Psych201Notes.pdf PSYCH 201
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Corey Linver on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 201 at University of Oregon taught by Cartin-Claudia Rode in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
PSY 201 Chapter 1 Vocabulary Psychology The study of mental activity and behavior Psychologist Someone who s career involves understanding mental life or predicting behavior Psychological Science The study through research of mind brain and behavior Mental Activity Sight smell taste sound touch and responsible for memories thoughts feelings Behavior Total of human actions ie debating philosophy eating drinking mating Critical thinking is the practice of Amiable Skepticism Psychological Reasoning Warning Ignoring Evidence confirming bias don t believe everything Failing to accurately judge source credibility who can you trust Misunderstanding or not using stats going with your gut Seeing relationships that don t exist Making something out of nothing Using relative comparison not that you put it that way Accepting after fact bias explanation I can explain Taking mental short cuts keep it simple Failing to see your own inadequacies selfserving bias ie Everyone s above average Schools of Thought NatureNurture Debated that an individuals psychology is attributed to nature and nurture and our psychological character biological or innate is acquired through education experience and culture People Aristotle and Plato MindBody Our mind and body are separate and distinct or our mind is a subjective experience of on going brain activity People Da Vinci in the 1500 s theorized that all sensory messages visiontouchetc arrived in one central location called the senses communis home of thought and judgement and the origin of common sense Rene Descartes in the 1600 s founded the idea of dualism where the mind and body are separate yet still intertwined some how History Psychology originated in philosophy Confucius emphasized human de velopmentedu nterpersonal relations Experimental Psychology Began with Introspections Psychology arose as a field of study in the mid 1800 s in Europe System of Logic 1843 John Stuart Mill established that psychology should involve the realism and skepticism of philosophy In 1879 Wihlem Wundt made the first psychology lab and discovered the psychological process physiological action in the brain Introspection Leads to Structuralism Edward Michener discovers structuralism when a conscious experience can be broken down into it s basic underlying structural components Problem is introspection is subjective Functionalism Addresses Purpose of Behavior 1890 William James establishes the Principles of Psychology criticizing structuralism and noting that the mind is a constant stream of consciousness He argued that psychologists ought to study the function served by the mind ergo functionalism E volutionAdaptationBehavior Charles Darwin establishes evolutionary theory by observing variation of species and individuals deeming it reasoned change over time and calling them adaptations He also establishes the theory of natural selection aka survival of the fittest Gestalt Psychology Emphasized Patterns and Context in Learning Max Wertheimer in 1912 along with Wolfgang Kohler establish the Gestalt Theory the whole is different from eh sum of its parts Freud Emphasis on Unconscious Much of human behavior is determined by mental process of the unconscious mind and thus produced psychoanalysis Behaviorism Studied Environmental Forces In 1913 John B Watson decided if psychology was supposed to be a science then there could be no more studies of mental events Behaviorism emphasized environmental effects on behavior PSY 201 Chapter 1 Cognitive Approaches Emphasize Mental Activity In 1967 Ulric Neisser establishes cognitive psychology which is concerned with mental functions such as intelligence thinking language memory and decision making This eventually led to cognitive neuroscience in the 1980 s Social Psychology Studies How Situations Shape Behavior Peoples behaviors are shaped by the presence of others Pioneering research founded by Floyd Allport and Solomon Asch who established Social Psychology aka the power of situational influences and personal psychology the study of peoples characteristics thoughts and emotions Science Informs Psychological Treatments In the 1980 s psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Masow pioneer the humanistic approach Subfields In Psychology NeuroscienceBiological Psychologists Interested in examining how biological systems give rise to mental activity and behavior Cognitive Psychologists Study cognition perception and action They investigate the processes of such things as thinking perceiving problem solving decision making using language and learning Developmental Psychologist Study how people change across the life span from infancy through old age Personality Psychologist Seek to understand enduring characteristics that people display over time and across circumstances They examine how genes circumstances and cultural context shape personality Social Psychologist Focus on how people are affected by the presence of others and how they form impressions of others Cultural Psychologist Seek to understand how people are influenced by the societal rules that dictate behavior in the cultures in which they are raised Clinical Psychologist Are interested in the factors that cause psychological disorders and the methods best used to treat them Counseling Psychologist Overlap with Clinical Psychologists They however work with people facing difficult circumstances and have serious mental disorders School Psychologist Work in educational settings and help students Industrial and organizational Psychologist Are concerned with the behavior and productivity in an industry or workplace Forensic Psychologist Work in legal settings Sports Psychologist Work with athletes LEVEL FOCUS WHAT S STUDIED Biological Brain Systems Neuroanatomy animal Neurochemistry research brain imaging Genetics Neurotransmitters and hormones animal studies drug studies gene mechanisms heritability twin and adoption studies Individual Individual Differences Personality gender Perception and developmental age Cognitive Behavior groups selfconcept thinking decision making language memory seeing hearing observable actions responses physical movements Social Interpersonal Groups relationships Behavior persuasion influences Social Cognition workplace attitudes stereotypes perceptions Cultural Thoughts actions Norms Beliefs values behaviors in different symbols ethnicity societies and cultural groups
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