Review for Exam 2
Review for Exam 2 HNES 250
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Dosso on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 266 views. For similar materials see Nutrition science in Nursing and Health Sciences at North Dakota State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Study Guide HNES 250 Exam 2 Chapter 4 o What monosaccharides make up sucrose maltose lactose o Glucose Glucose Maltose Which occurs when starch breaks down 0 Glucose Fructose Sucrose Found in fruits vegetables and grains 0 Glucose Galactose Lactose Lactose is found in milk 0 Compare kcalorie content of table sugar verses honey 0 Table sugar has 49 kcalories 0 Honey has 64 kcalories o What is an oligosaccharide and what are some examples 0 It s a complex carbohydrate that has between 310 units of monosaccharides o Raffinose and Stachyose are the 2 most common oligosaccharides Raffinose 0 Found in beans cabbage Brussel sprouts broccoli and whole grains 0 Made of galactose glucose and fructose Stachyose 0 Made of 2 galactose molecues a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule 0 It is found in beans and other legumes Secretions found in the mouth that helps digest carbohydrates 0 Salivary Amylase begins the breakdown of carbohydrates in the mouth 0 Technique used by endurance athletes to increase glycogen stores 0 Carbohydrate or glycogen loading eating lots of carbohydrates 0 This increases glycogen stores in the liver and muscles for future energy needs like ecerising o What is insulin and where is it made 0 Insulin is a hormone produced and secreted by the pancreas o It helps regulate blood glucose levels 0 What is the glycemic index 0 This is the potential that a particular food has to raise blood glucose levels 0 The higher the glycemic index the faster the raise in blood glucose levels 0 What are the benefits of increasing fiber in your diet 0 It provides a feeling of satiety because of how long it takes to digest Helps with bowel movements prevents colon cancer Preventscontrols diabetes Preventsalleviates hemorrhoids Prevent diverticulosis appendicitis Weight control 0 Lowers cholesterol 0 What does a diet high in sugar cause 0 Tooth decay 0 Can lead to nutrient deficiencies 0 Could lead to obesity and or elevated lipid levels Thought to be because of fructose and how it doesn t properly stimulate insulin and leptin o What are sugar alcohols What products would you find them in 0 They are found in sugarfree products Cause less tooth decay Absorbed slower with little insulin 0 Sorbitol mannitol and xylitol are all sugar alcohols o What are the similarities and differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes 0 Type 1 Insulin Dependent pancreas not producing insulin Usually thin individuals OOOOO Occurs before age 30 Not as common 0 Type 2 Usually occurs later in life Obesity is a big risk factor also genetics ethnicity and gestational diabetes Most common form of diabetes Cells are not responding to insulin 0 What is lactose intolerance How would that differ from a milk allergy 0 It s an intolerance to lactose because of an insufficient amount of the lactase enzyme Symptoms bloating cramping diarrhea and discomfort o A milk allergy is an immune response to the protein in the milk which can be life threatening 0 Where does chemical digestion of carbohydrate begin o It begins in the mouth with salivary amylase o What are amylases o Enzymes that convert starch and glycogen into simple sugars o Salivary or pancreatic Chapter 5 0 Risk factors for heart disease Family History Smoking Diabetes Obesity Lipid profile High total or LDL cholesterol 0 Be able to evaluate a lipid profile to determine risk for heart disease using the American Heart Association guidelines 0 A panel of blood tests performed to screen for abnormalities in lipids such as triglycerides and cholesterol 0 Most reports include Total cholesterol 0 Ideal level of less than 200mgdl Triglycerides 0 Ideal level of less than 150mgdl High density lipoprotein HDL 0 Typical levels between 4060 Low density lipoprotein LDL 0 Ideal level of less than 100mgdl o What are the 3 classes of lipids o Triglycerides Chains 3 Fatty acids on a glycerol background Plenty of carbon and hydrogen little oxygen When triglycerides are made water is a byproduct o Phospholipids OOOOOO Chains Containing a phosphate group 0 Sterols Rings Poorly absorbed o What type of lipid is most common both in the food we eat and how we store fat 0 How are triglycerides classified 0 Chain length Short chains of lt6 carbons are dairy products Long chains of 1424 carbons are meats and fish 18 carbon long chains are the most common lf between 424 carbons long there is always an even number o Saturation Saturated 0 NO double bonds 0 Saturated with hydrogen 0 Solid at room temp except coconut and palm oils which are saturated but liquid Unsaturated 0 Shape Cis or Trans 0 Define saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated fats Give examples of foods which have each 0 Saturated Having the maximum number of hydrogens NO double bonds 0 Monounsaturated Fats Having only one double bond The best type of fat you can have 0 Polyunsaturated Fats Having multiple double bonds 0 What are trans fatty acids Why should you avoid them What indicates a food contains trans fats 0 Fatty acids that have had altered chemical composition so that they can become more solid or thick 0 They are a lot harder to digest than natural fatty acids 0 Hydrogenation or partial hydrogenation 0 Examples of omega3 fatty acids Why are they beneficial o Omega s are common in fish and flax 0 These are essential meaning they have to come from your diet 0 They reduce cardiovascular disease 0 What are sterols How are they beneficial to us 0 These are a type of lipid 0 There is cholesterol which comes only from animals or is produced by the body Cholesterol is used in every cell for membrane structure 0 And stanols which are sterols that come from plants Stanols and cholesterol have a similar structure Stanols are beneficial to cholesterol control because it decreases the absorption of dietary cholesterol 0 Where does our body store fat for later energy use 0 In the adipose tissue 0 How does eating a very low fat diet affect vitamin absorption 0 There are two forms of vitamins 0 Water Soluble amp Fat Soluble 0 Fat is required to aid in the absorption of fat soluble vitamins 0 Low fat diets will have a negative effect on vitamin absorption 0 What affects our cholesterol levels in our blood 0 Saturated fats in our diet 0 Where does chemical digestion of lipids begin 0 Some small chain lipids begin breaking down the mouth but all other lipids or fats are broken down in the small intestine o The pancreas releases lipase and the livergallbladder releases bile which both aid in the digestion of fats o What are lipases 0 These are enzymes produced by the pancreas that help breakdown lipidsfats o What hormones work with lipid digestion o Cholecystokinin CCK Found in the duodenum and stimulates the release of digestive enzymes in the pancrease and bile in the gall bladder Chapter 6 o How are amino acids distinguished form one another What differences does that make 0 Every amino acid has the same backbone but they all vary by their R group 0 Know the essential amino acids 1 Histidine lsoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan 9 Valine o What is the difference between transamination and deamination o Transamination is the transfer of an amino acid during a chemical reaction 0 Deamination is when amino acids are broken down in excess protein intake 0 What is the byproduct of deamination When does deamination occur 0 Ammonia is the byproduct of deamination 0 When protein levels are high 0 How are 2 amino acids joined together What byproduct is formed 0 Amino acids are joined via hydrolysis or condensation reactions 0 They are bonded via a peptide bond 0 The byproduct of this is water 0 What is a complete protein 0 A complete protein is one that has the appropriate amino acids necessary for proper digestion and absorption 0 How are proteins denatured 0 Their sequence doesn t change but their shape does 0 Heat denatures a protein 0 What is the PDCAAS score What foods will have higher and lower scores 0 PDCAAS Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score 0 The score is obtained by the digestibility and the composition of the Amino Acid based on preschool age children Milk and Egg 1 Soybeans 099 Beef 092 Kidney Beans 068 O o 0 Vegetarian classificationswhat do they eat What are complimentary proteins 0 Complimentary proteins are intended to be consumed along with limited Amino Acids to create complete protein Limited amino acids are usually plant based and grains are a great compliment to them see slide 38 o Vetetarian Classifications NO meat eggs fish milk and other animal derived proteins except 0 Lactoovo vegetarian dairy amp eggs 0 Lacto vegetarian dairy o Pesco vegetarian dairy eggs ampfish PNP P PP P Strict vegan only includes grains veggies fruits Semivegetarian includes dairy eggs chicken and fish Fruitarian Excludes all foods except raw fruits nuts and green foliage What nutrients are of most concern for vegetarians 0 Protein Iron Zinc Calcium Vitamin D Vitamin B12 0 Vitamin B2 Differences between marasmus and kwashiorkor o Marasmus Chronic food deprivation Extremely low calories and protein Growth stops GI tract lining deteriorates o Kwashiorkor Acute food deprivation Causes edema of limbs and abdomen 0 Because fluid leaks into interstitial area because there are too few of proteins for proper transportation No enzymes to remove toxins How do you correct PEM o PEM Proteinenergy malnutrition o SLOWLY ADD FOOD to diet 0 Feeding too fast can lead to refeeding syndrome and is potentially leathal What are examples of diseases associated with genetic abnormalities 0 What is Nitrogen Balance When might a person be in positive or negative nitrogen balance 0 Having the proper amount of nitrogen present for growth 0 High protein positive nitrogen balance Good for growth and pregnancy 0 Low protein in high excretion negative nitrogen balance Because of starvation 0 Equal nitrogen in and excreted Balanced nitrogen What is PKU 0 People with phenylketonuria PKU can t eat phenylanine 0 They have to obtain tyrosine in their diet Where does chemical digestion of protein begin 0 Protein is first digested in the stomach by pepsin o Pepsin breaks the peptide bond that holds amino acids together 0 Digestion of protein is completed in the small intestine by trypsin chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase What are proteases 0 These are enzymes that breakdown proteins and peptides OOOOO
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