Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide PSY305
Popular in Psy Infant and Early Childhood
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Marth on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY305 at Grand Valley State University taught by Paszek in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Psy Infant and Early Childhood in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Exam 2 study guide Chapters 36 Chapter 3 Chromosomes genetic information DNA 46 chromosomes 23 pairs Gene segmented DNA in a specific location on a chromosome 0 Alleles are different variations of genes Homozygous two alleles are the same Heterozygous two alleles are different 0 Dominant genes 9DdDD during these situations that dominant allele is present therefore the dominant allele is expressed Recessive genes 9 dd recessive genes are only expressed when both alleles are recessive Genotype Genetic makeup Phenotype the characteristics that are expressed We use punnit squares inorder to predict the chances that an offspring when carry or show a specific trait B b Ex B brown eyes 3 BB Bb bblue eyes 3 chance they ll have brown b Bb bb eyes 1A chance they ll have blue Polygenic many gene pairs involved Ex intelligence DNA make up the genes consist of a genetic code using four basic molecules adenine A thymine T guanine G and cysteine C Mitosis Duplicates chromosomes in order to split one cell into two identical cells Palrs oairs Meiosis the process which sex cells divide at conception these 4 cells are now considered either egg or sperm cells Fertilization When a sperm cell 23 cs and an egg cell 23 cs join together to create a zygote that consist of 46 cs with 23 pairs Genes and environmental influences Twin studies Monozygotic comes from one egg Identical twins with the exact same gene makeup Dizygotic two separate eggs Fraternal twins with two different gene sets Averager share 50 of the same genes Mm monozygotic twins raised together their IQ correlation was 86 monozygotic twins raised apart IQ correlation was 72 dizygotic twins raises together IQ correlation was 60 This shows that genes play a big factor in IQ environment could play a small role too according to identical twin IQ study Adoption Studies Adopted child 9raised by biological parents their genes were 50 similar with no environmental similarity IQ correlation 22 Adopted child 9raised by adopted parents where there was environment similarities there was no genetic similarities IQ correlation 19 Scarr and McCarthy Gene Environment Interactions Concordance rate Finding the odds that someone else would have the same gene as another person 0 Ex Twins most common If one twin has Alzheimer s what is the chance that the other twin will develop Alzheimer s Heritability A percent or a number telling you how much of the gene is from genetic factors when looking at a whole sample of people 0 Looking at differences in people and a specific trait Reaction Range genetic makeup sets limits for a specific traits Depending on experiences that determine where we fall within those limits 0 Ex height with good nutrition you ll be taller poor nutrition you ll be shorter within you limits Gene Environment Interactions 1 Passive Interaction decreases with age kids can t do much about environment 0 Ex born in a poor house the way they re disciplined or their experience 2 Active nteractions Increases with age Child has influence on environment which then influences their phenotype 0 Fighting with parents choosing who they hang out with choosing to play sports 3 Evocative interactions always there Not passive not active but because of child s phenotype they are going to evoke certain responses from others due to their phenotype Prenatal Development Teratogens any agent that can cause harm to the unborn infant Such as drugs xrays and alcohol 0 The effects shown depend on child s genotype 0 Effects also depend on the dosage of teratogen 3 embryonic stages 1 Germinal fertilization 2 weeks implants into the uterus Blastocyst is formed once cells begin to multiple which then is developed into an embryo and an outer group of cells the trophoblast mpantation in the uterus after the 79 day after conception 2 Embryonic 9 28 weeks organs are first being developed fetus is sensitive to teratogens at this point 3 Feta9 8 weeks birth 38 weeks further development of organs brain and nervous system Patterns of Growth Cephalocaudal development growth that starts at head 9 tail Proximodistal development growth starts at center spinal cord and brain and then out arms and legs Miscarriage A pregnancy that ends before 20 weeks often due to problems in the fetus such as chromosomal abnormalities or abnormal uterus Still Birth When a fetus dies after 20 weeks most the time the cause cannot be determined Common cause is placental problem Diagnosis treatment Doctors use tests such as Preimplantation genetic diagnosis biopsy done on blastocyst resulting from in vitro fertilization Ultrasound sound waves bounce off the developing fetus and covert to an image Maternal blood screening maternal serum alpha fetoprotein test quotthe triple screen usually detects neural tube defects such as spina bifida or anencephaly Also aid in the detection of down syndrome 0 Chronic villus sampling a small amount of the chorion tissue surrounding the amniotic sac is extracted using needle guided by ultrasound o Amniocentesis insert a hollow needle guided by ultrasound into uterus and collect a sample of amniotic fluid 0 Fetal therapy such as gene therapy inserting healthy genes into the cells of a person s body Prenatal influences mothers should gain around 2535 pounds unless you are underweight you should gain 2840 Fetal alcohol syndrome when the mother drinks during pregnancy it harms the baby causing physical behavioral and cognitive abnormalities FAS babies usually have smaller brains and growth deficiencies poor coordination adhd and distinctive facial abnormalities Drugs and medications should not be taken while pregnant even aspirin and ibuprofen because it cause complications during delivery avoid nicotine caffeine only small amounts and stressful situations Chapter 4 Stages of labor 1 Contractions Dilation and effacement Dilation is one of the first steps that consists of widening of the cervix up to 10 cm 2 hours 2 days atent phase usually last 20 hours this is when the uterus is contracting 530 minutes apart that last 1440 secs Active phase contraction are now 25 minutes apart and last 4560 seconds effacement when the cervix widens and thins out 2 Delivery of the infant Lasts less than two hours in a first birth and even shorter for births after Vertex position when baby comes out head first 3 Placental expulsion the placenta separates from the uterine wall and is expelled through the final set of contractions Complications of child birth Faiure to progress women at 37 weeks may experience premature rupture of the membranes PROM labor begins and then fails to progress Breech presentation when the baby s feet or buttocks emerges first Usually resulting in Csection preterm born before 37 weeks 70 are born between 34 and 37 Very preterm born before 32 weeks Low Birth weight baby weighs lass that 55lbs Usually is a result of maternal illness during pregnancy Very low birth weight baby weighs under 325lbs Childbirth options Medical interventions 0 Induction of labor when labor fails in postdate pregnancy the mother is given a synthetic form of oxytocin which is a hormone that stimulates uterine muscles Electronic fetal monitoring used to monitor contractions and the infant s heart rate Sensor placed on mom s belly or a more sensitive procedure is when a wire is put into mom s vagina and places sensor on baby scalp Pain relief 0 Analgesic medication is given to reduce pain but not eliminate it side effects such as drowsiness and euphoria o Anesthetic medication eliminates pain entirely Sometimes this is a negative option because the mom is asleep and misses out on the positive aspects of seeing the baby emerge and holding their newborn o Epidural anesthetics a popular alternative numbs women s pelvis and legs but can be administered at levels that allows mom to walk and adjust positions 0 Analgesia iniection injects intrathecal opioids into fluid of the spinal canal early in labor Relieve pain for up to 10 hours with almost no impairment of muscle control Forceps and vacuum extraction when the baby is descended far enough that the doctor uses forceps metal utensil or a vacuum extractor plastic cup to help with delivery Episiotomy an incision between the vagina and the anus that allows for a wider opening before the baby s head emerges Cesarean Delivery a surgical delivery performed while mother is under spinal epidural Places to give birth Hospital usually performed by obstetrician About 8 of all births have an attending certifies nurse midwife 0 Some hospitals have a birth doula which is a trained personal who guides encourages and praises the women during birth but performs no medical procedures during childbirth Some provide postpartum care offering help with breast feeding and advice Home births have begun to increase recently Research shows that there are higher infant mortality rates from babies born in hospitals New born assessments Apgar test Appearance pinkred is good blue is bad Pulse at a good rate Grimise coughing and sneezing Activity arm and leg movement OOOO respiration breathing given a 0 poor 1 intermediate or 2 well and above Add score up at the end Reflexes touch is the first sense to develop Many reflexes that are present at birth diminish over the next few weeks grasp foot flex o Sensory abilities able to distinguish between taste babies prefer a more sweet taste Smells is also strong and are able to smell their mothers scent Hearing is also good able to distinguish mother s voice Sight is the only sense that is not developed Adaptations infants adjust fast learning to breath regulate body temp and they now feel hunger and need to eat kangaroo care is skin to skin contact with parent and infant Shows physiological benefits and calms the baby States of arousal waking activity eyes open arms and legs are moving This lasts a while Alert activity very awake absorbing sensory skills but rarely moves tages of sleep REM deep sleep brain wave pattern looks like they re awake infants spend 50 of the time in REM sleep because their brain needs the stimulation when not getting any the little hours they are awake Chapter 5 Physical growth health and nutrition 0 Growth patterns 0 Growth in first three years is faster than any other point after birth o Birthweight typically doubles by 5 months and triples by 12 months 0 Head is approximately of the whole body length 3 year old is less top heavy 0 Skull grows rapidly too increasing more during the first 4 months 0 Failure to thrive when an infant s growth falters usually due to lack of nutrition 0 Lack of nutrition due to mother not being able to breastfeed choose unhealthy food or do not use effective feeding techniques 0 Psychosocial short stature children are under weight and extremely short for their age FTT may be a sign of neglect or emotional and psychological trauma 0 Brain development o Newborn brain is approximately of an adult brain grows 80 in the first 3 years and 90 by age 5 At birth most neurons already have their specialized functions Pruning when neurons that aren t being used die off due to over production of neurons 0 Synapses connections between neurons Axons carry electrical messages away from the neurons cell body Dendrites bring signals to the cell body Synaptogenesis the formation of synapses Peak of synapses during 412 months Plasticity means that the brain is flexible and changes a lot I Damage or disease to brain doesn t mean they ll lose the area Other areas of the brain take over not even knowing that there was damage in the first place 0000 o Myelination neurons gain a fatty sheet myelin for protection and speed of transmission of messages between neurons Maltreatment defined by National Child abuse and Neglect Data System as neglect medical neglect physical abuse sexual abuse or psychological maltreatment effects large amounts of children in the US 0 Neglect or abuse leads to delays and abnormalities in cognitive emotional social and physical development Also challenges the child s immune system Shaking baby syndrome abusive head trauma due to maltreatment in which any or frustrated adult shakes an infant violently Infant mortality rate IMR in most parts of the developed world Has been significantly lower than in the past 0 Most common causes is congenital malformations disorders related to preterm birth and low birthweight and sudden infant death syndrome Accidently iniures many can be avoided through education changes in environment or in products and legislation or regulation o Drowning and neardrowning o Choking 0 Baby walkers falling down stairs 0 Falling Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS leading cause of death in infants Increased risk if parent smoke or drink alcohol 0 Recommended that babies sleep on back with no extra blankets or pillows in crib 0 Peak age is between 2 and 4 months Nutrition and feeding children under age of 2 need more fats in their diet due to infant s brain bones and other body structures developing rapidly o Malnutrition in infants is more damaging 0 Breast milk has more advantages than formula providing infant with mother s immune system vitamins and minerals as well as a pleasing taste for infants 0 Formula is not the end of the world though you should not stress if breast feeding isn t working out then you should just switch to formula to insure that the baby is getting its nutrition 9 provides bonding time with father o Immunizations o Experts say GET THEM 0 Extreme effects are rare risks of not getting the shots increase the likelihood of getting the disease we are trying to preventable Issues with going to school and passing the disease on No evidence for autism link Chapter 6 Sensation perception and motor development 0 Measuring sensory and perceptions in infants 0 Can39t ask them verbally based on the response that they do have physiological measures heart rate brain waves orienting preference habituation de habituation conditioningreinforcement 0 Preference for mothers voice 0 O O 0 Voice in particular than any other sound Highpitched voice in particular Music with vocal tract than instrumental tract only Hearing starts in the womb biological recognition of mom39s voice Familiarity of voice is what39s going on Associating and remembering voice occurs in womb Ex read a story out loud last month of pregnancy often amp same story After child is born mother39s read same or different story to infant and infant preferred the story they heard in the womb prior experience 0 Recognition of faces 0 Preferences towards because of perceiving as a face OR it39s the features of the face Visual complexity to a face maybe infants are drawn to complexity of features of the face evidence for first 23 months Don39t scan the whole face hairline and eyes only 456 months whole face scanning still look at t contrast ares but more wider scan is done Classic experiment Infant looks at screen Infants focus closer images than further images better for infants limited information they can process doesn39t overload infant 0 Preferences of taste sweet not sourbitter and smell vanilla banana don39t like rotten eggs 0 May be related to what mother eats during pregnancy 0 Recognize smell of mother and mothers breast milk 710days 0 study mothers were able to recognize infantskinds based on smell 0 Integrating information to recognize people 0 4 months of age graspingvision sound and touch maybe taste are all included Cross modal perception The ability to perceive information about a person from a sense such as vison and use It when encountering the person or object later using a different sense modality such as hearing or touch 0 Ex showing an object then covering it with a blanket now ask the person to find the object under the blanket without looking Depth perception The ability to judge depthlength O O O O is it something that we learn When studying this we look at when an infant reaches for an object Issue is that you can t measure reach until 4 months Ames window Placed in front of infant observe which side they reach they should reach for the closer side Looming response Bring object closer to an infant and their reaction should be eyes widen head back or hands up I If object is coming at an angle they show no response Visual cliff I 2 month old infants 9heart rate decreases which means their orienting they have depth perception I Beginning crawlers 9 more likely to crawl off deep side no depth perception Heart rate decreases no fear they have change in depth I Experienced crawlers will not crawl off 9 depth perception and fear increases heart rate I Measure heart rate to detect if there is fear or not Increased heart ratefear decreased heart rate orienting I They found that depth perception is innate have since birth I Fear of depths are learned through experience 0 Social Referencing baby looks at caregiver to see their expression Whether it s safe or not
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