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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Brent Hawn

Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 12000 - 042

Brent Hawn
Elementary Psychology
Erin Sparks Ward

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Study Guide for Chapters 5-8 for Exam #2 from Erin Sparks Ward. All of the questions and answers are attached
Elementary Psychology
Erin Sparks Ward
Study Guide
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brent Hawn on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 12000 - 042 at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 301 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 10/15/15
QHAPTER 5 1 What are sense organs and sensory receptor cells lecture Sense Organs Organs that receive stimuli eyes ears nose mouth skin 0 Receptor Cells Specialized cells within the sense organs that send neural impulses to the brain 2 Be able to de ne the terms sensation amp quotperceptionquot lecture amp book Sensation Information coming into your brain Elementary components of an experience a bitter taste patterns of light and dark Perception Processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations 3 How does the Necker cube illustration the distinction between sensation amp perception lecturebook It is exactly the same cube but your brain can give you 2 different interpretations or perceptions 4 What is meant by absolute threshold and difference threshold lecturebook Absolute Threshold The smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected the weakest detectable stimulus Difference Threshold The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli 5 What is Weber s law as applied to the idea of a difference threshold lecturebook The difference threshold between two things depends on the strength of the original stimulus the stronger the original stimulus the bigger the changes must be in order for them to be noticed yet changes in weak stimuli are very noticeable l ex lf holding 100 lbs must add 2 lbs to detect a difference If holding 10 lbs must add 2 ounces to detect difference 6 What is meant by sensory adaptation lecturebook Sensory Adaptation The perceived weakening of a sensation due to prolonged exposure to the stimulus D ex When you jump into cold water at rst you feel freezing but after a few moments the water does not feel as cold sensory receptors are fatigued and do not detect the stimulus as strong as they rst did 7 What is the de nition of light lecturebook Light One form of electromagnetic energy must have light to see 8 What is meant by hue brightness and purity What determines huebrightnesspurity lecturebook Hue The wavelength of light that gives us color physical distance from one energy cycle to the next Brightness Intensity of light l light changes in amplitude determined by amount of light falling on object Purity Complexity of light gives us pure versus paler colors Determine by mix of wavelengths present ln uences saturation or richness of perceived colors 9 Does the human visual spectrum represent a small or large part of the entire electromagnetic spectrum What wavelengths in nanometers make up the human visual spectrum lecturebook Small part of entire electromagnetic spectrum 400700nm 10 Be able to identify where the pupil cornea lens iris retina and fovea are in a diagram of the eye lecturebook Be able to describe what each of these parts of the eye are and what they do Cornea Light rst passes through the protective coating on the surface of the eye Participates in focusing process Pupil Light next travels through the opening of the iris the black part lris The colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light that enters Lens Light next travels through here the transparent portion of the eye behind the pupil that focuses light into the retina Focusing happens by changing lens shape Retina lmages fall here sensory receptor cells are here Thin layer of tissue covering back of eye 11What is accommodation as it relates to the lens lecturebook Accommodation Muscles contract and lens is thicker and rounder when an object is close 12Be able to describe how receptor cells in the retina then translate the electromagnetic energy of light into the inner language of brain electrochemical impulses Speci cally what is photo pigment and what does it do lecturebook Receptor cells change the light energy into electrochemical impuses cells contain substance called photo pigment which reacts to light and this chemical reaction leads to a neural impulse 13Rods amp cones are two types of receptor cells located in the retina What sort of vision do quotrodsquot provide What about quotconesquot lecturebook Rods receptor cells that are more sensitive to light than cones not much light needed to generate visual signals located outside the center of the retina 120 million cells in each eye Cons receptor cells that code information about ne detail and the early processing of color which need high levels of light to operate located at the center of the retina 6 million cells in each eye 14What is a receptive eld book 0 The receptive eld of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space eg the body surface or the retina in which a stimulus will trigger the ring of that neuron This region can be a hair in the cochlea or a piece of skin retina tongue or other part of an animal39s body 15What is the optic nerve Where is it located in a diagram of an eye Understand why it creates a biological blind spot Do most people experience a hole in their visual eld as a result of this blind spot Whywhy not booklecture Optic Nerve collection of nerve bers that carries visual neural messages to the brain the area where the optic nerve attaches contains no rods or cones and therefore there is a blind spot o If light hits exactly where the optic nerve is then you will experience a big blind spot 0 Most people don t experience blind spots because peoples brains ll in the gap 16What is dark adaptation booklecture Light reacts chemically with photo pigments in receptor cells In bright light photo pigments in the rods and cones have been bleached or broken down by light 17What are feature detectors book 0 Feature Detectors The ability to detect certain types of stimuli like movements shape and angles requires specialized cells in the brain called feature detectors Without these it would be dif cult if not impossible to detect a round object like a baseball hurdling toward you at 90 miles per hour 18What is the trichromatic theory of color vision lecturebook Trichromatic Theory The rst level of color processing 0 There are 3 different types of cones in the eye and that each respond to light in either red blue or green wavelengths therefore all sensations of colors result from stimulating a combination of these three cones 0 When just one receptor type is activated we see one of the primary colors 0 All other colors require the activation of more than one type 19Are the three primary paint colors that you grew up learning in art class different from the three primary light colors that we discussed in the trichromatic theory of color vision What are the primary colors for light vs paint Why does mixing primary paint colors produce a different result than mixing primary light colors lecture Three types we grew up learning Red Blue Yellow 0 Three types of colors in trichromatic theory Blue Green Red 0 When mixing colors you get a black color which the black color produces no light 20How does the trichromatic theory of color vision explain color blindness lecturebook Nature makes a mistake and lls some peoples red cones with green photo pigment or lls green cones with red photo pigment l people can only then essentially have 2 instead of 3 cone receptors so you can no longer discriminate certain colors 21What is opponentprocess theory lecturebook What is meant by an after image 0 A second level of color processing certain colors are specially linked 22What is meant by topdown and bottomup processing booklecture Bottom up processing First visual system analyzes actual sensory message process that starts with actual physical message 39 TOP down processing Second knowledge beliefs and expectations are used to organize and interpret what we see A B C 23Be able to describe amp identify examples of the 5 Gestalt principles of organization booklecture Proximity Things that are close together are grouped together in the mind as if they belong together 0 Closure Incomplete gures tend to be seen as complete because our brain lls missing information Similarity Similar things are seen as being related Continuation Images are seen in ways that produce smooth con nua on Common Fate Objects moving together are grouped together 24What is meant by the gure ground concept booklecture When we see something we separate an image into a gure and a ground Whatever is the center of our attention if the gure and whatever is in the background is the ground 25 Knowidentify examples of the 4 monocular cues of depth perception and know what is meant by a quotmonocular cuequot lecturebook Cues in the environment that suggest depth and can be seen only by the eye 1 The brain knows that distant objects produce smaller images on the retina 2 Linear perspective parallel lines receding far into the distance converge on a point Closer together lines must be farther away 3 Far away objects look blurryslightly blueish 4 Can tell distance based on whether one object casts a shadow on another 26Knowidentify examples of the 2 binocular cues requires both eyes of depth perception and know what is meant by a quotbinocular cuequot lecturebook 1 Convergence both eyes angle inward as an object gets closer to us and converge 2 Retinal disparity because each retina a few inches apart they have slightly different images and this helps with depth perception 27What is meant by perceptual constancy Speci cally knowidentify exams of brightness color size and shape constancy lecturebook We perceive an object s properties as unchanging even though physical message delivered to eyes is changing o Brightness constancy we understand the brightness of an object does not change even when the object is dimly lit 0 Color constancy we understand that colors do not change despite different conditions of light 0 Size Constancy Size does not change 0 Shape Constancy Shape does not change 28Understand how the Ames room Ponzo and MullerLyer optical illusions work Why does the brain see certain objects within these pictures as bigger than others when they really are not lecturebook Ponzo lllusion lllusion uses linear perspective to trick the eye MullerLyer Lines produce retinal images of identical sizes 29Know the de nition of sound and how sound is different from light lecturebook Sound Energy travels in waves the physical message delivered to auditory system mechanical energy 30What shape does sound take Lecturebook Vibrations to generate sound 31What is meant by pitch and what is meant by loudness and what quality of sound determines each of these things lecturebook Frequency determines m how high or low something is 32Pinna tympanic membrane middle ear cochlea basiliar membrane auditory nerve be able identify where they are in the ear and describe what they all do Be able to describe the process of a sound rst entering the ear and producing a neural impulse Understand how the above parts of the ear are involved in this process lecturebook Pinna Helps capture sound ap of tissue you call the ear 0 Ear Drum or Tympanic Membrane Sound funnels down auditory canal which responds to sound by vibrating Middle Ear Vibration pattern of ear is transmitted through here portion between ear drum and cochlea containing three small bones that help intensify vibration pattern Cochlea Vibration pattern makes it to the inside of the inner ear where the sound energy get translated to a neural impulse Basilar Membrane inside cochlea Base for sensory cells of hearing Flexible membrane running through cochlea that through its movement displaces the auditory receptor cells or hair cells lying along it Auditory Nerve Neural impulses generated by the hair cells leave the cochlea along this nerve 33Be able to describe place theory and frequency theory lecturebook Place Theory explains hearing loss in older people We hear a particular pitch because certain hair cells are responding actively place refers to location of activated hair cell on basilar membrane 0 Frequency Theory Pitch is determined by frequency of neural impulse traveling up auditory pathway Brain relies on RATE at which cells re neural impulses not just location of cells that are activated Higher rates ring higher pitch 34Be able to describe and identify examples of the gureground concept as applied to sound and the idea of top down processing as applied to sound lecturebook TopDown Processing Expectations change what you want to perceive If you see the words then that automatically what you re going to predict instead of what was actually really said 35What produces the sensation of touch lecturebook Cells in skin are literally deformed due to pressure which provides neural impulse 36What produces the sensation of temperature lecturebook Cold and warm bers respond to cooling and heating of skin by increasing neural impulses production 37s experienced temperature just dependent on the actual temperature of an object lecturebook No it is not just dependent on actual temperature plunging hand into water bucket 38What is pain de ne Lecturebook Pain Adaptive reaction that body generates in response to a stimulus that is causing tissue damage 39Understand the gate control theory of pain lecturebook Gate Control Theory There are neural gates endorphins that control the transmission of pain impulses The gate can be open or close and critical pain signals can be blocked from reaching higher neural centers when necessary 40What is meant by phantom pain and how is it often treated lecture Phantom Pain Amputees often feel the amputated limb as if it is still there and sometimes feel pain in the missing limb l mirror image therapy is how it is treated 41What is meant by olfaction booklecture Olfaction Smell 42Be able to describe the shy smell studies and what they demonstrate about how smell in uences interpretation of social environments and how our interpretation of social environments in uences what we smell lecture Made the people less cooperative in trustbased economic exchanges Making participants feel suspicious of the experimenter enhanced their ability to correctly label shy smells and heightened detection sensitivity to low concentrations of shy smells 43What are the four basic tastes lecturebook Sweet Bitter Salty Taste called gustation Sour 44What is a super taster and what is thought to make some people supertasters lecture Super Taster Have relatively more taste buds than non tasters Chapter 6 1 Be able to de ne consciousness What is it lecturebook a Consciousness Subjective awareness of internal and external events b Everything that we are aware of at any given time thoughts feelings 2 What is consciousness good for lecturebook a Developing strategies for your own behavior b Think about what you want to saydo c Imagine how something in the future will turn out d Imagine what other people are thinking predict their behavior 3 What is attention and how does it relate to consciousness lecturebook a Attention The internal processes that set priorities for mental functioning b We are only consciously aware of what we pay attention to 4 What are the typical results of a dichotic listening task How do they demonstrate the ability to attend to things selectively booklecture a Only supposed to listen to one of the two messages being distributed to you but repeat only one of them 5 Does our ability to attend selectively mean our brains have totally shut out all other information entirely lecturebook a No 6 Know what is meant by the cocktail effect lecturebook a Cocktail effect If there it is noisy in a public place you can still focus in on the conversation that you re involved in selective 7 Know how results of a dichotic listening task where message suddenly switches ears demonstrates that the brain is not actually shutting everything else out when it attends selectively booklecture a The message their listening to originally follows the message to the other ear 8 Multitasking Can you typically perform two tasks at once in the same amount of time as it would take to perform each of them one at a time one right after the other What is meant by switching time cost lecture a Multitasking Trying to divide your attention between multiple tasks b Time Cost Quicker to nish one thing and then move onto the other rather than attempting to do them at the same time 9 Are selfdescribed multitaskers better at performing tasks that come with constant distraction lecture a Recent studies showed that selfdescribed multitaskers performed worse on cognitive and memory tasks involving distraction than people who say they can tdon t prefer to multitask 10What is automaticity booklecture a The fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention Not under conscious control 11How do divided attention tasks demonstrate whether something is automatic lecturebook a Divided attentions tasks are used to measure whether something is automatic If one task fails to interfere with the other it is not under conscious control 12What are subliminal in uences Does the research show that the in uence of subliminal messages is probably strong or weak booklecture a Subliminal ln uences Messages so hard to detect they totally bypass conscious awareness b Research shows effects of subliminal messages are minimal or nonexistent 13What is visual neglect lecturebook a Damage to right parietal lobe of cerebral cortex produces tendency to ignore things appearing toward left side of the body 14What is ADHD booklecture a ADHD Attention de cithyperactivity disorder i Trouble paying attention for long periods ii Can t nish tasks 15ls sleep considered to be an altered state of consciousness lecturebook a Yes D sleep meditation hypnosis drugs 16What is a circadian rhythm lecturebook a Circadian Rhythm Transition from sleep to waking is an example of this affects body functions of blood pressure heart rate appetite secretion of hormones 17Be able to describe the characteristics of the 4 stages of sleep Know what is meant by theta waves alpha waves sleep spindles and K complex Understand what happens to the body during each of these stages booklecture a Stage 1 Lightest sleep D some claim thoughts are simply drifting theta waves begin which are a bit lowing in amplitude and more irregular than the alpha waves experienced when you are relaxeddrowsy just prior to sleep b Stage 2 Someone more deeply asleep midsleep brain still reacts to loud noises D Sleep spindles occur and shorts bursts of activity interrupting theta waves c Stage 3 Deep sleep E if woken up people act confused Delta waves 20 more synchronized slow wavedeep sleep begins d Stage 4 Deepest sleep D Delta waves reach nearly 100 18Know how far into sleep REM sleep typically happens and understand the basic characteristics of REM sleep lecturebook a REM sleepy typically happens 7090 minutes into sleep cycle 19Understand the basic pattern of sleep cycles during a typical night s sleep How much time is typically spent in REM sleep lecturebook a 2025 of nights sleep spent in REM sleep 20What are some theories about the function of sleep repairingrestoring survival value lecturebook a Repairing and Restoring Put body and brain functions quotback in orderquot repair disorganized circuits restore depleted resources and consolidate learningmemory b Survival Value We aren t ef cient at night 21What happens when people are sleep deprived lecturebook Dif culty concentrating General irritability Decreases cognitive functioning lmpairs learning Longterm health effects Technically could be fatal Cause many accidents and fatalities 22What is REM rebound booklecture a Takes place after a period of REM sleep deprivation i Intensity and length of REM sleep increases ii Often associated with unpleasant dreams or nightmares 23About how much sleep do people need each night booklecture a Humans need about 8 hours of sleep each night 24What are the differences between REM dreams non REM dreams lecturebook and Lucid dreams just lecture a REM Dreams Continually dreaming during REM sleep l story like qua es b Non REM Dreams Less frequent than REM dreams D less memorable c Lucid Dreams A dream where individual is aware of dreaming and whose content the individual is often able to in uence while dreaming 25Know the 4 reasons why psychologists think we might dream lecturebook Be able to identify examples of each 1 Wish ful llment to satisfy forbidden urgesdesires 2 ActivationSynthesis dreaming in consequence of random activity in brain Cells in hindbrain activate higher center of brain during REM sleep Brain creates story to make sense of signals it receives 3 ProblemFocused DreamInterpretation dreams are for solving problems 4 Dealing with threats Evolutionary psych D dreams are to practice dealing with threat 26Are people certain of which theory of dreaming is correct booklecture a No the true theory is unknown 27Speci cally for Freud s theory of wish ful llment make sure you know what is meant by latent content and manifest content lecturebook Be able to identify examples of Freud s idea of dream interpretation a Latent Content The underlying meaning of the dream b Manifest Content The content of a dream recalled by the dreamer 28Know what is meant by dyssomnia and parasomnia lecturebook a Dyssomnias Problems connected with the amount timing and quality of sleep b Parasomnias Disturbances during sleep 29Understand the potential causes and symptoms of the following dyssomnias insomnia hypersomnia narcolepsy lecturebook OrhrDon39p a lnsomnia Dif culty starting or maintaining sleep l has to be chronic b Hyperinsomnia Too much sleep feel tired all of the time c Narcolepsy Sudden extreme sleepiness D enter REM directly 30Understand the potential causes and symptoms of the following parasomnias Sleepwalking night terrors nightmares lecturebook and sleep talking just lecture a Sleep walking Somnambulism Occurs during partial arousal from stage 4 sleep b Night terrors Happens during partial arousal from stage 4 sleep D usually begins with a piercing scream c Nightmares Particularly frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep d Sleep talking Occurs during any sleep stage 31What are psychoactive drugs and why do people take them lecturebook a Psychoactive drugs Any substance that affects behavior and mental processes through alterations of conscious awareness i Relieve paindiscomfort ii After consciousness iii Psychological escape iv RecreationFun 32What are depressants What do depressants do in low and high doses and what are some examples of depressants lecturebook a Depressants Slow down the CNS inhibit neural activity calm drowsy reduced anxiety i High levels insensitivity to pain and other senses ii Overdose Irregular heartbeat death 0 Alcohol valium xanax 33What are stimulants What do stimulants do in low and high doses and what are some examples of stimulants lecturebook a Stimulants Speed up central nervous system excited con dent eupho c i High levels anxious jittery hyper ii Overdose convulsions heart failure death Caffeine meth cocaine speed crack 34What are opiates What are some examples of opiates lecturebook a Opiates Pain relievers i Opium heroine methadone 35What are hallucinogens What are some examples of hallucinogens lecturebook a Hallucinogens Disrupt normal thought process i LSD mushrooms peyote 36What is hypnosis ls hypnosis the same as sleep Are quotweak mindedquot people more easily hypnotized What are the two theories that explain heightened suggestibility dissociation and role playing book a Hypnosis Induced altered consciousness E state of deep reaction i Theories Dissociation a splitting of conscious awareness Social Role acting out suggestions 37What is meditation What are some bene ts of meditation book a Meditation Induced altered consciousness E state of alertrelaxation i Improves immune system lowers BP and cholesterol and creates feeling of well being ghapter 7 1 What is the de nition of learning lecturebook Be able to identify from examples what is learning and what is not learning a Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior that results form experience i Focus on observable behavior ii Behavior change must be something that happens as a result of practice so we can act more sensibly in future 2 What is meant by orienting habituation and sensitization lecturebook Understand how these concepts are all related to the process of how people notice a stimulus in the environment and learn to ignore it How are habituation and sensitization both adaptive a Orienting An inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel events b Habituation Decline in tendency to respond to event that has become familiar D Notice and ignore c Sensitization Increased response to an event that has been repeated D Annoyance can t take it anymore 3 Understand that classical conditioning refers to a process by which people notice a stimulus in the environment and learn WHAT IT SIGNALS OR PREDICTS or a process by which people learn relationships between events that occur outside of their control lecturebook Be able to identify examples of classical conditioning a Classical conditioning Learning that one event predicts another 4 Be able to describe Pavlov s dog studies Understand how they are an example of classical conditioning lecturebook a The dog didn t have to learn anything to respond Ringing the bell causes the dog to salivate because the dog is used to eating when the bell is rand which causes it to salivate 5 In classical conditioning know the shorthand for US UR CS and CR and be able to identify the various stimuli in an example ie Unconditioned Stimulus US Unconditioned Response UR conditioned stimulusCS conditioned responseCR Etc lecturebook a Unconditioned Stimulus US Stimulus that can elicit an unlearned response an instinctual stimulus b Unconditioned Response UR An unlearned reaction to the unconditioned stimulus an instinctual or inborn reaction c Conditioned Stimulus CS stimulus that elicits a response as a result of being paired with a conditioned stimulus a learned stimulus d Conditioned Response CR response that is similar or identical to the unconditioned response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus a learned response 6 In classical conditioning the conditioned stimulus should function as that the unconditioned stimulus is about to occur lecturebook a New information 7 Know the 4 things necessary to form the CSUS connection in classical conditioning lecturebook Know what is meant by simultaneous conditioning backward conditioning and blocking and understand how these terms relate to what is necessary to form the CSUS connection lecturebook a The CS must provide useful information about the arrival of the US b CS usually needs to come before the US simultaneously conditioning and backward conditioning usually don t work c US needs to follow CS closely in time d CS must provide new information about the US blocking occurs when something prevents somebody form learning that a CS is paired with a US by ensuring that the CS contains no new information 8 Understand how the Little Albert experiment worked and know what the experiment demonstrated lecturebook Know what the US UR CS and CR were in this experiment a Paired a white rat with a frightening noise until the baby was conditioned to be afraid of the white rat on site i US Loud noise ii UR Fear iii CS White rat iv CR Fear 9 Why does classical conditioning work What was the early theory and what is the current cognitive view lecturebook a Early Theory We simply 39shift UR over to the CS b Cognitive view We learn relationships between events and we learn that some events signal the upcoming occurrence of others and we respond appropriately 10Know what Secondorder Conditioning is and be able to identify an example lecturebook a Secondorder conditioning A conditioned stimulus is used to condition a second neutral stimulus i For little quotalbertquot after conditioning him to afraid of the rat we might pair the rat instead of a loud noise with a banana to make him afraid of the banana ii Advertising Celebrity endorsement We learn that Michael Jordan is associated with basketball which is fun Pairing a car with Michael Jordan who is paired with basketball leads us to associate the car with fun as well 11Be familiar with stimulus Generalization and stimulus discrimination and know how they apply to classical conditioning lecturebook a Stimulus Generalization Responding to a new stimulus in a manner similar to the response produced by an established conditioned stimulus b Stimulus Discrimination Responding differently to a new stimulus than how one responds to an established conditioned stimulus 12What is Extinction as it relates to classical conditioning lecturebook a Extinction The process of unearning a learned response because the original source of learning has been removed from the environment i Extinction occurs when a CS is no longer paired with a US 13What is conditioned inhibition booklecture a Conditioned Inhibition You learn that an event signals absence of an unconditioned stimulus i Dogs are trained to droop in response to a bell because every time you ring a bell you then bring food Sometimes you ring the bell also turn a lamp on When you do that you DON T bring food They now only drool when the bell rings without the light They stop drooling when the bell rings and the light also turns on 14Know the meaning of Spontaneous Recovery book a Spontaneous Recovery 15What is counter conditioning just lecture a Counter Conditioning The process of reversing classical condition by pairing the conditioned stimulus CS with a new positive unconditioned stimulus US to produce a positive instead of negative a conditioned response CR 16Know what is meant by operant conditioning and the law of effect lecturebook a Operant Conditioning Learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of the behaviors occurrence E Learning that our own actions lead to certain outcomes b Law of Effect If a response in a particular situation is followed by a satisfying consequence it will be strengthened If a response in a particular situation is followed by an unsatisfying consequence it will be weakened 17Make sure you know how operant conditioning is DIFFERENT from classical conditioning Ie think about learning what an event PREDICTS versus learning about the consequences of our OWN BEHAVIOR lecturebook a In classical conditioning you learn that the occurrence of some event an event that you do not control predicts a certain outcome Le a bell ringing means food will arrive In operant conditioning you learn that if you OPERATE on your own environment in certain ways M own behavior will produce certain outcomes so you change your behavior accordingly 18Understand how BF Skinner used operant conditioning to train pigeons lecturebook a If the pigeon does what is supposed to be done then they will be rewarded 19Within operant conditioning know what is meant by the stimulus situation the discriminative stimulus stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination lecturebook a b 20 Stimulus Situation People learn that certain behaviors are rewarded In certain situations Discriminative Stimulus sets the occasion for a response to be rewarded Stimulus Generalization doing the behavior in a similar situation expecting a reward Stimulus Discrimination learning that in different scenarios the same behavior does not produce a reward Within operant conditioning be able to de ne punishment and reinforcement In addition know the difference between positive vs negative punishment and positive vs negative reinforcement Be able to identify from an example which of these 4 things is going on lecturebook a b g h Reinforcement response consequences that increase the likelihood of responding in a similar way Punishment response consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again Positive An event is presented or added after a behavioral response to either punish or reinforce Negative An event is removed or taken away after a behavioral response to either punish or reinforce Positive Reinforcement An event is presented after a response increasing the likelihood of that response Negative Reinforcement An event is removed after a response increasing the likelihood of that response Positive Punishment An event is presented after a response lowering the likelihood of that of that response Negative Punishment An event is removed after a response lowering the likelihood of that response 21What is a primary reinforcer lecturebook a Primary Reinforcer Things that are innately reinforcing food warmth sexual grati cation 22What is a conditioned reinforcer lecturebook a Conditioned Reinforcer Reinforcers that are learned money prizes grades applause 23What are some cautions to consider when using punishment lecturebook a b Do NOT rely heavily on physical punishment research shows it creates worse behavior in children Be careful about yelling as a form of punishment sometimes it is actually a reinforcer because it gives a kid desired attention c Make sure to use reinforcement to instill the appropriate behavior that will take the place of the inappropriate behavior punishment just teaches what not to do Not what someone should do instead d Punish behaviors and not the person stop punishment when the behavior stops 24Within operant conditioning what is a continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement schedule lecturebook a Continuous reinforcement the reinforcer is given every time Not always practically possible b Partial reinforcement Reinforcement delivered only some of the time 25Know the 4 different partial reinforcement schedules of operant conditioning be able to identify examples of each and know how well each one tends to work and why What is meant by a post reinforcement pause and how does this relate to a xed ratio schedule lecturebook a Fixed Ratio Schedule the renforcer is given only after a speci ed number of responses Example a seamstress gets a paycheck each time she makes 6 dresses Effectiver produces steady work but often also produces a postreinforcement pause after getting paid for the 6th dress I know I have 6 more to go before getting paid again so I will pause for a break before getting started on the next 6 b Variable Ratio the reinforcer is given after a varying number of responses Example reinforcement might be delivered after 1St dress then next time after 3rOI dress then next time after 6th dress More effective because you don t know when reward is coming less pausing the very next response might always result in another reward Extinction is more dif cult Gambling c Fixed Interval Schedule the reinforcer is given after a xed amount of time instead of a xed amount of responses Example every 5 minutes a person arrives to give treats to any dog that is doing tricks Not very effective because people just start to increase their responding as the quotreward momentquot approaches why bother doing tricks rapidly during minutes 1 through 4 d Variable Interval Schedule the reinforcer is given after a variable amount of time Example someone arrives to give treats to any dog that is doing tricks on average every 5 minutes but at unpredictable intervals sometimes after 30 seconds sometimes after 7 minutes etc More effective because people respond more consistently don t know when reward is coming 26What is meant by shaping How did Skinner use shaping to train pigeons lecturebook a Shaping rewarding a series of approximate behaviors until you get the behavior you want 27Understand some of the biological constraints on learning book 28What is meant by observational learning lecturebook a Observational learning Learning by observing the experience of others 29What is meant by modeling lecturebook a Natural tendency to imitate others 30What were Bandura s Bobo doll studies and what did they demonstrate lecturebook a Bandura stressed that people learn by watching others long before there is any chance for the behavior to occur and be reinforced 31What is meant by vicarious reinforcement and punishment lecturebook a Vicarious ReinforcementPunishment Responses acquired through observational learning are particularly strengthened Chapter 8 Part 1 1 What is the de nition of memory book a The capacity and structures used for the retention and retrieval of information 2 What is encoding booklecture a How memories are initially acquired 3 What is storage booklecture a How memories are maintained 4 What is retrieval booklecture a How stored memories are recoveredtranslated into performance 5 What is sensory memory What is meant by an icon and an echo booklecture a Auditory Echo or Visual lcon lingering sensory memory trace 6 Be able to identify examples of how iconic and echoic memory might be measured booklecture a lconic Memorize 3 letters of 3 rows each 12 second b Auditory 2 seconds 7 What is shortterm memory booklecture a Also called working memory you can hold in your mind for about 30 seconds 8 What is meant by the inner voice vs the inner eye and how do these ideas relate to shortterm memory lecturebook a lnner voice Use acoustic code to keep things in shortterm memory b lnner eye to sort shortterm memories 9 What is rehearsal book a Repeating what you saw so that you can more readily remember what you saw 10What is memory span Research has shown that shortterm memory span is typically how many items booklecture a Very limited capacity l 7 2 chunks of information 11What is chunking booklecture a Can store more information with this which is grouping letters so that you can more easily memorize them 12What is longterm memory booklecture a Practically unlimited storage and info may be permanent 13What are episodic memories booklecture a Memory of things that we have personally experienced personal episodes remembering the rst time you played guitar 14What are semantic memories and procedural memories booklecture a Semantic Memories Memory of general knowledge D facts word meanings I know what a guitar is b Procedural Memories Memories of common physical procedures muscle memory play a guitar 15What is elaboration booklecture a Encoding process that involves the formation of connections between tobe remembered input and other information in memory 16What is visual imagery book a Mental pictures that require you to think about the details of material and these details create a distinctive memory record 17 Know the 7 different methods for improving the storage of information in long term memory booklecture 1 Think about the meaning of what you want to remember 2 Notice relationships take advantage of all the info already in your memory Notice differences Form mental pictures Space your repetitions do something else in between Consider sequence position Test yourself don t just read it or look at it in front of you 18Thinking about quotspacing your repetitionsquot number 5 on the list from lecture What are the implications of this principle for latenight cram sessions booklecture a You are more likely to think about it in a different way each time and have more memory records that are more elaborate and distinctive 19Thinking about number 6 on the list quotconsider sequence positionquot what is the primacy effect and what is the recency effect booklecture a Primacy The improved memory of the items at the start of the list b Recency The improved memory of the items at the end of the list 20What is a mnemonic device book a Special mental tricks that are used for memorizing things 21What is a ashbulb memory Be able to identify examples of ashbulb memories booklecture a Highly rich highly detailed memories of a signi cant moment in your life i People saw the happenings of 911 and recall it happening but they are not accurate when relaying what they saw Newew


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