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JAPN HIST Study guide for midterm #2

by: Denise Gomez

JAPN HIST Study guide for midterm #2 JAPN315

Marketplace > California State University - Fullerton > Japanese > JAPN315 > JAPN HIST Study guide for midterm 2
Denise Gomez
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These are the questions the professor might ask. follow the guidelines carefully and good luck on the midterm!
Intro to Japanese Civilization
Dr. Kazuha Watanabe
Study Guide
Japanese History, Japan, history, Imperial Courts, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Denise Gomez on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JAPN315 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Kazuha Watanabe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Intro to Japanese Civilization in Japanese at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 03/22/16
JAPN 315 Study guide for Midterm #2 Please review the following topics (this is not an exhaustive list; this is just to give you an idea to  see what sort of things you should study for the exam.) Good luck! Answers will be in this color.  Additional information will be in this color. 1) What are the characteristics of Hakuho culture?  Developed from Taika Reformation (645) to 710. Heavily influenced from China, Korea,  & India. It was the time Yakushi­ji was built in Nara (now classified in UNESCO World  treasure). Literature arose during this time; Kojiki/Nihon shoki (mythology, history, titles of emperors from 1  to 33  written in Chinese), Fudoki (Geographic information written  in Chinese), & Manyooshi (known as collection of 10000 leaves, oldest collection of  poetry written in Japanese using Manyoogana). 2) What is the name of new capital in Nara?   Heijo kyo (now it’s just nothing but a monument stating the capital used to be there).  Roads were planned perpendicular, capital was based on Chinese capital Cho­an, 708  Genmei Tenno announce ‘sento’ and empress coined currency called Wado  kaiho/kaichin. 3) What types of temples did Shomu tenno built?  What are the differences?  What is  Todaiji famous for? Shomu tenno 729­749 etablished kokuban­ji, kokubun’ni­ji, and Todaiji (they are all  Buddhist temples thus we can speculate he was heavily influenced in Buddhism) 4) Who is genjo?  What is saiyuki?  Who are supposed to be the guardians for sanzo hoshi  in saiyuki?   According to the Nanto Rokushu (southern 6 Buddhism sects), under Hosso­shu, in 638  Genjo (also known as Sanzo hoshi) was a traveler who returned to China from India  (Tenjiku). Saiyuki is based off Chinese classic literature about the journey to the west.  The journey (Saiyuki) he claimed to have gone through also stated he was accompanied  by 3 creatures/guardians: Son Goku (monkey), Cho Hakkai (pig), Sa Gojo (duck like  monster). Also accompanied by a white horse Gyokuryu.  5) What is Shosoin?  Where are the artifacts/treasures from?  What is the trading road  between China and Europe called?   Azekura zukuri styled warehouse (triangular log architecture). Classified under  UNESCO’s World Heritage, since it contains untouched treasures from the Silk Road  (brought to Japan via Ken To Shi) 6) What sorts of amendments were made to the farmland distribution in the Nara period? In 722, the Imperial Court declared they needed 3 million acres of new farmland. By 723  th Gensho Tenno (44 ) established sanze isshin­no ho system in which : you cultivate your  own farmland, Can keep it for up to 3 generations, no princes, nobles, gentry, nor  monasteries were allowed to cultivate new farmlands. By 743 Shomu Tenno established  Konden einen sizaiho; whereas there are no restrictions (which still left as a disadvantage  to the nobles) cultivate the land that is now forever yours (which did not help the poor  farmers whatsoever). 7) Where was the capital during the Heian Period? What was the structure of capital like?  Was the right side of the capital the same as the left?   In 794, Kanmu Tenno moved the capital (sento) to Heian­kyo (modern day Kyoto).  Capital structure was Jobosei (chessboard like structure) borrowed from China. The  emperor’s right side (left) called Ukyo had a large river called Katsura gawa, the  neighboring houses around it were not developed until in the 10  century when most  became farmlands. The emperor’s left side (right) Sakyo was where nobles housed Kamu gawa except northern edge of Ukyo. The poor lived in the area beyond Kamu gawa,  temples and second houses were around the east bank of Kamu gawa. As time passes,  civilians built houses outside the main capital because of the rough neighborhood (crime) in Ukyo and the expensive landmarks in Sakyo (as well as the vacation homes nobles  cannot obtain). So the capital technically expanded. 8) What is Sekkan seiji? Who started it? Which emperor’s period was it? What is sessho?  What is kanpaku?  Which family was selected to be Sessho and Kanpaku?  Who was the  most successful one from the family (the arrogant one!)? The political structure during  this time period ranges from high rank to low rank position;  Sessho: emergency office (supports emperor)  Kanpaku: regular officer (supports emperor)  Jingikan: religious  Dajokan: non­religious, chair (Daijo daijin) Sekkan seiji is an establishment to which the Furigawa family occupied sessho or  kanpaku position. Started during Seiwa Tenno (56 & became emperor at the age of 9!)  Fujiwara Yoshifusa was his maternal uncle (perhaps pulled the strings).Fujiwara­no  th Michinaga became the Sessho for Goichijo Tenno (68 ). Fujiwara­no had 3 of his  daughters become the emperors’ wives including Chugu Shoshi (the person who  Murasaki Shikibu served). Built Byodoin Ho­o Do, The Phoenix Palace. 9) Who is Sugawara­no Michizane? What did he do?  What happenedtho him?  How about  th his plum tree? His shrine? Worked under Uda Tnno (59 ) and Daigo Tenno (60 ) as Dajo Daijin. He was anti­Fujiwara thus demoted to Dazaifu gon­no sochi (chair). Fujiwara  family devised a plan to get rid of him, the first attempt did not work however, their 2   nd attempt succeeded! Drafted him to Sakimori (army) in Dazaifu (army base) that was  established in Asuka Period. He wrote a poem about how he will miss the everlasting  plum tree that was rich in fragrance for he knew he would never return. Years later, many folks built a shrine around the claimed plum tree that blossomed in his state in dedication  of him. Nowadays it can be visited by many students in prayers of succession, dedication, & hard work. 10) What are the characteristics of Heian culture? Did Heian culture have major influence  from China?  Who are the major authors? Their main works?  What is the significance of  each work?  How about poetry? Clothing?  Known as Kokufu Bunka (Japanese original  culture) established in 894: the end of Ken To Shi by Sugawara Michizane. Writings  were now hiragana and katakana. Literatures flourished; Makura­no Soshi ‘The Pillow  Book’(Essay by Seisho Nagonwhom served under Fujiwara Teishi, idea of  ‘Monozukushi’ or list of things and concept of okashi or reality so a bit opposition from  Murasaki’s Monono aware), Genji Monogatari ‘Tale of Genji’ (55 volume novel by  Murasaki Shikibu who served one of the wives of Ichijo Tenno (66) 986­1011, volumes  have title based on Genji’s lover’s name except #41 it’s blank may depict death but  overall the Love Story of Hikaru Genji following monoimi or love poem exchange,  fashion, or usage of incense are written, a heavy concept of Monono aware or emotions;  she also wrote a diary called Murasaki Shikibu Nikki around 1010, she’s the only  Japanese to appear in UNESCO’s world most important figures, perhaps dated Fujiwara  Michinaga and was said to be the first novel in the world finished in 1005), Tosa Nikki  (Tosa Diary, written in 935 by gov’t official Ki­no Tsurayuki written in hiragana about a  trip back from Tosa or current Kochi), Konjaku monogatari (known as ‘long time ago  stories’ is a collection of fables w/ 31 volumes [8, 18, 21 missing] written in Kanji and  katakana influenced author Akutagawa Ryunosuke to which his prize is literally Japanese Nobel prize for literature). Waka (575­77, Japanese poetry first ordered by emperor  called Chokusen wakashu & Kokin wakashu by Daigo Tenno (60 ) in 905 [Ki­no th Tsurayuki was one of the 4 editors to edit]). Kan’I sokutai,(men’s clothing & women’s  clothing in Juuni Hitoe or 12 layer actually 8­10) & Sinden zukuri.(domestic architecture  for aristocratic mansions built in Heian­kyo 11) What is Insei? What are the difference between joko and ho’o? Government runs by retired emperor. Joko is a retired emperor. Ho’o is a retired emperor  who becomes a monk (Shuuke: leaving your home and entering the religious life). Shirakawa Tenno established this so that no more manipulation can occur within imperial court especially from Fujiwara family. Shinsei is the direct control of the gov’t by the  st emperor established under Gosanjo tenno (71 ). Shirakawa tenno becomes Joko in 1086. 12) How did Heian period end?  What was the problem with the imperial family (i.e., which  imperial family member didn’t get along with whom)? Who is ‘ojiko’ (uncle­child)? Why was he called so? What is Hogen­no ran? How about Heiji­no ran?  What is Dan­no Ura­ no tatakai?  Did Heike and Genji fight for both of the wars? Here’s a chart on how to  better understand their feudal fights here’s a chart:          →→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→         ↑                                                    ↓       ↓ Shirakawa 72  ┬ ♀                              ↓       ↓ rd                                  Horikawa 73  ┬♀             ↓       ↓                                                         ♀┬ 74         ♀┬ Toba 74  ┬♀┬ ←?                  Goshirakawa 77    Konoe 76     Sutoku 75  ┬♀th                                                                                    Shigehito Hogen­no ran in 1156, Sutoku joko vs. goshirakawa tenno. Stems from Shirakawa hoo      nd th th (72 ) vs. Toba Tenno (74 ). Ojiko means (uncle­child) and was given to Sutoku (75 )  because it was unclear if Sutoku was his son or was his grandfather’s son. 1141 Toba  forces Sutoko tenno to resign and makes Sutoku’s brother as emperor (Konoe). But  th Konoe dies in 1155. Toba supports his 4  son Masahito shin’no thus makes Goshirakawa  tenno. War is about to uprise with Minamoto­no Tameyoshi, Yorikata, Tanetomo  Yorinori, Taira­no Tadamasa siding with Sutoku versus Goshirakawa’s side Minamoto­ no Yoshitomo Taira­no Kiyomori, Minamoto­no Yorimasa, & Yoshiyasu. Toba dies  before Goshirakawa launches his first strike on Sutoku causing his palace to burn down  thus Goshirakawa wins. Heiji­no ran takes place in 1158, Goshirakawa ‘retires’ and his  son becomes tenno (Nijo tenno) who in fact turned out to be the best tenno. This made  Goshirakawa furious which again made opposing sides: Goshirakawa supported by  Fujiwara­no Michinori & Taira­no Kiyomori vs Nijo tenno supported by Minamoto­no  Yoshitomo. Heishi/Goshirakawa wins! Many Genji were killed. Because Taira­no  Kiyomori has been supporting Goshirakawa all this time he allowed them to gain power  among Bushi. Yes, the one thing Shirakawa tried to avoid is now broken, and has the  th power over to the Taira­no Kiyomori or Heiji. The grandchildren of Kanmu Tenno (50 )  with around 7 different family lines. 13) How did the social class ‘bushi’ start?  What are the two major families?   Bushi is samurai (archers). Seen as police/military for noble’s land (shoen) and capital.  They can inherit the status, they have more influence in the territory over land owner.  They had feudal relationship as lord and vessals along with the right to tax/rent a piece of land. The two main clans are Genji and Heishi. 


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