General Biology I LectureLab
General Biology I LectureLab BIOL 1110
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Einar Sanford on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1110 at Motlow State Community College taught by Robert Reeder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see /class/223575/biol-1110-motlow-state-community-college in Biology at Motlow State Community College.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
BIOL 1110 REEDER LIPID amp PROTEIN METABOLISM I Lipid amp Protein Conversion A Gluconeogenesis When a person s liver runs low in glycogen the hunger sensation is stimulated a Glycogen is a reserve form of glucose stored as a polysaccharide primarily in the liver and some stored in skeletal muscle b An animal has limited glycogen storage capability providing about one day39s supply of glucose As the glycogen reserves diminish lipids and proteins are catabolized with stored fats representing the greatest reserve fuel in the body fats are the body s secondfavorite energy source due to being more difficult to metabolize than carbohydrates a Generally fats primarily with a few of the body s proteins 1 Most ofthe usable fat resides in adipose tissue that is composed of specialized cells packed with globules of triglycerides 2 Adipose tissue is widely distributed in the abdominal cavity in muscles around deep blood vessels and especially under the skin women average about 30 more fat than men a 50 stored in subcutaneous 12 around kidneys 1015 in omenta 20 in genital areas and 58 between muscles b The conversion of fat and protein molecules in the liver to glucose is called gluconeogenesis 1 Like glucose fatty acids glycerol and amino acids must be converted into glucose breakdown products intermediate before they are catabolized most of the reactions are reversible B Lipid Metabolism 1 Storage a Fats stored are derived principally from surplus fats and carbohydrates in the diet 1 Since acetyl CoA is the source of carbon atoms used to build fatty acids and all major organic classes carbohydrates fats and proteins can be degraded to acetyl CoA all can then be converted into stored fat b Fat does not remain stationary until needed for energy but is continually released from storage transported through the blood and redeposited in other adipose tissue 1 Possibly as much as one half of the total bodyfat reserve changes position daily c Amino acids may be transformed into lipids like glucose by first being converted to glucose or to a glucosebreakdown product and then conversion to glycerol and fatty acids 2 Catabolism a Glycerol when fats are metabolized they are first separated into glycerol and fatty acids in the liver and then catabolized separately 1 It is then further converted in the liver to the intermediate product PGAL glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate b Fatty Acids contains the bulk of a fat molecule39s potential energy 1 Involves a series of reactions involving the liver called beta oxidation a Twocarbon fragments are removed and converted into acetyl CoA which can be converted to glucose and catabolized by any cell b Most of the fragments however are converted into acetone or keto acids in which the liver cannot convert any further released into the blood other cells may N gtllt bioll 1 10ilipidjrotein 112603 REEDER BIOL 1110 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 1 Carbohydrates gt lt gt lt bioll 1 loyorganicycompounds Function 1 Fuel Molecules Fuel Factor 1 gm 4Kcal E39 chief fuel source 2 Structural makeup in plants and animals cell membranes cell walls nucleic acids ATP Makeup Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen CnHZmOm Classes 1 Monosaccharides simplest in makeup39 simple sugars form in which larger carbohydrates must be lysed to by digestion before absorption can take place glucose39 other hexoses fructose galactose39 pentoses ribose deoxyribose backbones of DNA and RNA ribose in ATP AMP and coenzymes such as NAD and FAD 2 Disaccharides two monosaccharides joined together39 simple sugars Example maltose sucrose common table sugar lactose milk 3 Polysaccharides many monosaccharides joined insoluble complex Examples a starch storage form of glucose in plants important fuel source to plants and anim b glycogen animal starch temporary storage form of glucose in animals in liver and muscle c cellulose main structural carbohydrate of plants humans are unable to digest it but is important source of bulk or fiber in diet roughage Removal of a HZO molecule forms bond between monosaccharide glucose units called a glycosidic bond Addition of a HZO molecule hydrolysis splits the bonds Aid in Digestion of larger carbohydrates Proteins Large complex macromolecules 1 Growth Protein synthesis and maintenance 2 Structural makeup cell membrane enzymes hormones skin bone tendons immunoglobulins 3 Fuel 1 gm 4 KcalE39 Process involved Deamination in the liver results in removal of amino group for excretion as urea39 remainder is utilized for energy production 4 Source of glucose and fat synthesis when needed or in excess of demand Function Makeup Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur cysteine Composed of smaller subunits amino acids which contributes to LARGE SIZE Twenty different amino acids important to living things hum ans One protein differs from another by number of type and arrangement or order of amino acids making it up39 order will determine how the protein will fold into a threedimensional configuration determined by the genetic code of NA A protein is formed by bonding carboxyl group of one molecule to amino group of another A peptide bond is formed by removal of an HZO molecule Two amino acids bonded is a dipeptide a longer chain is a polypeptide A polypeptide contains an unspecified number of amino acids but usually has more than 20 and is often a smaller subunit of a larger distinctlyshaped protein A protein is the largest of this compound class and usually contains a minimum of 50 amino acids It is common for the terms polypeptide and protein to be used interchangeably though not all polypeptides are large enough to be considered proteins There are 4 levels of protein structure that ultimately results in a functional shape39 DNA s information directs synthesis 1 imary polypeptide chain of amino acids peptide bonds Secondary resulting twisting shape or coiling into a helix hydrogen bonds between amino acids in successive turns of the spiral coil between H atom and double bonded O atom 4 peptide bonds away Tertiary folding of the helix upon itself imparting a specific overall structure resulting in a characteristic shape 2 3 83006 gt lt gt lt bioll l lOyorganicycompounds eg most proteins assume a globular shape created by additional bonds between functional groups e g from H bonds or a disulfide bridge which occurs between R groups of 2S atoms Quaternam results in a protein with a combination of two or more like or unlike peptide chain subunits each with its own primary secondary and tertiary structures to form the larger biologically active protein molecule e g hemoglobin four folded polypeptide subunits results from hydrophobic interactions hydrogen and ionic bonds some enzymes and antibodies 4 V Proteins also differ from each other by their shape Shape determines the protein39s function Two basic functional shapes with each protein s surface displaying a distinctive pattern of pockets and bulges l Fibrous structural types collagen histone keratin 2 Globular chemically active types hormones enzymes antibodies hemoglobin Denaturation by heating or treating a protein with any of a number of chemicals pH the tertiary structure is altered hydrogen bonds resulting in a loss of shape Loss of shape results in a loss of function 3 groups composing an amino acid l Amino group base NH or H N 1 0 2 Carboxyl Acid COOH or C OH 3 quotRquot group group by which one amino acid differs from another Exam es Alanine Cysteine H H H H l l O l l O HNiCC HiNiCC l OH l OH H 7C H H 7 C H l l H SH Before absorption can take place in your intestines digestion must break bonds of protein so that they will be in form of separate amino acids unbounded or dipeptides FatsLipids substances insoluble in HZO39 lard butter waxes oils soluble in organic solvents CBased as ether benzene chloroform non polar generally39 significance of emulsifiers bile salts from liver Function 1 Longterm energy form in animal body storage as well in the seeds and fruits of certain plant species olives avocados sesame seeds and castor beans 1 gm 9 Kcal E 2 Structural makeup cell membrane and steroid hormones 3 Body insulation and mechanical shock absorber Makeup Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Composed of a central core of glycerol with a fatty acid attached to each of thIJ C units of glycerol Chemical term for fat Triglyceride also called neutral fat Digestion must split a neutral fat into monoglycerides and fatty acids before absorption can take place Glycerol is the only water soluble fat component Condensation involves removal of water molecules to link a fatty acid to the glycerol forming an m bond Hydrolysis reverses this via heating in acid or enzymatic treatment All glycerol soluble component molecules are alike but the fatty acids vary in two ways length and degree of saturation 83006 Classes of lipids Triglycerides 95 occurrence or neutral fats mono to triglycerides Phospholipids lecithin significant in structure of cell39s membrane fatty acid ends are nonpolar while the phosphorusbound end with glycerol is polar Sterols such as cholesterol 5 significant in the production of certain hormones testes ovary adrenal and vitamin D hum an skin characteristic structure of 4 interlocking rings 4 Carotene yellow to orangered pigment that can be converted to vitamin A in the animal body The fatty acid of a triglyceride is the main component important for energy abundance of hydrogens There are approximately 40 naturally occurring fatty acids with between 2 and 24 carbon atoms in their axis chain Characteristic carboxyl grp at its terminal end 14 NH V V Example H H H l l l o cicic clt l l l OH H H H Saturated vs unsaturated Fatty Acids Saturated off each available bonding site of carbon is a singlebonded hydrogen with no double covalent bonds occurring between the core C atoms These types are abundant in animals solid at room temperature Unsaturated contain C atoms that are doubly bonded to one another rather than completely saturated with single bonded H atoms These types abundant in plants monounsaturated examples olive canola liquid at room temperature Concerning health unsaturated fatty acids from plant sources are better for you because they are not a source of cholesterol production plus plant sources do not contribute cholesterol directly as well hydrogenated polyunsaturated fats and trans fats Examples Saturated Unsaturated H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H l l l l l O l l l l l l l l l l 0 HiC CiCi C7C7C HiCiCiCiCC7C7CC7C7C7K l l l l l OH l l l l l l OH H H H H H H H H H H H IV Vitamins required for growth and other processes contain useable energy 0 Kcal but play significant roles in the transformation of ENERGY and the regulation of metabolism A Two classes 1 Fat Soluble A D E K 2 Water Soluble C B complex V Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids bioll l lOporganicpcompounds A DNA and RNA most life forms have both while viruses have only one DNA or RNA Nucleotide functions a Monomers for nucleic acids coenzymes utilized in metabolism NADP FAD immediate energy carrier ATP hormone functioning cyclic AMP transcription AMP is used for RNA synthesis during gene expression B E adenosine triphosphate l 3 part molecule consisting of a adenine a nitrogenous base linked to b ribose pentose sugar with a chain of c 3 phosphate ggoups 2 A nucleotide that is the immediate energy carrier in cells a ATP is produced by one set of reactions and is immediately consumed by another b other forms ADP AMP r nap057 83006
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