Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide HIST 0187 - World War II in Europe
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Cooke on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 0187 - World War II in Europe at University of Pittsburgh taught by Hammond in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see World War II in Europe in History at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
FINAL STUDY GUIDE LECTURE NOTES HITLER S BACKGROUND 0 Jewish blood 0 Hans Franz in charge of Poland was sent to research this 0 Returned and told Hitler that he did have Jewish blood Is thought to be false but Hitler believed it 0 Vienna 0 Art school not good enough to get in Supports himself by paining landscape postcards o Racial ideas develop quotScienti c study of books 0 Newsletters of the Blonde Champions of Man s Rights Liebenfels o Struggle between Aryans and quotdemonquot lower races Hitler becomes close friends with the author 0 Gets the idea for the swastika ies from his castle Von List wealthy powerful aristocrat o Glori es Germany s pagan past 0 Believes in the reincarnation of a German warrior Barbarossa and the return of feudal society Idea of allegiance to a leader not a ag which Hitler adopts 0 Protocol of the Elders of Zion 0 Jewish conspiracy to take over the world fabricated WI 0 Changes his citizenship from Austrian to German before the war to ght for Germany 0 Wounded multiple times 0 Postwar o Retained in the army job is to spy on dangerous political parties 0 Joins the German Workers Party Renamed the Nazi party in 1920 bc of his plan for its future Racial ideology o Aryans t culture creators o Slavs in the middle culture bearers uncreative add nothing 0 Jews un t destroy culture SA amp SS 0 SA is purged and merges into the SS 0 Chosen for loyalty to Hitler and Aryan characteristics 0 Night of the Long Knives SA purged SS now in charge of rounding up Jews Formed Deathshead Corp 1935 trained by Eloke o In Dachau camp Con ict in Norway 0 Britain decides to mine the coast of Norway Narvik to prevent Germany from getting supplies 0 Naval battle breaks out 0 British consider it an embarrassing defeat but they destroy large number of German ships Invasion of France May 10th 1940 beginning of the attack westward 0 Manstein Plan Yellow Plan Hitler s plan for invasion sickle path through the Arden and up to northern France 0 French think this won t be possible Arden is thick Maginot Line is impenetrable 0 British think he will go straight through Belgium he goes further south w sickle Invasion begins quickly successful 0 Pause in the invasion Hitler pauses for 48 hours 0 Could have captured many eeing British soldiers 0 WHY Surprise and confusion at the quick success Trying to stay on good terms with the British NO Evacuation at Dunkirk British forces ee to the north when they are cut off 0 Operation Dynamo rescued by the Royal Navy amp civilian ships From May 27th June 4th 1940 Churchill gives his quotWe shall ght on the beaches speech do everything it takes to protect the island US will come to their aid if necessary 0 German troops reach Paris on June 14th 1940 0 France surrenders on June 17th 1940 o Situation in France CHAOS Citizens want to move away from Nazi occupation areas not clearcut Charles de Galle ees to London and continues to call for resistance Reynaud in power since spring 1940 0 Wants union w Britain supports de Gaulle 0 Steps down because he is in the minority Petain comes to power collaborator with the Nazis 0 Leads the Vichy gov in the south of France proNazi France has no leadership for the majority of the invasion 0 Surrender Hitler brings in the same railcar where Germany surrendered in 1918 0 France remains occupied from 19401944 0 De Gaulle activates resistance movements from exile in London in 1941 Italy enters the war June 10th 1940 Tripartide Pact agreement between Germany Japan Italy to assist if another power enters the war 0 Was created in case the US entered the war BY THIS POINT Germany has taken over Poland Norway Belgium Luxemburg Holland France Invasion of England next step for Hitler Aim to conquer everything west of Germany and then turn to the Soviet Union 0 Planning 0 Creates a militarized zone on the French northern coast 0 Obstacles 0 Can t use tanks bc of water blitzkrieg must be adjusted 0 Radar systems alter the RAF 0 RAF have quothome advantage Flying less distance more gas Sympathy of the population aid for downed pilots o Raeder 1st Admiral is not ready for an attack Doesn t think he has enough ships bc of Narvik o Enigma machines in possession of British Germans are unaware of this 0 Royal Observer Core sight and report Luftwaffe w binoculars 0 Operation Sea Lion amphibious invasion to follow bombing 0 Goal to wipe of the RAF in 4 days Original target is military ONLY Shifts after RAF stages a raid on Berlin 0 Retaliation bomb London and its civilians quotDehouse 25 of the population destroy the workforce o Delayed RAF attack on landing craft on French coast Landbased attack is postponed inde nitely Battle of Britain is over by October 1940 Bombings still continue throughout the war First Nazi defeat but allies gain no ground Hitler decides to focus his resources on the invasion of the Soviet Union North Africa 8 Mediterranean Italy has declared war 640 and committed troops Britain puts in troops and resources to protect imperial holdings Egypt Mussolini tries to take control Troops 0 Italy has far more 0 Britain is victorious Hitler s reaction o Mussolini is pursuing his own agenda the creation of a new Roman Empire wo Hitler o Hitler considers himself senior Fascist partner amp superior to Mussolini o Sends in troops to help Italy under General Erwin Rommel 0 Con ict is far from over despite British victory Greece Mussolini invades Greece and Crete Britain suffers huge losses Invasion of the Soviet Union Planning started before signing of the NaziSoviet Pact Hitler had always planned to invade USSR even though he signed a nonaggression part Aim to invade May 1941 Delayed bc 0 Con ict in Yugoslavia 0 Ethnic tensions post WWI Serbians eastward looking and Croats westward looking 0 King is assassinated by Croatian terror group in 1934 son comes to power at 11 yrs old 0 Prince comes to full power at 18 westward looking Germany invades in April 1941 to establish another Fascist regime 0 Get some control but results in ethnic civil war 0 Tito gains control mixed ethnic blood Communist sympathizer Stabilizes the country somewhat GERMAN INVASION OF USSR Now aim for June 1941 OPERATION BARBAROSSA 0 Supposed to take 4 months done before winter 0 AIMS Lebensraum more land for the German people Burn raise Kiev Lenningrad Stalingrad for farmland Turn the Soviet Union quotAryanquot German quotcleanse the people 0 Three military groups invade from different spots 0 First weeks goes very well for Germany 0 Forces are halfway to Moscow 0 Have taken many Russian POWs most of whom die 0 By Fall 1941 Germany has taken Ukraine amp Belarus 0 Problems 0 Supply lines are far behind troops are moving too fast 0 Treat the Soviet people horribly Conditions were difficult under Stalin and many Soviets could have welcomed the invading Nazis However Nazi soldiers treated the people so horribly that none supported them 0 October 1941 winter begins 0 Command suggests halting Hitler refuses o Mud makes it difficult for tanks to move freezes over 0 Siberian troops arrive quotunleashedquot 0 Fresh to battle regain territory 0 German troops are unequipped no clothing for cold bc they had planned for a quick invasion 0 Germany loses RE SULTS o Destroys Hitler s image of the Third Reich and Lebensraum o Hurts his race ideology plans for repopulating all eastern lands 0 Extreme Soviet loss of life August 1941 Atlantic Charter Idealistic vision of what the world would look like after the war FDR and Churchill signed in Greenland December 7th 1941 Pearl Harbor Germany amp Italy declare war on US US sends troops to North Africa one of 1st places January 1942 Declaration of the United Nations Elaborates on Atlantic Charter amp 14 Points more solid Poses a counter to the Nazi postworld view that people can rally around Signed by 26 nations The Jewish Question 8 Final Solution Goal to expel all Jews from Germany 8 Europe Long history of an tjSemjtjsm Black Plague Jews are blamed Target for Crusades Pogroms in Russia Dreyfus Affair in France Russian Revolution become associated w Communism quotStabin theback post WWI blamed for the war Scienti c Racism amp Darwin 0 only moment of equality is Napoleonic Codes 1933 Medical experiments on handicapped in hospitals begin Medical profession was one of rst to be Nazi ed along w legal amp education 1933 1936 T4 Project Tiergartenstrasse 4 Tested new methods of killing injections CO Zyklon B 1939 1940 ghettos established at Lodz and Warsaw Death camps were built spec for these residents ex Trublinka for Warsaw residents December 1941 six camps are designated as quotDeath Camps incl Dachau amp Auschwitz Others were quotwork camps January 20th 1942 Wannsee Conference Finalizes Final Solution Jews will be exterminated by gas First camps are in the east ex Poland quotDEATH MILLS lm in class rsthand footage of concentration camps compiled 0 Produced by Billy Wilder Austrian Jew who left Germany when Hitler came to power family killed 0 Filmed by Nazis out of pride for Hitler s birthday and liberating armies coming through the camps 0 Shown to German citizens after the war to make them see the atrocities their government had done Jewish Resistance WARSAW GHETTO 0 Setup amp theory behind 0 Jews would be concentrated in very small part of the city w walls preventing escape o Judenrat Jewish advice councils to Nazis ruled the ghettos o Nazis want money resources labor skill from Jews 0 Jewish military groups 0 ZOB militaristic want con ict 0 ZKK organizing group across Poland 0 Both come in con ict w Judenrat Look for outside help some to Moscow some to west 0 Judenrat becomes willing to cooperate as liquidation nears 0 September 1942 ghetto becomes smaller extermination plan becomes clear 0 January 1943 Nazi vs ZOB con ict breaks out o ZOB sneaks in weapons from the outside Get only 10 guns but kill 50 Germans Hold out for 42 days Hide in the sewers develop explosives 0 Polish Home Army recognizes power provides w resources 0 Realize ghting is futile but continue Want to show the world what is happening Liquidation extermination are only alternatives to continuing to ght 0 Kill many Germans w explosives 0 May 10th 1943 ghting is over 0 Only 75 out of 250000 Jews survive 0 Nazi punishment 0 Random killing of survivors every 10 every 5 etc Polish Resistance POLISH HOME ARMY Aims are different than Warsaw want to sabotage the Germans aren t ghting to survive Destroy rail lines used for supplies prisoners 0 Out of direct Nazi control easier to carry out 0 300000 men amp women 0 Look to London and Moscow east and west 0 Difficult to have 2 centers of control 0 Hitler reveals Katan Massacre Soviet murder of Polish generals to undermine this Break from Moscow now somewhat Russian Resistance RUSSIAN PARTISANS Disrupted communication and transportation 0 Transported people in danger children French Resistance 0 Only about 218 of population involved in the resistance movement 0 ChambonsurLignon village 0 Hid thousands of Jewish children in their homes throughout the war French Collaboration Vichy gov Reasons for collaborating 0 Nazis are not as harsh in France race ideology French are white Aryan not Slavic 0 Want to be on the victorious side of the war at the end 0 Aim is to gain territory postwar Vichy gov collaborator gov in the south wants to protect French people English Resistance SPECIAL OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE SOE 0 Head of resistance throughout Europe Trained resistors 0 Headed by secret official OPERATION ANTHROPOID 0 Orchestrated by the SOE 0 Aim assassinate Heydrich Hitler s favorite who was in charge of Czechoslovakia May 27 1942 o 2 assassins throw a bomb into Heydrich s car Dies days later from infections 0 Entire population of the assassin s villages were killed and burned quot30000 people are worth 1 Heydrich Hitler RESISTANCE AS A WHOLE Much harder the closer you got to centralized Nazi power Easier for Poland USSR because they were not under direct control Difficult for France direct rule and occupation in the north Military Strategy Meetings between Churchill amp FDR FDR wants an immediate crosschannel invasion England to France 0 Churchill is opposed wants attack from south 0 Stalin is for this as well not in meetings though 0 Compromise start in North Africa 0 Nazis eventually surrender Allies take north Africa After North Africa ITALY INVASION OE ITALY 0 Predictable next move after North Africa 0 Operation Mincemeat goal is to mislead Germans on date amp location of invasion Find a body to play a general to appear like a plane crash Plant notes bank notices etc to make it realistic Drop the body off the coast of Spain where it is found hours later Nazis now believe that the invasion will start in Sardinia NOT Sicily 0 Operation is successful AERIAL WARFARE 0 1939 FDR calls on Europe to avoid civilian bombing Churchill agrees 0 Precision bombing would be ideal military targets only BUT technology for this is not available 0 Not accurate at all 0 More air force personnel die that civilians 0 1940 RAE makes its rst raid on Berlin where citizens are the AIM 0 Battle of Britain also occurs Carpet bombing 0 1942 House of Commons questions if the air force is worth spending money on 0 Sir Arthur Harris wants to prove that it is Bombs historic German coastal towns 0 Easy to nd at night 0 Constructed of wood burn easily amp quickly 0 1943 Casablanca meeting FDR amp Churchill 0 Establish the CBO Combined Bomber Offensive o Creates tensions between British amp American commanders 1944 German industrial capabilities drop off 0 Can t produce as many Luftwaffe bc of American raids on industry 0 Start to experiment w jet ghters rockets Examples Bombing of Rostock April 1942 0 US during the day 0 Highly successful bc Germans were not prepared 0 Caused the US to believe that precision bombing was possible 0 Remained committed to unrealistic ideals Bombing of Cologne May 1942 0 More towards the center of Germany 0 Possible bc radar development quotGquot 0 Many homes destroyed population density increases as people move in together 0 Terror bombing 0 Does not destroy the will of the people like the bombers hope Operation Gomorrah in Hamburg Iuly August 1943 0 Allied pilots use foil to confuse German radar systems 0 Massive column of re from bombs 1 mile wide 0 Sucks all the oxygen out of the air 0 People killed by heat and asphyxiation German raids on Britain 0 Bombed towns like Coventry Canterbury Bath etc because of their historical signi cance Desire for revenge 0 There is NO military strategy associated with bombing these towns o Culturally important NOT militarily or strategically Hitler Coming Undone o Erazzled 0 Physical changes 0 Nuremberg in quotTriumph of the Will strong arrogant pre to early war 0 Now hunched limp head down shaking 0 Became dependent on his personal physician 0 28 kinds of medicine per day 0 Strange dietary habits 0 Rants on unrelated topics ex opera Invasion at Normandy Necessary to keep Stalin happy supplement air gains keep US in Europe rather than Paci c PLANNING FOR INVASION 0 Little to no precedent successful invasions but have to push forward with planning 0 US increases human resources in Europe from 170000 men to 72 million 0 Industrial expansion and restructuring domestically Tehran Meeting November 1943 o FDR Churchill Stalin rst time all 3 meet facetoface o Appoint Eisenhower as commander of AngloAmerican forces NOT Soviet ones Ideological differences 0 Soviets want to ght separately Geographic realism not ghting sidebyside bc AngloAmericans are coming from the west and Soviets are coming from the east 0 Doesn t make sense to have Eisenhower in charge of ALL forces 0 Decide on crosschannel invasion date TBD called Operation Anvil 0 Buildup of men 0 Convene in England and wait some for months Cause tension and resentment among troops as they wait for the invasion Buildup of equipment 0 Need more and better equipment learned from Dieppe invasion Canadian plan that failed Higgins landing craft LSTs Landing Ship Tank Hobbart Tanks quotHobbart s funnies 0 Had chains to explode minds 0 Could cross sand ravines trenches w builtin bridge 0 Looked very strange but had many new technologies and adaptations 0 Choice of location 0 Hitler expected invasion to occur at a deepwater port 0 Allies chose a shallow one and built their own temporary port 0 Need for better intelligence 0 Operation XX Double Cross by Germans had turned many agents to Nazi side 0 Used British vacation pictures to see topography of possible beaches to choose invasion spot 0 Camerabarge that takes pictures during lightning to avoid bright ash of possible beaches JUNE 6TH 1944 INVASION OCCURS 0 Hitler has strengthened resources in west more important than east bc less buffer land 0 Knows that the invasion is coming BUT doesn t know where o Switches from Blitzkrieg offensive to a defensive strategy Spread too thin controlling too much land military is too spread out Not enough resources ATLANTIC WALL like Maginot Line built by Germany along French coast 0 No tanks were committed until later 0 Relies on concrete underwater obstacles mines pillboxes bunkers etc 0 Spread thin doesn t know where invasion will occur 0 Reinforces entire coastline of France in prep For invasion 0 Men manning line are not quali ed for battle 0 Old heart disease can t walk well boys Hitler Youth volunteers This is where many of those un t for real battle are sent 160000 men on the rst day Allied troops invading 13000 Allied aircraft Germany has only 100s By June 100000 men situated in France By July start to move north to Cherbourg deep water port and then south east 0 De Gaulle activates the Free French Movement 0 Paris is liberated August 25 1944 one of the rst French cities to be liberated OCTOBER 1944 Moscow Conference 0 Churchill amp Stalin FDR is campaigning 0 Discuss how to divide up Europe postwar 0 Sets start of the Cold War idea of dividing up Europe between west and USSR Which countries will become communist and which will not DECEMBER 1944 Battle of the Bulge 0 Last real attempt for a German attack westwards 0 Named for the shape of the front line 0 Resolved quickly miserable ghting Allies are victorious FEBRUARY MARCH 1945 Rhineland Campaign 0 Patton and Montgomery Allies Moving from east and west planning to meet Soviet troops at Berlin and take Germany 0 Soviet troops had momentum to take Berlin alone 0 Americans wanted to allow this no need to send more troops in o BUT Churchill understood importance of BOTH west amp Soviets being at Berlin and sharing control Germany would have become a satellite of the Soviet Union if Churchill hadn t done this YALTA CONFERENCE Stalin Churchill FDR 0 FDR idealism optimism o Pressures the signing of the Declaration on Liberated Europe People in each territory will choose their own government form Point of contention when Stalin set up Soviet puppet state in Poland Polish Home Army wiped out Red Army took over DANZIG 1945 Hitler relocates for the last time 0 Had been in east Prussia for most of the war 0 Goes to Berlin for nal moments of war BERLIN 1945 0 Fighting street to street block to block Brutal 0 Hitler ordered the destruction of everything in Germany bc Germans didn t deserve anything since they were surrendering 0 German generals refused to do this did not happen POST WAR Surrender of Germany 0 April 29th Forces in Italy surrender to Allies 0 May 21 101 Forces in Berlin surrender May 8th VE Day Victory in Europe Day 0 Scattered ghting continues but this is last day of the war 0 May 1946 PEACE OF PARIS POSTWAR QUESTION What to do with Germany 0 Don t want to make postWWI mistakes again by punishing it too harshly Allies take control of German gov 0 Potsdam Agreement Truman as US Pres instead of EDR who is dead 0 5 D s of POST WAR GERMANY Allied plan for postwar 1 DeNazi cation 0 Rebuilt German identity outside of Nazi identity 0 Educate German people about atrocities committed by Nazis 2 Demilitarization 0 Germany was premier military power in central Europe 0 Limit navy Luftwaffe so Germany is no longer treat to continent 3 Democratization End authoritarian government and establish democracy 0 Move power out of Berlin WI establishment of a federal state more localized control 4 Decentralization Hierarchy of political power outside of Berlin so it would be difficult for a group to have absolute power by taking Berlin 5 Disassembly 0 Disassemble ONLY wartime economy ex arms tanks industries 0 Didn t want to cripple the economy by disassembling all of it 0 Nuremberg Trials 0 No precedent for dealing with such horrendous war crimes 0 Trials occurred throughout Germany Poland France Belgium at different levels Were different in every place depending on those carrying them out o Nuremberg Trials carried out by IMT International Military Tribunal 22 highest Nazi officers 0 12 hung 7 imprisoned 0 3 acquitted 2 charges dropped 0 Albert Speer is only to take responsibility for his actions 2 judges appointed by each Allied power 0 Sir Jeffery Lawrence head judge 0 Those on trial are tried for quotcrimes against humanity 0 Created the need for an international court to deal w things like this in the future Jewish people 0 Did not want to stay in Europe had to nd somewhere else to put them 0 1947 UN recommended the Partition Plan 0 Palestine was a British mandate partially autonomous but not independent post WI 0 Would become a Jewish nation in the Holy Land 0 May 14 1948 mandate ended and Jews started to settle around Jerusalem Violence ensued Atomic Bombs Summer 1945 0 US tested bomb and told Truman that it was successful 0 Potsdam Declaration to Japan 0 Told Japan that Allies had a very usual and destructive weapon that they would send if Japan didn t surrender 0 Japanese didn t surrender o Bombs dropped in August 1945 REBUILDING EUROPE Marshall Plan 0 Economic stimulus package 0 Sent 13 billion to 18 different gov s 0 UK France Germany all received money Soviet Union refused the money 0 American business owners went to these countries and oversaw how money was divided and used 0 Rebuilt factories and production systems 0 Europe could buy American goods again bene cial for Europe and the US 0 GOAL ght Communism 0 Give countries an incentive not to choose communism by helping them to rebuild o Communism became premier threat again w fall of Nazis 0 High tensions w Russia ex partition of Berlin LongLasting Impacts 0 Establishment of international courts to deal with war crimes and international trials Reemergence of communism as the primary threat to west 0 New era of European politics and Cold War Memorials of WWII 0 Concentration camps o Dug individual graves for victims sometimes forced German citizens to do it 0 Allied cemeteries in Germany 0 Soviet memorial in Berlin 0 Enormous anonymous burial quotcollective society ideal 0 Political Red Army soldier stepping on swastika 0 Hamburg Eirebombing Memorial 0 quotEascism never again inscribed
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