Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide HIST 0187 - World War II in Europe
Popular in World War II in Europe
Popular in History
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Cooke on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 0187 - World War II in Europe at University of Pittsburgh taught by Hammond in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see World War II in Europe in History at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Midterm Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/15/15
MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe Class Notes HISTORY OF GERMANY 0 Charlemagne 1st REICH 0 Highly effective ruler and conqueror who Christianized his territories through force 0 Earned the support of the pope Through Christianization Sent troops to Rome to help the Pope who was threatened after an illegitimate children scandal 0 Crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope in 800 AD because of this 0 Fall of the Holy Roman Empire in 843 o Is split between 3 sons and becomes too small and fragmented o Afterwards HRE still exists but is not united under a single strong ruler Germany is broken into 300 local principalities 0 Large Prussia Vienna Bavaria Small family estates monasteries o Considered quotprincipalitiesquot because they sent delegates to the Diet 0 Weren t selfsustaining inefficient France Revolution and Napoleon 0 French revolution throws off an aristocratic system 0 Napoleon gains power after the revolution Conquers most of Europe spreads the enlightenment ideals of revolution Introduces modern bureaucracy 0 Germany goes from 300 to 39 provinces 0 Temporarily wipes of the Holy Roman Empire 0 Nationalism emergences as a result including IN GERMANY Is a result of the imposition of a foreign system 0 EX Grimm fairy tales songs dictionary German culture is unique 0 Defeat of Napoleon 1814 defeated at Leipzig and exiled to an island in the Mediterranean 1815 returns and is nally defeated at Waterloo Deposed and Louis XVIII is restored to the throne Conservatives style of ruling and values return to France quotRestoring Europe preventing against a new Napoleon 0 Congress of Vienna 181415 led by Clemence von Metternich 0 quotProp up the rotting corpse of old Europe Metternich decides to return to old Europe rather than keeping some of Napoleon s enlightened values 0 Germany s new borders are kept o Restructuring of international relations because of the fear of France Military alliances are encouraged larger territories are harder to conquer Balance of Power intention was at least 3 equal alliances 0 Concert of Europe conservative traditional system 0 Based of Hobbesian theory states trend towards power grabs REALISM ALTERNATIVE option which was ignored free trade system 0 Interdependence aka internationalism Adam Smith 0 Was proposed by England which had industrialized fully by this point and was wealthy selfbene t MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe 0 Essentially Napoleonic structures except borders are dismantled and there is a trend towards traditional conservative values which limits industrialization and ends Enlightenment civil rights Unrest in Europe 0 France 1830 Bourgeois Revolution 0 Wanted to empower the middle class 0 Sparks revolts throughout the German territories 1848 Revolutions 0 Spread throughout continental Europe 0 Reasons 0 Peasants protesting the old feudal system 0 Industrialists protesting guilds 0 Those who wanted national autonomy o Academics who wanted the civil rights they had under Napoleon 0 Early conceptions of a united Germany MAY 1848 FRANKFUT ASSEMBLY 0 German territories sent delegates to Frankfurt to discuss quotGermanyquot Majority of delegates are IDEALISTIC academics lawyers professors etc o Propose economic freedom civil liberties and the UNIFICATION OF GERMANY Result of the nationalism created under Napoleon Problem is that German territories are not that similar 0 Different religions Peace of Augsburg ruler chooses religion 0 Differences in language different dialects potential for con ict 0 Austria is not to be included doesn t want to lose empire 0 Uni cation FAILS why Local rulers do not want to lose their power King of Prussia who was to be the head of new Germany did not want this 0 Did not want to have to obey a Constitution Peasants and guilds protest 0 Results however Shows the TANGIBILITY of nationalism and moves towards the eventual uni cation of Germany Uni cation will have to be conservative Frankfurt assembly is liberal Constitutions are implemented in many principalities by local powers 0 German Uni cation 0 Key gure Otto von Bismarck Rise to power Wealthy landowner and aristocrat who felt that his role in life was to serve Prussia and Germany 0 Was sent as a delegate to the Diet of the HRE in Frankfurt by the King of Prussia 0 Did well and became ambassador to Russia and then France 0 Is called back to Prussia by Wilhelm I because of con ict within Prussia 1862 Expands the military Wilhelm cannot get the Reichstag to pass a military budget increase 0 Bismarck passes the increase without the approval of the Reichstag andf takes the money Denmark territorial expansion MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe 0 Denmark rewrites its constitution and has to rede ne its borders territory con icts with Germany 0 Bismarck allies with Austria against the Danes to win the war for German territory 0 Decide to divide the spoils among themselves but Bismarck takes the territory that Austria wants Austria 0 This causes war with Austria which Prussia is able to win bc of military 0 Seven Weeks War second war of German uni cation Proves superiority over Austria shows small states that Prussia is superior which they then join 0 Results in the North German Confederation united Germany does not include Austria even though it has lost the war France 0 There is a crisis of succession in Spain determined that the nephew of the Kaiser was next in line for the Spanish throne o This is a problem for France it will be encircled by dynastic connections Spain and Germany Ems Telegram Bismarck uses this to create war with France 0 Kaiser meets French ambassador at Ems Kaiser Leopold agrees that he will not take the throne but that his descendants can Sends the news via telegram to Berlin Bismarck redacts the telegram and leaks it to the press making people think that the Kaiser had been offended and refused the terms of Napoleon III Presents an illusion of con ict at Ems 0 Nationalist public cries out for war 0 FrancoPrussian War 0 Quick war created by Bismarck because he wants Alsace Lorraine 0 Germany wins the war takes territories 0 France has to pay an indemnity Government puts this towards industrialization Different than British industrialization which happened only at a private level 0 Small German states in the south join Germany now 0 German uni cation as a threat to the rest of Europe Uni cation has interfered with the balance of power that Europe has been using since 1815 0 Germany is now seen as a THREAT especially to Russia which is not used to having an industrializing nation on its border Prussia becomes stronger to protect itself from future threats 0 Industrialization 0 Big business is seen as a strength 0 Encourage horizontal integration trusts and interlocking directorates boards of directors overlap across corps o Occurs much quicker than in the US Britain Frane 0 German uni cation problems within Germany Industrialization 0 Occurs much quicker than in the US Britain or France MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe 0 Results in some social problems Economic depression in 1873 Socialist party of workers forms Bismarck outlaws socialism but introduces welfare system Catholicism is outlawed seen as a disintegrative force 0 Religious differences separate states Bismarck resents Pope s power Formation of new socioeconomic classes 0 Factory owners 0 Workers have ambitions to undermine the gov and capitalism Regional differences KEY Bismarck has to look inward to deal with these problems while other nations are looking outwards forming empires colonizing 0 New Imperialism in Europe driven by industry 0 Characteristics of the new imperialism Racist ideology justi ed by social Darwinism Racism was present in most European countries not just Germany Europeans went over to the colonies and settled them Is a search for national prestige 0 Berlin Conference 188485 Organized by Bismarck quotHonest Broker who wasn t really involved in colonization PURPOSE to peacefully divide Africa where tensions were mounting Bismarck s goals 0 0 To establish a balance of power in Africa similar to that of Europe BUT maintain some degree of national tensions among other European nations because of Africa 0 This would allow him to focus on German uni cation while other nations were tense with each other but not w Germany RESULTS 0 Africa is divided Leopold of Belgium gains personal control of the Congo Hypernationalism becomes dangerous more extreme than just national pride 0 Causes racism and superiority 0 Europeans go to Africa to take over territory which solves the problems of overpopulation and poor health disease 0 Imperialism in Germany Kaiser Wilhelm I was NOT a strong driving force for this made him a good partner for Bismarck Kaiser Wilhelm II however WAS because he wanted territory and national prestige 0 Signaled a shift in German foreign policy Involved in the Telegraph Affair which demonstrates this 0 Boer War is a rebellion of the Dutch in South Africa against the British 0 Wilhelm supports this which angers Britain 0 Then gives an interview with the Daily Telegraph a British newspaper saying that the British are quotmad hares PREWWI Trends in International Relations MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe 0 1 Interdependence and Peace 0 Geneva Conventions governed conduct in war 4 total 1864 1 0 Established the rules for giving aid to the wounded on the battle eld 0 Established the Red Cross 1906 0 Deals with con icts on the seas same laws apply for the wounded o Hague Conferences 1899 1st called by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia 0 Prohibited the use of projectiles from the air poison gas hollowpoint bullets limits arms buildup 0 Motivated by the fact that Russia could not keep up with the rest of Europe because of lack of industrialization 21 101 called by Teddy Roosevelt 0 Made more progress toward international law 0 Established the rights and duties of neutral powers in war 0 Need for international governance with these new laws Who will enforce them necessity for League of Nations later on o 2 Alliances and Hostilities 0 Alliance Systems Triple Alliance 0 Bismarck allies with Austria after years of ghting 0 Italy then joins them in 1882 0 Germany AustriaHungary Italy Everyone else 0 Britain and France have always been rivals Britain has bloodline ties with both Russia and Germany but Wilhelm II s actions prevent a GermanBritish alliance from happening 0 Wilhelm wants a German empire which he seeks aggressively o Naval buildup threatens Britain 0 Arms buildup Naval buildup in Germany by Wilhelm II who wants a German empire 0 Place for Germany quotin the sun Tirpitz puts the rst Navy Bills through the Reichstag 0 British reaction Appoint Sir John Fisher to build a great ship that Germany will never be able to match in 1904 DREADNOUGHT Begin friendly relations with France Announce the Two Power Standard Idea that the British navy should always be at least as big as the next two biggest navies 0 Had always been policy but is now officially announced because of the German threat German industrialization IronRye Pact 1878 alliance between industrialists and landowners o Uniquely German concept 0 Landowners agreed to vote for industrial contracts while industrialists agreed to vote to keep tariffs high on grain o Allows for the navy buildup to occur Con ict in Morocco 1905 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe 0 Germany tries to force rebellion in Morocco which is a French colony intending to weaken the alliance between France and Great Britain 0 This strategy completely back res and German actions are reprimanded 0 Note Austria is the only country who supports Germany in this Genocide in Herrero 0 19041907 0 First modern genocide 0 Germany wants more farmland 0 Changes in Europe OTTOMAN EMPIRE 0 At this point the Ottoman Empire was falling apart Was known as the quotsick man of Europe 0 This gave other European powers the opportunity to add to their empires AustriaHungary wanted the lands south of them Serbia which was independent was looking to become larger and more powerful 0 Wanted a southern Slavic state Yugoslavia Declaring War Immediate Buildup to the War June 28 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austrian throne is assassinated by Gabrio Princip of the Black Hand 0 Germany offers AustriaHungary a blank check support if war is declared July 28 1914 0 AustriaHungary declares war on Serbia 0 Serbia knows that it has the support of Russia because of Slavic ties as well as Britain and France by extension August 1 1914 0 Russia mobilizes in preparation to aid Serbia Germany demands that they stop which Russia refuses 0 Germany declares war on Russia and creates an alliance with Turkey August 3 1914 0 Germany declares war on France hoping that Britain will not become involved which is not the case because of secret agreements between Britain and France WORLD WAR I Idealism present early on 0 WI is supposed to be the quotwar to end all wars and quotmake the world safe for democracy 0 Hopes that there would be a quotLeague of Nations type entity to govern democratically War Atrocities Were de ned as o Bombing from the air cowardly 0 Poison gas 0 Machine guns were not looking in the eyes of your enemy o Submarine warfare o Mines land and sea 0 Actual war atrocities 0 German rape of Belgium destruction of Louvain library Why the US gets involved Declared neutrality at the beginning of the war and was allowed to trade with both sides which resulted in great pro ts 0 Summer 1915 sinking of the Lusitania MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe 0 Ship carrying weapons and American citizens that was sunk by German submarines 0 To appease the angry US Wilhelm II restricts submarine warfare but in the next year returns to it full force which propels Wilson to ask for a declaration of war 0 US joins the Grand Alliance 0 British Prime Minister LloydGeorge starts calling for the quotknockout blow against Germany which means that the allies will be able to impose whatever kind of peace they want afterwards destroy all military strength Not a negotiated peace conditional surrender Germany would not be allowed to surrender until the Kaiser abdicated the throne Fall of 1917 Exit of Russia and entrance of the US 0 US enters the war in full force in the fall of 1917 0 October Revolution occurs in Russia against Tsar Nicholas II led by Lenin who was given safe passage back to Russia by Germany hoping to undermine the allies o Lenin promises to get Russia out of the war and calls for quotpeace land and bread Peace for soldiers end of the war 0 Have no weapons ammunition adequate clothing Bread for the workers in the cities who were suffering from food shortages o Treaty of BrestLitovsk w Germany Germany imposes a unilateral peace on Russia Russians withdraw from alliance obligations Without discussing this with their allies Ukraine Poland Finland Lithuania Estonia and Latvia get their independence other parts of Russia s land goes to Turkey 0 Russia loses 26 of total population 75 of coal elds HUGE LOSS Surrender of Germany 0 Summer 1918 German generals Hindenberg Ludendorff are calling for surrender as it is becoming obvious that Germany is losing the war 0 The Kaiser steps down and Prince Max takes the throne Kaiser thought that he would give it back later but does not 0 Cease re nally comes on 1 11118 though many soldiers still remain on the battle eld Peace Process Begins lasts from Jan 1919 to June 1919 0 Key gures 0 Big 4 US Britain Italy France Wilson US 0 Idealist who believes in the selfdetermination of nations 0 Wants to reform national boundaries and is committed to his 14 Points and a League of Nations LloydGeorge Orlando 0 Wants what was promised to Italy in the treaty of 1915 which it does not get causing Orlando to leave peace talks Clemenceau 0 Wants protection for France and to damage Germany 0 Opposite to Wilson s idealism and is able to force Wilson to agree to a buffer zone heavy reparations etc by threating not joining the LoN Treaty of Versailles was only in regards to Germany separate treaties were done for everyone 0 Germany loses all of its empire outside of Europe 10 of population 20 of industry Some land goes to the formation of new countries ie Poland MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe 0 AlsaceLorrain goes back to France and a military buffer zone is created between France and Germany 0 German military is reduced to 100000 men air force is eliminated navy is substantially reduced 0 War Guild Clause 231 Germany accepts total blame for fault of the war This is the justi cations for the magnitude of reparations enforced 0 Germany signs on June 28 1919 anniversary of the assassination of the archduke 0 League of Nations is created though it has no military power to enforce peace 0 Is ineffective in structure and big powers such as US do not join or only join temporarily 0 Questions arise about the national autonomy of countries GERMANY after the War 0 Political Factions MANY different parties 0 Right wing radical nationalists who wanted to bring back the Kaiser 0 Left wing radicals who want Germany to be like the Soviet Union 0 Weimar Government 19191933 0 Came to power in June 1919 with the signing of the treaty As a result they are blamed for the terms of the peace quotSTABINTHE BACK People have the idea that the German armies were doing extremely well in the elds and could have won but socialists presented the air that they were losing to gain power and overthrow the Kaiser o Creates a Constitution in summer 1919 Bill of Civil Rights similar to US Frankfurt Assembly 1848 0 Women can vote and hold office forwardthinking Any political gure can be recalled Referendums can occur on all legislation Proportional representation in the Reichstag of reps is determined by votes Clause 48 Emergency Powers Clause 0 President can govern unilaterally in case of an emergency 0 Comes to an agreement with the army Structure of the military chain of command is maintained with the expectation that the army will protect Weimar o Creates an alliance with Russia Rapallo Treaty 1922 o Difficulties for Weimar Gov Kapp Putsch March 1920 0 Led by Wolfgang Kapp who had a Freikorp of about 5000 men who marched on Berlin in March and took over government buildings 0 Government knew that this was going to happen ed to Dresden and called on the army to protect Berlin 1921 Reparation amount is officially set and it is much higher than Germany can afford Obstructionism in the Ruhr Valley 0 France feels threatened by the Rapallo treaty and reoccupies the Ruhr Valley 0 Workers there realize that all the work they do during their lifetimes will go to Belgium and France and they give up and walk away Hyperin ation MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE World War II in Europe 0 Government decides to keep paying the Ruhr Valley workers even though they are no longer working 0 Causes massive price increases by the hour as the government continues to print more and more money to pay workers
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'