Intro to Global Studies - Midterm Study Guide
Intro to Global Studies - Midterm Study Guide PS 0550
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Cooke on Saturday January 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PS 0550 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jonas Gamso in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 281 views. For similar materials see Intro to Global Studies in Political Science at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/03/15
Intro to Global Studies Midterm Study Guide Intro ppt 1 Q Institutions 0 Formal international laws 0 Informal enforced through social norms Global power structure ppt 2 0 Current structure 0 Politically is US hegemony O Economically is economic liberalism l Open trade and capital flows 0 Common structures l Multipolar concert of power in Europe after Napoleon was defeated Q Considered least stabile l Bipolar Cold War US amp Russia Japan amp China regional scale 0 Argument for stability MAD I Unipolar British and US empires 0 Hegemonic Stability Theory argues unipolar is most stable 0 Developed by Charles Kindleberger 0 Stable world system requires a leader I Hegem on lends to and funds smaller countries I Acts as a market for imports world economy 0 Arguments FOR Hegemonic Stability Theory I There was peace during British Empire US hegemony l Period between British US was Great Depression protectionism instability O Argument AGAINST Hegemonic Stability Theory l Britain promoted unilateral free trade that only benefitted them Q Caused other nations to drop their tariffs hurting their economies Q Introduced the gold standard which was fixed rather than floating Q Did cause the first wave of globalization 0 Was abolished during WWI so nations could spend more 0 General verdict on Hegemonic Stability Theory l Timeline matches up on stability hegemonic periods and instability no hegemon transition period I Does not necessarily mean that these things are correlated l True test of the theory will be when the US falls Power ability to make a country to do what you want them to do 0 Hard power coercion l Military force I Economic sanctions 0 Soft power cooptation l Winning the hearts and minds l Advocated by Joseph Nye Rise of great powers 0 Population growth 0 Urbanization 0 Geography 0 Wars Fall of great power 0 Hubris excessive pride 0 Imperial overstretch O Hegemon eventually decides that domestic politics are most important than the world system as a whole steps back 0 Emergence of rivals O Wars ex WWII leads to US hegemony First era of globalization O Caused by I New technologies steamships canals railroads telegraph I Gold standard I Imperialism l Economic liberalism emerges Emergence of US hegemony O WWII devestates Europe US emerges as economic and military power 0 US leads in the creation of International Organizations the Bretton Woods IOs l IMF World Bank UN GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 0 Sidenote purpose of GATT is for countries to negotiate and get rid of tariffs between them 0 US promoted trade etc but multilaterally with the IOs Intro to IR theory ppt 3 0 Basic levels of analysis 0 Individual 0 Domestic internal structure of states I Difference in foreign policy between democracies and dictatorships 0 International structure of the system 0 Example of this analysis in notes the Bay of Pigs l Individual What would have happened with a different president I Domestic Role of the Cuban exiles in the US l International Put everything in a Cold War context Ways of understanding world politics 0 Realism 0 System is characterized by power politics and relative gains 0 Power economics and security are main focuses O Anarchy drives state behaviors l Anarchic system sovereign states act with no power above them 0 States are the key unit of analysis I Every state has to focus on selfpreservation 0 Keys to realism l 1 States are the only unit of analysis I 2 States are selfinterested and act rationally I 3 The world system is anarchic no leadership besides states 0 Classical Realism Morganthau vs Neorealism Waltz l Classical states are humanized and equated to Hobbesian theory I Neorealism states maximize their security due to anarchic system Q Defensive and offensive offshoots of this 0 Defensive states maximize security by maintaining the status quo O Offensive states maximize security by increasing power 0 Realist theories l Hegemonic Stability l Balance of power powers balance each other out indefinitely Q Smaller states will join the side that creates a better balance 0 Critiques of realism Cooperation between states does exist 0 Liberalism associated with Woodrow Wilson alternative to realism 0 Characteristics I absolute gains I I I stability I System is characterized by cooperation and Emphasis on collective security Allows for other actors beyond just states Economic interdependence can result in peace and Domestic policies and structures ARE relevant realism leaves these out 0 Liberalist theories Liberal Peace Capitalist Peace free markets and trade between countries prevent conflict Democratic Peace democracies are less likely to fight each other in war 0 Mix between liberalism and realism I and realism by anarchy Neoliberal institutionalism combination of liberalism 0 States are the key unit of analysis 0 International system is characterized 0 However lO s can help facilitate peace and cooperation Q Dependency Wallerstein Gunder Frank O Grew from Marxism relates to realism conflicts with liberalism Conflict with liberalism Q Liberalism says that links between nations are beneficial and should be continued expanded Q Dependency says that these links are harmful and should be cut 0 System is characterized by exploitation and relative gains 0 Wealthy capitalist countries core exploit the poor countries periphery I Terms of trade favor the rich countries 0 Value of exports over value of imports not trade agreementsan 0 Suggestions to avoid this exploitation Delinking exploited countries should cut ties with the west and autonomize 0 Import substitute industrialization 0 Example of Latin America being exploited of resources in the Galleano article on dependency theory History of US hegemony 0 Pre WWI 19th early 20th century 0 Pushed Europe out of North America and asserted its own dominance 0 Little interest in world politics however 0 Through WWI up to WWII O Wilson advocated for collective security League of Nations 0 Expanded military because of war 0 Reverted back to economic protectionism Q WWII O Facilitates the rise of the US as a hegemon 0 US economy and infrastructure are strengthened while both of these things are destroyed during the war in Europe 0 Post WWII 0 World order is reinvented to prevent another war and to promote stability l US emerges as the leader in this process of reinvention 0 International organizations are formed IMF World Bank etc and US becomes the leader in these organizations I World trade grows rapidly as a result of these new organizations 0 Cold War 0 World order shifts to become bipolar 0 1970s fear of US hegemonic collapse with the collapse of the gold standard I Also formation of OPEC rise of the developing world Current US hegemony Q Threats 0 Internal problems 0 Decline in relative power 0 International rivals 0 Possible results of the fall of the US 0 320 multipolar 0 32 bipolar 0 31 unipolar Chinese hegemony Rich countries and poor countries ppt 5 0 Defining rich vs poor firstthird word developeddeveloping rich northpoor south etc 0 Rich US western Europe Australia Canada Japan 0 Poor South amp Latin America Asia minus Japan Africa 0 Diversity within the developing world poor countries Hierarchy O Newly Industrialized Countries Asian tigers BRIC countries 0 Resource rich countries oil countries high GDP low standards of living etc 0 Eastern bloc countries 0 Developing countries middle income countries 0 Least developed countries Africa etc 0 Why are some areas rich and other areas poor 0 Geography I Jared Diamond s argument in Guns Germs and Steel 0 Technologies that allowed Europe to conquer the rest of the world were developed there because the northern regions were favorable to the development of these technologies 0 Specifically agricultural advances l One argument against North and South Korea same geography 0 History of exploitation institutions I Acemoglu s argument 0 Some countries have institutions that allow the few rich elites to dominate the powerless and poor inequality 0 Early institutions determined the current ones I European colonies Q Settled in areas where mortality was low 0 These places had inclusive institutions 0 NeoEuropes Q Did not settle in unfavorable areas 0 These places had exploitive institutions meant to send back resources as possible to the mother country 0 These 2 arguments geographic determinism and institutional are opposing points of view but couldn t they both be determining factors Theories of Development ppt 6 0 Early theories were ineffective explanations 0 Adam Smith market thriving drives development I Market will fail if institutions are not sound 0 Marx feudalism leads to capitalism leads to socialism leads to communism I No class revolutions occurred in economically advanced nations 0 Weber Protestant work ethic drove development I Religion does not determine how hard someone works empirical 0 Two new theories evolve after WWII because these previous ones were ineffective O Modernization l Poverty is caused by traditional beliefs modernize values to develop l Road to development is through emulating the rich countries I Rich countries give foreign aidtrade national elitespromote values I Economic development eventually results in political democracy 0 This theory was used during the Cold War if we helped countries to modernize they wouldn t become communist l Critiques of modernization Q Exceptions on both sides rich dictatorships amp poor democracies 0 Weak to no historical basis 0 Structuralism focuses on international economic structure rather than values I When developing countries trade with rich ones they experience diminishing terms of trade 0 They import finished products but only export raw materials I Solution to this problem is lmport Substitution Industrialization ISI 0 Developing counties should import the materials that they need and then be able to export the finished goods rather than import l Essentially international trade is biased against developing countries 0 Neoclassical offshoot specialize in comparative advantage rather than ISI 0 Dependency l Poverty is due to continued exploitation of poor countries by rich ones not because poor nations have traditional values I Rich countries seek to perpetuate this system for their own gains I Have to cut all ties linkages rooted in Marxism l Individual roles 0 Rich countries exploit 0 Rich people in the poor nation become agents of the rich nation 0 Government in poor nation has to break this cycle I Critiques 0 Does not lend itself well to predictions in the XY format 0 Tends to ignore hegemony modernization does this too 0 Protectionism harms the economy by making it less competitive Q Policies like ISI are based merely in theory 0 ELI Export Led Industrialization promote exports on the market and raise tariffs to protect against imports 0 Many examples of this and ISI in Latin America and Asia in lecture need to know 0 Globalization good or bad for poor countries Roderick 0 Core industrial and periphery raw materials 0 Core becomes richer while the periphery becomes poorer and loses ground 0 Globalization makes it easier for countries to get stuck in the periphery SUMMARY OF KEY THEORIES up to this point IR THEORY Realism 0 States are key relative zero sum gains power politics 0 Balance of power theory hegemonic stability theory 0 States behave in the ways that they do because of the anarchy of the international system domestic politics are irrelevant Liberalism 0 More actors than just states absolute gains soft power tradecooperation peace DEVELOPMENT THEORY Modernization Q Emulating rich countries is path to development protrade prolinkages Dependency 0 Rich countries develop at the expense of the poor delink States and Markets ppt 7 0 Actors in global POLITICS overview 0 States 0 International Organizations UN ICC etc 0 Nonstate actors terrorist groups social movements NGOs 0 Actors in global ECONOMY overview 0 States use tariffs and subsidies to protect and promote industry 0 International Organizations IMF WTO World Bank promote free trade and a stable financial structure 0 Nonstate actors Multinational corporations interest groups labor corps etc National sovereignty Q The authority of a state to govern itself 0 In theory every country has this not always in practice 0 Four types of sovereignty 0 International Legal 0 Westphalian 0 Domestic or internal 0 Interdependence 0 EU European Union is the counter to the idea of sovereignty because states are choosing to give up their sovereignty in place of collectivization O Obstacle for realists states emphasize their own selfgains 0 Globalization reduces sovereignty 0 Because of less economic barriers growth of transnational social networks and multinational corporations I Are national governments losing importance Terms from readings Q Transnational Capitalist Class class has become more important with the weakening of national governments O Representatives from multinational corporations band together to protect their interests internationally Q Is this a bad thing I There has been a recent decrease in the approval for free trade agreements in the US l TCC is inherently undemocratic 0 Corruption in the UN 0 Foreign aid to a country increases significantly when it rotates onto the council 0 GZero World 0 No country now has the ability to provide public goods to the entire world 0 US is still the most powerful but not powerful enough to do this I Is this a bad thing 0 According to HST yes it is because there is no global leader IMF and the World Bank ppt 8 Goals of the Bretton Woods Organizations 1 Establish fixed but adjustable exchange rates 2 Capital controls 3 Stabilization fund created 4 Creation of the IMF and World Bank International Monetary Fund 0 Initial focus was on short term stabilization World Bank 0 Designed to provide loans for development projects 0 Focus was on long term development 0 After WWII both the World Bank and the IMF helped to rebuild Europe Structural Adjustment Programs 0 World Bank and IMF Q What were these programs in Latin America 0 Privatization liberalized trade reduced state spending l Ex Water privatization in Cochabamba Bolivia Water Wars 0 Continued loans and debts for two decades in some places Bolivia Honduras 0 Arguments FOR SAP s 0 Latin America Debt Crisis situation was out of control something had to be done I Even though the programs were difficult they are good in the long run 0 Arguments AGAINST SAP s 0 Created prolonged recessions l Longterm debt I High interest rates and spending cuts implemented making recovery difficult I Worsened poverty and inequality l Accompanied by political crises 0 Ex Bolivia Equador Criticisms of the IMF Stiglitz reading Detached from the countries that they work with Lack of transparency Harkens back to the paternalist colonial system One size fits all approach is ineffective in all developing countries Bullies countries into accepting their loans Staffed by economists etc not development specialists Liberalist Perspective World Bank and IMF Q IMF and World Bank can help to coordinate between states and foster cooperation 0 Evidence for this 0 Staffed by thirdparty specialists who care about the people they want to help not a national interest 0 Post WWII international order worked for a while Realist Perspective World Bank and IMF Q IMF and World Bank are agents of the US powerful states 0 US is the only country with veto power in the IMF and 15 of voting shares 0 Only staffed by Americans WB and Europeans IMF Dependency theory perspective World Bank and IMF 0 Structural Adjustment Programs are designed to help rich countries by opening up the markets of the poor ones to foreign investment 0 Privatization programs give US MNC s control of industry in poor countries 0 Example of this in Latin America privatization 0 Rich countries control the IMF and World Bank What is market fundamentalism Poverty and Inequality ppt 9 What is poverty 0 Lack of opportunity 0 Absolute lack of access to basic needs 0 Relative inequality within society 0 Person can be poor in the US but rich in other countries 0 Examples health problems inadequate income hunger low literacy etc How do we measure poverty 0 Indicators income access to social services life expectancy 0 Indices 0 Human Development Index HDI l Includes life expectancy literacy school enrollment GDPcapita 0 Happy Planet Index 0 Satisfaction with Life index etc 0 Poverty trap poverty is selfreinforcing persists O Idea that income tomorrow at a certain point of poverty will be lower than income today The Bottom Billion Collier chapter 0 Most countries are experiencing development 0 However the poorest countries are trapped in poverty because of 0 Bad institutions 0 Conflict bad neighbors O Unfavorable geography resources 0 Characteristics of these trapped bottom billion countries 0 Life expectancy is about 50 years 0 Infant mortality and malnutrition rates are very high 0 Solutions offered in the chapter 0 Foreign aid should target these bottom billion countries and trade rules should be established to protect them 0 Rich countries should intervene militarily to stop conflicts in these countries I Modernization or dependency perspective 0 MODERNIZATION Q Dependency side would say that these nations need to cut ties and modernize by themselves They are better off on their own because foreign aid is the problem not the solution Inequality distribution of income and consumption 0 Horizontal vs vertical 0 AKA inequality between groups vs inequality between individuals 0 Also inequality between and within countries 0 Causes between countries Geography Colonialism colonial legacies Structure of the global economy according to dependency Population growth Political instability Natural disasters etc I Why is this inequality a problem 0 Noncooperation internationally political unrest terrorism can undermine global growth poverty trap OOOOOO Proglobalization arguments Q Liberalism and modernization Q The World is Flat Friedman 0 Open trade brings growth and development 0 Diffusion of democracy human rights globally Antiglobalization arguments Q Dependency theory 0 Race to the bottom 0 Open trade perpetuates poverty and inequality 0 Globalization undermines democracy 0 Weakens states and empowers corporations Reducing poverty and inequality 0 Domestically 0 Family planning education gender equality 0 Democracy and government policies 0 Reduce corruption 0 Internationally 0 Foreign aid 0 Microlending supported by the World Bank l Very small loans to people in very poor countries video in lecture 0 UN Millenium Development Goals l Goals developed to be achieved in 2015 failed Foreign Aid ppt 10 Types 0 Bilateral between countries noneconomic aid ex military assistance 0 Multilateral through international organizations 0 Private donations foundations NGOs universities corporations etc Historically 0 After WWI light foreign aid for Europe 0 WW2 during and after increased dramatically 0 Marshall Plan 0 USAID created in 1961 for economicsocial development aid 0 IMFWorld Bank and UN agencies created The case FOR foreign aid 0 Modernization theory 0 Aid can help to spur development in poor countries push in right direction 0 Economic development leads to political modernization democracy I Reason for US aid during the Cold War 0 Aid in economic terms 0 Helps countries to get out of the poverty trap 0 Question in not yes or no to aid but how to make it successful and where it is needed most 0 Perspective of Jeffrey Sachs and other readings Critique of foreign aid Dependency theory 0 Undermines the selfsufficiency of developing countries 0 Countries become dependent on foreign aid and political subversion 0 William Easterly s perspective I Poverty trap is a myth countries that were once poor are now rich I Aid does more harm than good 0 People don t search for their own solutions Q Corrupts and undermines local institutions 0 Aid agencies cartel of good intentions l Poor countries are better off solving their own problems 0 Aid in practice critiques I Corruption l International political interests play a big part I Aid industry is bureaucratized foreign aid red tape l People don t value what they are given Globalization ppt 11 What is it Q The very nature of world politics is changing 0 Integration of markets politics values environmental concerns across borders 0 Shrinking of the world bringing us all closer together 0 Is globalization just Americanization l American economic and political norms are spreading such as democracy capitalism and individualism l McWorld Q Does globalization mean interdependence Waves of globalizationdo we have to know these 0 Payne has 5 Friedman has 3 Types of Globalization 0 Economic 0 Free trade open markets global competition 0 Encouraged by the WTO 0 Foreign investment 0 Financial 0 Universalization of banking consolidation of financial institutions 0 New technology to facilitate faster financial exchange 0 Political 0 Creation of international organizations with states and nonstate actors I IMF UN ICC EU Gates Foundation 0 Focus on global governance 0 National policies of one country are intertwined with those of others 0 Military 0 Competition among countries and territorial expansion 0 International alliances NATO 0 Proliferation of weapons military tech globally O Sociocultural 0 Spread of culture across national borders 0 Measured by migration patterns 0 Environmental O Cooperation on problems like global warming disease air pollution etc I UN Climate Summit 0 Criminal O Terrorists drug human weapons trafficking piracy O Criminals use the same technologies to lower transaction costs 0 As countries open up they become more vulnerable Causes of globalization 0 Technology to lower transaction costs steam engines 0 Infrastructure railroads canals etc 0 Policies to reduce barriers gold standard Consequences of globalization Q Diffusion of norms policies language across borders 0 Global cooperation Q Vulnerability of countries to outside shocks 0 Financial crisis disease ProGlobalization Q Creates equality of opportunity flattening of the world 0 Peace and stability 0 HST and liberal peace 0 Diffuses democracy etc 0 Open trade brings growth and development AntiGlobalization 0 States are still the most important actors 0 Coordination problems in the long term 0 Domestic resistance to globalization 0 Globalization is potentially reversible O Protectionism could return Resistance to globalizaiton O CulturallyAmericanization Q Economically resistance to global capitalism Q Politically global governance 0 Domestically protectionist groups Race to the Bottom ppt 12 Globalization skeptics and critics Q Skeptics O Realists states are still the key actors less emphasis on the importance of MNCs IOs O Vagueness of the term globalization 0 Critics O Dependency theorists l Trade and linkages hinder development 0 Race to the bottom I Economically reduces standards and social service accessibility l Competition for foreign investment leads to a reduction in standards within a country industrially less regulation 0 Double movement I Instability conflict etc Race to the Bottom 0 Why does it exist 0 Lack of strong labor interest groups in poor countries I Large labor surplus less unionization 0 Weak democratic institutions 0 Ex Bangladesh factory collapse 0 Argument against 0 Drezner myth l Leverage of poor countries is underestimated l MNCs act to protect public opinion I Perpetuated because it is useful for those both in favor and against globalization Q Mitigating factors 0 Strong labor unions higher standards 0 Democracy politicians represent the people in terms of welfare spending social services etc I Additional possible solutions 0 Treaties and regulation international level 0 Corporate social responsibility 0 Consumer backlash 0 Ex antisweatshop movements Double Movement 0 Two simultaneous movements one which pushes for capitalist globalization and the other which pushes back against this 0 Must be protections and regulations etc to protect against abuses of global capitalism 0 Examples of resistance l Protectionism PostGreat Depression I Occupy protests Post Great Recession l Food riots O Attempts to mitigate resistance I World Economic Forum International Trade ppt 13 Theones Q Dependency diminishing terms of trade for poor countries 0 Liberal classical specialization of labor and production Smith 0 Produce a few things and trade for the rest 0 Comparative Advantage Ricardo specialization in a single sector Free trade Opposition Q Losers of free trade import competing sectors workers in rich nations 0 Protectionist lobbies I Effects 0 Subsidies to domestic industries 0 Additional quotas tariffs Q Embargos against competing states ex Cuba Dollar and Kraay article 0 Economic globalization has reduced poverty and promoted equality 0 Evidence for this argument I Trend towards inequality has slowed possibly reversed l Globalized countries experience faster growth than those which have not globalized l Global inequalities do not stem from trade or investment 0 Policy suggestions I Stop protectionism l Fix institutions in developing countries which hinder globalization l Allow increased migration Financial Crisis ppt 14 Examples 0 Great Depression 0 Latin American Debt Crisis 0 Asian Financial Crisis cause financial deregulation 0 Great Recession cause financial deregulation Causes of economic crises 0 Market deregulation O Caused Asian Financial Crisis Thai Baht and Great Recession in 2008 0 Causes of deregulation l Globalization helps financial institutions to compete globally l Lobbies for lower regulations l Government failure 0 Ex US did not update regulation at the same pace as financial innovation 0 Ex IMF promotion of financial liberation in Asia 0 Financial innovations O Securitization l Spreads out global investment to reduce risk 0 Derivatives l Bets on the creditworthiness of a company 0 Interest rates 0 Ex US increased interest rates in response to domestic inflation which increased Latin American debt and caused in part their debt crisis 0 Excessive executive compensation O CEO pay specifically sometimes very excessive O Speculation 0 Investment in new technologies industries that rise quickly drawing more people into the market 0 Market becomes too large as all rational decision making is suspended and bust becomes inevitable l Ex US real estate Dotcom bubble Q Subprime loans ex mortgages 0 Credit being given to people who are not worthy of it 0 Ex US housing market 0 Debt 0 Latin America Asia US mortgage debt Response to financial crisis 0 Great Depression 0 Social welfare programs stimulus protectionism 0 Latin America 0 End of import substitute industrialization programs privatization 0 Asia 0 Reregulation 0 Great Recession O Reregulation stimulus programs austerity programs EU Population and Migration ppt 15 0 Has grown at an unprecedented rate in the last 5060 years 0 Reasons for this population growth 0 Technology medical advances 0 Public health sewage higher standards of living 0 Less conflict after WWII 0 Most of this population growth is from developing poor countries 0 Developing countries have higher birth rates 0 Children are seen as assets economically and culturally in these places 0 Less to no birth control Malthusian Theory 0 Human population increases at a faster rate than food production 0 Eventually population growth will surpass food and warfamine etc will happen to reduce population to a sustainable level Neomalthusianism do not agree with Malthus s exact formula but do address population growth as a serious problem Migration 0 4th wave Cold War 0 US competed to get the best students from around the world to move to the US 0 These students became the ICT sector Silicon Valley 0 Brain gain for the US but brain drain for the migrants home countries I Brain circulation Asian students who left home to come to the US to study went to Silicon Valley and worked in companies They then went back to their own countries and started companies there 0 Bamboo ceiling these workers had difficulty moving up the ladder to the executive positions at first but eventually were able to assimilate into American business culture 0 Post 911 xenophobia and reduction on visas for highlyskilled workers l Brain competition because there are fewer spots available 0 Open borders movement 0 People would be able to move wherever the jobs are would reduce unemployment and overemployment 0 Human right to free movement Midterm Review Ppt History to Know 0 IR History 0 Eras of globalization l During British Hegemony l Pause during WWI Great Depression WWII l During American Hegemony 0 Post WW2 International Organization formation 0 Cold War balance of power 0 Post Cold War US hegemony 0 Development History 0 Era of ISI in Latin America 1960s1970s 0 Latin American Debt Crisis 1980s 0 Asian ELI development policy model 0 Asian Financial Crisis 1997 Theory to Know 0 IR theory 0 Levels of analysis individual domestic states 0 Realism Focus on international level anarchy States are the key actors in international policy Zero sum world and hard power is key Realist theories 0 Hegemonic stability theory 0 Balance of power 0 Liberalism l Nonstate actors and International Organizations matter too Soft power is effective Liberal theories 0 Democratic peace 0 Capitalist peace 0 Developmenttheory O Modernization l Traditional values are the reason that poor countries can t modernize l Poor countries should emulate the rich ones to develop l Prolinkages l Economic growth leads to democracy 0 Dependency l Rich countries and corporations exploit the poor ones I Terms of trade are deteriorating I Solution is to delink and use import Substitution Industrialization Key Debates Does foreign aid work Is the decline of the US a problem for global peace and stability Is economic globalization good or bad for development 0 What theoretical debates could you look to here Are IOs autonomous political entities or just agents of powerful states Does globalization erode the power of states What is the primary cause of global poverty institutions or geography Authors to know 0 Thomas Friedman The World is Flat 0 Jeffrey Sachs vs William Easterly 0 Jared Diamond Guns Germs and Steel 0 Saxenian Silicon Valley immigrants and brain draingaincirculation Additional terms to know Push and pull factors Big push Embedded liberalism Gold Standard 1879 to 1914 Smoot Hawley Tariff Bretton Woods conference Gold Exchange Standard 19451971 Microlending Millenium Development Goals
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