POS1041 exam 2 study guide
POS1041 exam 2 study guide POS 1041
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Ralph on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POS 1041 at Florida State University taught by Bob Jackson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
LECTURE NOTES Congress 0 2 worlds of congress quotIawmaking congressquot world on Capitol Hill in DC and the quotRepresenting congressquot world of the district Congressional paradox congress has extremely low approval ratings but incumbent members of congress are reelected at extremely high rates consistently 0 Why and how does this happen 0 0 Power of incumbency almost all incumbents run for re election and almost all win due to the advantages of being an incumbent Advantages of incumbency 1 Name recognition and relevant experience In a voting booth do you have to recall the names No just recognize in a list So one might not necessarily know anything about a candidate but because they recognize the name they are more likely to vote for them opposed to someone whose name they do not recognize and being an incumbent allows for more exposure to their name 2 Money Built in advantages for raising money through donor bases People want access to those in power so they donate to incumbents rather than other candidates 3 Campaign organization Prior experience and team for campaign organization 4 Time Challengers run a quotcompressed campaignquot Kernell and Jacobson s strategic politicians hypothesis experienced politicians make strategic rational decisions about when to run for higher of ce Potentially good candidates recognize that the incumbent will most likely run so they decide not to run 0 quotOpen seatquot incumbent is not running 0 Many more people decide to run and it creates a more erce competition 0 Potential campaign contributors make strategic decisions about when and to whom to contributes 4 0 Appearance of incumbent invincibility deters potential strong challengers o Selfful lling prophecy quotConstant dollarquot overtime incumbents have been spending more and more money 0 about 12 of incumbents raise and spend less than 20000 but they all still won 0 About 10 of incumbents raise and spend 2 million but only about 80 won THIS DOES IMPLY NEGATIVE CORRELATION but it is a spurious relationship not causation the incumbent is probably spending more because they have a more credible chaHenger O In Congress The Electoral Connection David Mayhew discusses the quotcontinuous campaignquot of incumbents o Politicians are very IN TOUCH with the district and this is why they get reelected o Politicians are always campaigning 3 kinds of activities they will engage in 1 Advertising 0 Members efforts to get their names and themselves in front of constituents in a positive light 0 Resources to advertise 2 quotCreditclaiming 0 Members claim personal responsibility for moving government to do things for the district and constituents 0 Federal grants and money quotporkbarrelquot concentrated bene ts in that districtstatecounty and disbursed costs by national taxpayer quotearmarksquot o Casework help constituents via staff deal with government bureaucracy make friends and no enemies and nonpartisan 3 quotPositiontaking 0 Take the quotrightquot position and cast the quotrightquot vote on matters important to the district At a minimum cast an quotexplainablequot vote Representation and irresbonsibilitv in congress Familiar criticism of congress is against members pursuit of particularized bene ts programs projects earmarks tax breaks for constituentsquotporkquot Members always tempted to overproduce 0 Especially if primary concern is reelection Mayhew Individual responsiveness to the district but dangerproblem of no collective responsibility on part of congress 0 EACH MEMBER OF CONGRESS IS DOING BEST THING FOR THEIR DISTRICT BUT WHEN HUNDREDS OF CONGRESS MEMBERS ARE ALL DOING THIS IT MAY NOT BE BEST FOR NATION Occasionally many more incumbents lose than is typical in an election year 0 Antiparty quotwavequot election Even in these elections vast majority of incumbents win reelection 90 but are from 1 political party Nature of representation 0 Instructed delegate member votes the way hisher constituents want 0 Trustee Edmund Burke member listens to constituents but votes hisher own conscience Sociolodical do members share sociodemographic characteristics of constituents 1st world of congress lawmaking body 0 Features that enable work to get done 1 Formal organization role of committee system 2 Political parties and party leadership 3 lnformal norms and rules of behavior 0 Committee system 0 Committees serve as lters trap bills prevent overload etc 0 Provides division of labor enables members to develop expertise and facilitates info Provision 0 Potential drawbacks If the y can pick what committees they want to serve on they are going to pick those that deal with money 0 Political parties and leadership 0 lnformal congressional norms and rules of behavior Norms of reciprocity 0 Be willing to bargain o Compromise work with others 0 Logrolling o Votetrading quotquotquot Deteriorated across past 35 years rise in party unity Differences between House and Senate 0 House Party leaders tend to be stronger Greater specialization o More limits on oor debate and amendment no rules committee in the senate and the possibility of a senate libuster unless a unanimous consent agreement UCA lnvoking cloture can bring a libuster to an end but requires 60 senators so an affective working majority in senate is usually 60 members 60 o 2 year term relative to 6 in senate OO Presidency Change in presidencv Traditional presidency quotmodernquot presidency 0 Transition marked by Franklin D Roosevelt s presidential terms Clinton Rossiter s presidential roles Constitutional rules 1 chief of state ceremonial symbolic 2 chief executive chief administrator 3 chief legislator 4 chief diplomat 5 commander in chief 0 Extra constitutional roles changed post FDR chief of political party manager of the economy voice of the people protector of peace world leader U39lbUUNH conceptionsmodels of the modern presidency eg Savior and Satan models Neustadt39s treatment of presidential power and role of persuasion Professional reputation public prestige doctrine of the unitary executive vesting clause signing statements executive orders The Use of Force Act 2001 0 James David Barber theory that personality affects performance Character selfesteem Political style Worldview 2 broad dimensions of personality Active or passive 0 Based on daytoday quotenergy levelquot Positive or negative 0 Do they enjoy the job or not 0 Criticisms of Barbers theory is that it can be considered very subjective and there could be more dimensions 0 4 personality types 1 Activepositive invest energy and enjoy job of president high selfesteem relates well exible with big goals FDR Most desirabe 2 Activenegative intense effort but does not enjoy job can become compulsive presidency often seen as a struggle Nixon Lyndon B johnson Most dangerous 0 Inability to admit failureweakness may xate on failing line of policy johnson with Vietnam Nixon with Watergate 3 PassivePositive don t work hard enjoy job 4 Passivenegative don t work hard don t enjoy job some would argue that George Washington s presidency can be de ned as passivenegative because he did not want to be president Dwight D Eisenhower Simpli ed veto game be familiar with the 3 scenarios 0 O O O Kernell s GoingPubic strategy and whyhow its rise Supreme court judicial review power of supreme court to declare laws of congress and actions of the President unconstitutional 0 Supreme court may also rule on whether state laws are constitutional o No where in the constitution is judicial review granted to the supreme court o Marbury v Madison 1803 SC case where ChiefJustice Marshall claimed the power of judicial review for the Supreme Court 0 How should the court interpret the constitution o Strict constructionist view justices should con ne themselves to literal language of the Constitution and quotoriginal intentquot of the Framers Constitution should be stable and unchanging TEXTBOOK NOTES M Congressionaldistricts 0 Federal law apportion house seats among states after each census but each state draws lines to divide the territory into districts 0 If one party controls both the legislature and the governship it may redraw lines to bene t 0 Goal concentrate opposing parties voters into a small number of districts in hopes that the party will win by large margins while also creating as many districts as possible that the party feels they can securely win 0 Gerrymandering drawing legislative districts in such a way as to give one political party a disproportionately large share of seats for the share of votes that the candidate actually wins Candidatecentered campaigns 0 Gradual change from partycentered to candidatecentered over time due to the introduction or primary voting and the encouragement of ticketsplitting Led to party ties weakening 0 Candidates seek votes by standing out amongst other candidates of the same party Character performance service Problems of legislative organization l dif culty in accomplishing tasks How do things get done 0 Need for information US government constantly expanding l demand of information from congress increasing Solution division of labor and specialization within congress o Committees subcommittees staffs 0 To become more productive and knowledgeable it is best to focus on task in particular task and become talented and experienced in that eld rather than be mediocre in many elds 0 Congress awards compensation oCoordination problems Coective action problem persists Solution dividing work pushing bills through legislative process schedules oor debates Give members authority to coordinate 0 Con ict resolution Legislation is only passed when majority in both house agree to pass Politicking getting people who are pursuing diverging ends to take a common course of action Congress has speci c rules designed to combat con ict Presence of readymade coalitions helps to resolve con ict before they arise 0 Reduces transaction cost ater Loss of autonomy o Coective action Specialization pushes members to pursue more individualized goas l undermines party goals Solution development of committee systems and incen ves 0 Transaction costs Price of doing politics 0 Time pressure effort bargain resource Seniority rule routine allocation to those who have served longest oTime pressure To avoid more transaction costs congress must be ef cient and timely 0House is much larger than senate and thus faces the above problems more frequently 0Organizing congress 0 Parties Congressional parties Speaker of the house olncreased partisanship Party organization 0 Majority leader majority whip Parties and party leaders in senate 0 Slower house in terms of developing formal leadership 0 President pro tempore presides when vice president is absent Other groups in congress include smaller coalitions interest groups regional groups etc 0 Committee system Standing committees exist from one congress to the next unless they are explicitly disbanded Different types Committee assignments Special committees temporary legislative committee usually lacking authority Select committee temporary legislative committee created for a speci c purpose and dissolved after task is completed Joint committees permanent congressional committees made of both house and senate members that do not have any legislative authority but monitor speci c activities and compile reports Ad hoc committee congressional committee appointed for a limited time to design and report a speci c piece of legislation Conference committee temporary joint committee of the house and senate appointed to reconcile the differences between the 2 chambers jurisdiction Money committee I Budget reform Making laws 0 Bill is either proposed to house or senate Senate Senate committee hearings markup reported out senate oor then is either moved to president for signature or veto or moves to conference committee to reconcile then is either moved back to senate oor or house oon House Referred to committees l hearings markup reported out rules committee l house oor and then is either moved onto president for signature for signature or veto or is moved to conference committee 0 Introducing legislation Only members can submit Proponents of bills try to nd cosponsors 0 Assignment to committee After a bill is introduced it is given a number and referred to a committee Usually nothing happens next Most bills die of neglect o Hearings Invite interested to testify Hearings provide formal occasion for congress to be sure the proper enactments are put in place Set up administrative procedures that make affected interests and give opportunity to protest 0 Act like re ghter not police man wait for something quotbadquot to happen to act rather than promoting 0 Reporting a bill lf bill is acted on it is edited line by line and resubmitted to full committee by subcommittee Details are worked out Strong coalition is extremely important because it is the rst line of people that are going to support the bill and possibly convince others to support it Written report is most important document for those not on the committee Summarize arguments 0 Scheduling debate House noncontroversial bills are put on consent calendar public bills or private calendar bills concerning individuals to be passed without debate Controversialimportant bills are placed on union calendar or house calendar Committee reporting bill requests a rule from the rules committee 0 Resolution specifying when the bill will be debated and how much oor time it will be allotted Open rule when rule permits changes in wording to bill during debate Closed rule no amendments can be made to bill during debate 0 Help t solve prisoners dilemma Rules committee holds hearings for rule Rule must be adopted by majority vote on oor Discharge petition petition that removes measure from a committee to which it has been referred in order to make it available for oor consideration Senate has no house rules committee and has no rules limiting amendments to bills during debate Majority leader has some agenda control Typically unanimous consent agreements are made to please both parties Filibuster tactic used to halt action on a bill lnvolves making long speeches until the majority retreats Once a senator holds the oor they have unlimited time to speak unless a 60 vote is passed Cloture allows maximum of 30 additional hours of debate 0 Debate and amendment Amendments must be relevant Debate on amendments is typically 5 minutes each side Riders amendment to bill that is not germane to the legislation Not allowed Quorum minimum number of congressional members who must be present for the transaction of the business O Majority of members Floor action does more shaping in senate than in the house Vote Killer amendments opponents of bill propose amendments that would make bill unacceptable Opposers may move to recommit bill Send bill back to committee Decide which way to vote based on their views opinions and the views and opinions of the constituents they represent 0 Executive privilege constitutional principle that permits the president and highlevel executive branch of cers to withhold information from congress courts and public 0 Never mentioned in constitution 0 Executive Of ce of the President EOP O O O Came about during the time of the institutionalized presidency Increased staff Executive office and president control agencies that the president or congress advise to keep in the realm of the white house strictly Agencies that help the president oversee department and agencies activities formulate the budge and monitor spending craft legislation and lobby congress Established in 1939 by FDR Includes white house office office of management and budget national security council council of economic advisors White house office agency in the executive office of the president that serves as the presidents personal staff system The EOP does presidents business while the WHO consists of personal advisers Office of management and budgeting most important agency created in 1921 to act as a central clearinghouse for all budget requests Advises president on scal policies creates budget monitors performance Central clearance presidential directive requiring all executive agency proposals reports and recommendations to congress to be certi ed by OMB o Divided government one political party has control over executive branch and other party controls houses and legislature CH Ticket splitting split ticket voting for candidates from different parties Presidential coattail tendency for popular party leader to attract votes for other candidates of same party Spoils system practice of winning party dispensing government jobs 0 Newly elected officials award government jobs to their supporters Merit system awarding government jobs to those who actually deserve them 0 Opposite of spoils Cabinet 0 Receive no special power of privilege o Chosen by president 0 Lead major departments and agencies 0 Clientele agencies Departments of agriculture labor and commerce Serve particular clientele indicated Demand for clientele re ected emerging national market economy value of information Independent executive agencies 0 Placed outside departments 0 Resemble divisions within regular executive departments 0 Held by presidential appointees Can be dismissed at any time Independent regulatory commissions 0 Designed to maintain heir independence from executive departments 0 Emerged after civil war 0 Represents congressional attempt against costs of delegation by restricting in uence of presidents and party politics on regulatory decisions Iron triangle stable and mutually bene cial relationship among a congressional committee or agency and interests concerned with policy Issue networks loose informal and highly variable web of relationships among representatives of various interests whoa re involved in particular policy CH 9 3 major eras ofjudicial review 0 Least Went OOOO Nation v state Lasted from founding to civil war productive over boundaries of national and state government Marshall as leader of courts McCulloch v Maryland Federal authority trumped state authority l national supremacy Dred Scott v Sandford Chief justice Taney McCulloch reversed African Americans are not considered citizens Federal laws outlawing slavery north of MasonDixon line unconstitutionally infringed on private property rights Regulating national economy 0 End of civil war to 1930s 0 Went over government regulation of economy 0 Scope of government powers remained uncertain o Prima I cy of property rights Right to private property considered fundamental by founders 14th amendment adopted to protect newly freed slaves from repression of southern states 19205 saw a wave of conservatism in courts During the depression justices turned down FDRs desires for more governmental involvement in economy 12 times 0 National consensus and the courts aboutface Rise of civil Courtpacking plan made by FDR to alleviate backlog of cases on courts docket FDR was able to name 6 new judges and wanted them to be in favor of his New Deal rights and civil liberties 0 19405 to now 0 concern of relationship between individuals and government Federal Judiciary federal court 0 district courts l circuit courts of appeals l supreme court 0 state court 0 trial courts state appeals courts highest state courts writ of certiorari order given by superior courts to appellate courts that says which cases the lower court should send up 0 Rule of 4 when 4 justices support hearing a case it is heard 0 Central means for how supreme court decides which cases to hear Stare decisis reliance on previous rulings for decisions in cases 0 All justices want to in uence future decisions l opinion writing 0 Dissenting opinion when justice disagrees with majority of court and writes out why 0 Concurring opinion justice who has unique opinions and views on why they agree with courts Senatorial courtesy informal practice in which senators are given veto power over federal judicial appointments in home states
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