0 First policy of Indian Removal 0 Second policy of Assimilation 1880s 0 Third Policy of Tribal Restoration 1930s I Treaty rights I 1990 Native American Languages Act I Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1998 Women 0 Suffrage Movement I 1984 Women s Rights Convention I Pamphlets parading and protests I Early voting rights in specific states I 19th Amendment 1920 O 0000 Equal Pay Act of 1963 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 Education Amendments of 1972 Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974 Equal Rights Amendment Court QuasiSuspect Class I Intermediate Scrutiny Gay Rights 0 O O 0 Franklin Kameny 19252011 I Got Fired from federal govemmend I 2009 apology from US Office of Personal Management Don t Ask Don t Tell 19932011 Defense of Marriage Act 1996 Obergfell V Hodge 2015 Other Groups 0 O 0 Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967 Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 Court Nonsuspect Class I Rational Basis 4 Content of Current Affirmative Action Law Reverse discrimination Quotas are unconstitutional O Regents of the University of California v Bakke 1978 Race may be a factor in hiring admissions 5 Four types of committee in the US Congress their structures and roles Standing Committee OOOOO Permanent Legislative writing Subcommittees Goals Power in DC I Prestige committees Reelection I Constituency match Good Government I Personal interests Select Committees I Intelligence 0 Senate3 I Intelligence I Ethics I Aging Joint Committees 0 Expertise I Joint Committee economics I Taxation 0 Housekeeping I Printing I Library Conference Committees 6 Roles leadership positions and recent changes in political parties in congress Shape legislators preferences Leadership plans strategy Parties assign their members to committees Parties weaker in US Congress than in many other democracies 0 Not a parliamentary system 0 Primary elections Parties matter a lot Preferences of representatives Legislative strategies 7 Differences between the duties structures and processes between the House and Senate House 0 Speaker of the House John Boehner o Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy 0 Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi o Roles I Scheduling and Rules I Party Spokesperson I Strategy Senate 0 VP Joe Biden I Breaks tied votes 0 President Pro Tempore Orrin Hatch r IULCUUI 039 Uquot ICI Cl ILCD HOUSE Senate nmittees Fewer committee assignments More committee asmgnments More work in subcommittees More work in full committee Role in Appointments Judicial Confirm judges 3r procedures More formal rules Fewer rules Appointments kccess Rules Committee Unanimous consent Executive Confirm Cabinet amp gt bate L39m39ted Fil39buster amp Cloture a e 39 Appomtments high offices I Lmendments Germane 8 order y No ngermane amp any Exam MIME mpeach charges Ina remove from or er Removal office House Senate Differences House Senate Represents Local district State Term 2 years 6 years Size of chamber 435 100 4 p t39ige L s39SI giig fi g quot 39ii d r 39a g39ii f ia known known Foreign Policy Treaties amp ambassadors Economic Policy Originate revenue taxlbills 8 Details of the legislative process for making new laws Incremental Legislation Coalition building Easier to kill legislation Multistage process 0 Committees 0 Floor Action 0 Reconciliation of House and Senate versions 0 Presidential decision 9 Various meanings of representation when studying Congress Descriptive representation Policy representation 0 Instructed Delegate I Expressed opinions may be biased I Shared values 0 Trustee Role 11quot11 3CIIJIC I a PTfl39 Slalxdllxg Cnwx39 I 1D I bcnutc C lllltllltg i39 39 lllC39ir thHI nW tr c c Pia r0 Rem n Illa mu PL rk r Intunml n chxulcnl quotDquot Eu cicugc House LHZ JIHIHCI Slqudll IE39 funuzuucc Huuvc v I lunr Rulcx quotP1 Fru39w litHM 53 vnuunllrc I 39l 10 The Constitutional and modern roles and powers of the president Constitution Roles 0 National Security Powers I Commander in Chief I Negotiate Treaties I Nominate Ambassadors I Receive ambassadors 0 Legislative Powers I Recommend legislation I Veto legislation I State of the Union Address 0 Administrative Powers I Nominate executive branch officials 0 Judicial Powers I Nominate Federal Judges 0 Grant pardons for federal offenses Modern Roles o Crises Management I Highest Priority I Foreign Affairs I Economy RecessionIn ation I Domestic Disaster Relief 0 Symbolic Leadership 0 Agenda Setting I State of the Union I Media Coverage I Budget priorities 0 Recruitment I Cabinet I Exec Of ce of the President White house state OMB o Coalition Building I Power to Persuade I Work with Congressional Leaders I Office of Legislative Affairs I Head of political Party 0 Implementation I 6th priority I new programs I actions by others 0 Oversight I Existing programs I Supervision of others I information 0 Policy Areas I Foreign Affairs I Economy I Domestic Policies 11 The Roles and success of the President in the legislative process Positive 0 Success rate I Averages 50 I Party control of Congress matter U Unified gov U Divided gov I More successful earlier in term I More successful on foreign policy than domestic policy Negative 0 Vetoes I Regular Veto D 10 days to sign ignore or return D Veto Overrride23 vote in H and S I Pocket Veto D Congress adjoums during 10day period U Unsigned bills automatically vetoed Executive Orders 0 Enforce legislation 0 Treaties Executive Privilege Signing Statements 12 Factors affecting presidential succession Success of presidency Potential resource for president 0 Trends 0 Less popular over time Weak economy hurts Long wars hurt Rallyaroundthe ag OOOO Scandals 13 Structure for Presidential Succession 25th Amendment 1967 o Vacancy in VP I President nominates new VP I H and S con rm majority vote 0 Presidential disability I President written request to Speaker of House and President Pro Tempore of senate I VP and majority of Cabinet I VP becomes acting president Role of VP 0 Reside over senate 0 Break ties in senate 0 Replace president who dies 0 Traditional role I Balance ticket 0 Modern Role I Advisor Impeachment Process 0 House impeaches simple majority I Andrew Johnson I Nixon I Clinton 0 Senate holds trial two thirds vote 14 The structure of the executive branch including organizations within President and VP Executive Of ce of the President 15 Executive Departments 0 Numerous specialized bureaus 70 or so independent agencies and regulatory boards Gov corporations President s Cabinet 0 Inner Cabinet State Treasury Justice Defense 15 The roles of Bureaucrats in the US Government Civil Service 0 Replaces most Patronage in 1880s 0 Job Placement based on expertise Federal Employees Political Activities of 1993 0 May run for nonpartisan office 0 May contribute money and campaign for those seeking partisan elective office 0 Cannot engage in political activity on duty with those involved with agency run for partisan office What Bureaucracies Do 0 Administration 0 Rulemaking I Quasilegislative function 0 Adjudication 16 The interconnections between bureaucracies the president Congress and interest groups 17 The Constitutional format and historical eras of the Supreme Court US Supreme Court is very powerful No one interpretation of Constitution or laws Interpretation of law is not neutral Makes public policy Limited description in Constitution 0 SC and other courts to be created by congress o Appellate jurisdiction and original jurisdiction 0 Bras 0 1789Civil War I legitimize the national gov o 18651930s I promote economic freedom and growth I corporations same rights as persons I strikes down most economic regulation 0 1930s1970s I more concern with political liberties I allow more restrictions on economic freedom I new conservatism or new federalism I devolution 18 Structure of federal and state court systems including the selection of judges Federal District Courts 0 94 federal district courts 0 267000 cases a year Appellate Courts 0 12 regional Court of Appeals Court of Appeals for Federal Circuit 41000 cases a year no juries 23 uphold original decision OOOOO 13 returned to lower court US Supreme Court 0 Between 5000 and 8000 requests 0 Accepts only 5 of cases 0 9 Judges Selection of Federal Judges 0 Nominated by president I 89 from own party I Senatorial Courtesy for district judges 0 Confirmed by majority vote in Senate 0 40 judges appointed each year 0 11 impeached State Court Systems 0 No juries o Judges selected through a variety of methods I Appointed I Elected I Retention election 19 How the supreme court goes about making its decisions Original Jurisdiction Appellant Decision 0 Screening of cases I Litigants petition court for hearing D Writes of Certiorari I Discussion List U Role of Law Clerks U Amicus Curiae Briefs U Rule of Four D Rejects 95 of cases 0 Written and Oral Arguments I Written Briefs I Oral arguments B Each side 12 hour D Justices interrupt with questions D Supreme Court hears 4 cases a day twice a week 0 Conference I Closed door meeting I Debate cases heard Chief Justice States I Preliminary vote I Assignment to write opinion I Circulation of preliminary written opinion I Compromise and coalition building 0 Written Decision I Majority Opinion I Dissenting Opinions D 60 of the time I Concurring Opinions How Supreme Court Judges Decide o Strict construction I Plain meaning I Original intent 0 Judicial activism versus judicial restraint 0 Real decisionmaking process I Precedent I Justices ideology 20 Powers and constraints on the Supreme Court Powers 0 Judicial Reviewunconstitutional o Marbury V Madison 1803 0 Sets own docket o Strikes down on average 2 federal laws and 15 state laws per year I CounterMajoritarian action Constraints 0 No hypothetical cases 0 No enforcement powers
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