Final Study Guide
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Date Created: 01/03/15
Nur 0013 Spring 2014 Study Guide for Final Exam Notes 1 The exam will be probably 5060 questions 2 Most chapters will have 45 questions although there may be a few more from longer chapters and less from short chapters ie Chapter 20 Chapter 26 3 The exam is scheduled from 122 on Thursday April 24quot Chapter 16 Endocrine System 1 Regulation of hormones Be sure to review the axes for the following I GnRHFSH LHsex hormonesHvnothiamicGonadal axis HPG 0 High levels of sex hormones will inhibit the secretion of GnRH and FSHLH GnRH has a positive effect on anterior pituitary and tell them to produce gonadal hormones 0 Amount of gonadal hormones in blood goes back to hypothalamus and tells it to turn off amp causes regulation 0 HPG axis is turned off until puberty begins then it is turned on and never turns off again except during menopause o GnRH is secreted from hypothalamus which triggers FSH and LH from anterior pituitary which goes to gland LH begins secretion of testosterone amp progesterone FSH begins secretion of estrogen Testosterone estrogen amp progesterone have negative feedback on rest of the axis Too much testosterone will cause anterior pituitary and adrenal gland to atrophy O 0000 Nur0013 Hylpatha Ia mus l fiEl quot tl39LIIi Pitu itairy e V quotI J39 thTE5tp5terprleJjit9 EEHDEEH quotrj 4 Erquot39 iiP39ruge5te FD me I TRHTSHTH HypothalamicThyroid Axis HPT 0 Too much TH will inhibit the secretion of TRH amp TSH 0 Levels of TH feedback to hypothalamus amp pituitary negative feedback a way of REGULATION Spring 2014 o Hypothalamus secretes TRH l triggers anterior pituitary to secrete TSH stimulates thyroid 0 When too much TH is secreted into blood axis completely shuts down 0 Take too much TH can eat whatever you want but NOT good Nur 0013 Spring 2014 IIHPT Axis V L J Hjyrpnthaliamus A i Arntueriicr pltuiitaryquot i v Increases metahciiisr39n I CRHACTHCortisolHypothalamicAdrenal axis HPA 0 Too much cortisol will inhibit the secretion of CRH and ACTH 0 Too much cortisol will also have a negative impact in the blood 0 Extremely important in understanding hormone func on ElFr 1E39F T at if rmI iirn239 JV F It iunligma 3 fr 0 u n J i 1 4 r U rr39rI1 J 1 re quot ll ac rensllwaHf39i iL 1 I m a i can I iissynegi1 E P l 1 I 0 1 l rcjSamp Evlrgjrihnii 1 w ii5iquot TUa 2 Hormone effects on their target tissues Up and down regulation Nur 0013 Spring 2014 0 Down regulation occurs when a target cell has been exposed to a hormone for a prolonged period of time causes fatigue of receptors on target tissue Makes target cell less responsive to hormone over time 0 Up regulation opposite of down regulation and causes more receptors to be synthesized or to open up on the surface of the target cell Tells endocrine glands to release more hormone 0 Down and Up regulation occur most often in cells that are adapted periodic burst of hormones rather than long sustained amounts of hormone being released Specificity of hormone receptors affinity competition 0 Affinitythe bond between the hormone and receptor the receptors have corresponding shape to target Hormone receptors can have high or low affinity for hormones o Hormonereceptor interaction depends on 1 Blood levels of hormones 2 Relative number of receptors on target cells 3 Affinity of the bond between the hormone and receptor Permissiveness Synergism and Antagonism o Permissiveness when one hormone allows another to have an effect eg TH influences the timing and development of the reproductive organs 0 Synergism when the combined effects of two hormones is amplified eg glucagon and ephinephrine on the liver 0 Antagonism when one hormone opposes the activity of another eg glucagon vs insulin glucagon raises blood sugar when needed and insulin lowers it 3 Review the major endocrine glands and their hormones ANTERIOR PITUITARY or Adenohypophysis hypophyseal portal system 0 Growth Hormone GH or somatotropin Targets most bodily tissues but bones and muscles in particular An anabolic hormone that causes amino acid uptake for protein synthesis frowth in tissues and increased blood glucose levels Secretion influenced by GHRH and GHIH Clinicalpituitary dwarfism gigantism and acromegaly o Prolactin PRL Targets mammary glands Stimulates mammary glands to produce milk around the time of birth Secretion controlled mainly by dopamine TROPIC HORMONES4TARGETS ARE OTHER ENDOCRINE GLANDS o Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH Targets thyroid gland Increased thyroid hormone production Secretion regulated by TRH Part of HPT axis 0 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH Targets adrenal cortex Increased glucocorticoid hormone secretion Secretion directed by release of CRH Part of HPA axis ACTH lipotropins betaendorphins and MSH are all derived from a precursor molecule found in the anterior pituitary called propriomelanocortin o Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH a gonadotropin Targets follicles in ovearies seminiferous tubles Follicle maturation and estrogen secretion in ovaries and sperm cell production in males Secretion controlled by GnRH o Luteinizing Hormone LH a gonadotropin Targets ovaries and testes Ovulation and progesterone production in ovaries testosterone synthesis and support for sperm cell production Secretion controlled by GnRH POSTERIOR PITUITARY or Neurohypophysis hypothalamohypophyseal tract 0 Antidiuretic Hormone ADH or vasopressin Targets kidney Causes the nephrons to reabsorb water based upon the potency of the signal Clinial if there is an ADH deficiency copious urination can lead to diabetes insipidus o Oxytocin Targets uterus and mammary glands Causes uterine contractions and milk ejection acts in a positive feedback loop during labor The LOVE hormone THYROID GLAND follicles and parafollicular cells The only endocrine gland that produce and stores large amounts of its hormone product T3 is much more metabolically active at target Nur 0013 Spring 2014 tissues so most T4 is converted by enzymes at target tissue Transport is generally by thyroxine binding globulin which is a protein that stabilizes the TH hormones while they are being shuttled to their targets 0 Thyroid Hormone THsynthesized in follicular cells Actually made up of T3 and T4 Targets most cells in the body Increases basal metabolic rate essential for normal growth Clinicalhypothyroidism cretinism and myexedema and hyperthyroidism Grave s o Calcitonin produced by parafollicular cells Targets bone Decreases osteoclast activity and increases the rate at which bone cells take up calcium it has a bone sparing effect PARATHYROID GLAND o Parathyroid Hormone PTH Targets bone kidneys SI Raises levels of blood calcium by breaking down bone causes reabsorption of calcium by kidneys and causes intestines to absorb more calcium through the actions of vitamin D ADRENAL CORTEX o Mineralcorticoids Targets nephrons of kidneys Na reabsorption and K secretion Aldosterone Controls nephron tubule permeability and reabsorbs salts based on need thus water will follow the salt back in by osmosis o Glucocorticoids Target most tissues in body Increases fat and protein breakdown for energy metabolism increases the synthesis of glucose in response to stressors inhibit immune inflammatory response Cortisol is a very important hormone for the functioning of many other organs and tissues Too muchCushing s too little Addison s o Androgens sex hormones Targets many tissues Some secondary characteristics in females response ADRENAL MEDULLA o Epinephrine 80 Norepinephrine 20 Targets heart blood vessels liver and fat cells Fight or flight response PANCREAS islets vs acinar cells 0 lnsulin Targets bodily cells esp liver skeletal muscle and fat tissue Increases intake of glucose by cells Often part of parasympathetic response after a meal when a lot of glucose is present in the blood 0 Glucagon Targets liver Associated with sympathetic reponse to low levels of glucose in the blood Stimulates breakdown of glycogen stores into usable glucose that is then released into the blood GONADS 0 Female Sex Hormones Estrogen and Progesterone Targets ovaries Secreted in response to LH and FSH Part of HPG axis 0 Male Sex Hormones o Testosterone Targets testes Secreted in response to LH Part of the HPG axis PINEAL BODY o Melatonindecreases GnRH secretion by hypothalamus Seasonal effects in other animals THYMUS o Thymosin important roles in the development of the immune system early in the life of a newborn Gland atrophies as we grow older Chapter 17 Blood 1 Know the composition of blood The amount that is plasma the amount that is formed elements 0 Plasma 55 of blood by volume 0 Erythrocytes 45 of blood by volume Know what other substances are in each portion of blood Nur 0013 Spring 2014 I Plasma plasma proteins nutrients gases o Albumins 60 maintain osmotic pressures in capillaries o Globulins 36 transport binding proteins and some antibodies o Fibrinogen 4 forming blood clots I Formed elements RBC WBC Platelets o Erythrocytes 45red blood cells literally bags of hemoglobins Carry oxygen in blood o Leukocytes 500010000microliterwhite blood cells move to sites of immune response 0 Platelets 150000400000microliters fragments of megakaryocytes Essential for proper clotting at the site of a wound 2 Know the types of white blood cells what their normal percentages are and what an increase of one type would mean clinically Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas I Neutrophils most abundant WBC 5070 Phagocytize bacteria and some fungi destroy them by respiratory burst I Lymphocytes 20 30 smallest WBC 0 T cells directly attack antigens during the immune response mainly viruses and tumor cells 0 B cells produce antibodies that are released into the blood I Monocytes 3398 o Largest WBC Phagocyte that acts in longterm cleanup of chronic infections Important for activating lymphocytes during the immune response costimulation I Macrophages in lymph tissue I Eosinophils2 4 Surround and destroy parasitic worms with enzymes Usually higher during allergic responses or parasitic attacks In allergic responses they moderate the inflammatory process by digesting immune complexes I Basophils lt1 Releases histamine which increases inflammation by causing vasodilation Also releases chemotaxic factors Similar to mast cells in connective tissues 3 Hemostasis I What causes a clot to form 0 Cot forms when the endothelium is torn or damaged then a clot must form If clot does not form a positive feedback pathway can result which leads to decreasing blood volume and eventually death I Vascular spasm Platelet plug formation Coagulation role of platelets and fibrin Clot retraction Fibrinolysis o 1 Vascular Spasm Contraction of smooth muscle in blood vessels surrounding injury allow a platelet plug to begin forming in damaged arearesponse can last up to 30 minutes o 2 Platelet Plug formation Platelets adhere to underlying connective tissue in damaged blood vessels Accumulate and release prostaglandins ADP and other chemicals Work to fix many small tears in small vessel amp capillaries Once plug is formed coagulation begins o 3 Coagulation Extrinsic and intrinsic pathways work together to form a clot through the formation of activated thrombin and fibrin proteins Factor X must be present to make thrombin from prothrombin activator enzyme Thrombin converts inactive fibrinogen to activated fibrin Fibrin glues the platelet plug and weaves it together Clots would spread through body from injury site without anticoagulants like antithrombin and heparin I Know the effects of thrombin and fibrin on proper clot formation Does it matter if you use the extrinsic or intrinsic clotting pathway o Extrinsic and intrinsic pathways work together to form a clot through the formation of activated thrombin and fibrin proteins Nur 0013 Spring 2014 o Thrombin converts inactive fibrinogen to activated fibrin Fibrin glues the platelet plug and weaves it together 0 Fibrin glues the platelet plug and weaves it together 4 Clinical signi cance of Blood tests RBCWBC counts know the normal ranges and averages for each 0 RBC Norms Males 56 millionmicroliter Females 45 millionmicroliter Anemia too little Polycythemia too much Hematocrit what does it test what are the normal percentages o Hematocrit The percentage of total blood volume occupied by erythrocytes RBC count Males 4254 Females 3748 Differential WBC count know the numbers of WBC normally and abnormally o Neutrophils 5070 Lymphocytes 2030 Monocytes 38 Eosinophils 24 Basophils lt1 Total WBC Count 480011000microliter Leukocytosis too many Leukopenia too little Platelet counts what is normal what does high and low mean 0 150000400000microliter o Thrombocytosis too many platelets Thromboembolic disorderscause undesirable clot formation 0 Thrombocytopenia too little platelets causes spontaneous bleeding from small vessels all over body Bleeding disordersinability to clot OOOOO Chapter 18 Heart 1 Know the major structures and functions of heart anatomy that we discussed Know the locations of the valves 0 Atrioventricular Valves AV between atria and ventricles They are open when ventricles are at rest and they close when the ventricles fill with blood AV valves closed during ventricular contraction to keep pressure Tricuspidright side Bicuspid left side 0 Semilunar Valves SV between ventricles and arteries Blood flowing out forces them open and blood falling back on their upturned umbrellalike flaps cause them to close Pumonary right valve to pulmonary trunk Aortic left valve to aorta Know how the chordae tendinae and papillary muscles work in the AV valves compared to the functioning of the semilunar valves 0 Each AV flap is attached to ventral wall by chordae tendinae strong collagenlike cord which attaches to papillary muscle Papillary muscles contract just before the ventricles Nur 0013 Spring 2014 do and the tension they exert on the chordae tendinae keep the valves closed throughout ventricular contraction 2 Electrical properties Know the difference and significance of the action potential generation in skeletal muscle vs cardiac muscle cells 0 Speed of generation Skeletal muscle cells 2 millisecs for action potential generation not electrical o Has absolute 200ms and relative periods Refractory period is prolonged so that fatigue does not set in when cardiac muscle beats Cardiac muscle cells 300500 millisecs for action potential generation 0 One contraction causes all cells to contract because they are self excitable automaticity What ion is responsible for the slow repolarization of cardiac muscle tissue 0 Repolarizationcalcium channels shut and membrane is again most responsive to potassium 3 Know the electrical conduction system Know the order of action potential generation 0 1 Rapid depolarization opening of fast sodium channels influx of Na through fast voltage gated Na channels 0 2 Partial repolarization rapid plateau phase is when slow Ca channels open and prevent rapid depolarization Ca influx through slow Ca channels few K channels open 0 3 Repoarization Ca channels shut and membrane is again most responsive to potassium Ca channels inactivating K channels opening Allow K efflux which brings membrane voltage back to resting voltage K leave I SA nodeAV nodebundle branches Purkinje fibers 4 Know the ECG wave What does it record 0 ECG Wave records heart activity It is a composite of all the action potentials generated by nodal and contractile cells at a given time What are the P QRS and T waves 0 P waves 008 s the first small waveresults from movement of the depolarization wave from the SA node through the atria atria contract shortly after beginning of P wave 0 QRS complex 008 sresults from ventricular depolarization and recedes ventricular contraction o T wave016s caused by ventricular repolarization Repolarization is slower than depolarization so T wave is more spread out and has a lower amplitude height than QRS complex What are the PR and QT intervals 0 PR interval016sthe time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation 0 GT interval038s the period from the beginning of ventricular depolarization through ventricular repolarization Chapter 19 Blood Vessels 1 Know the structure of blood vessels Nur 0013 Spring 2014 the tunics interna media adventitia o Tunica intima endothelium basement membrane of CT Blood flows smoothly along this layer 0 Tunica media the middle layer contains smooth muscle arranged in circularly for regulating blood flow Vasoconstriction decreases blood supply vasodilation increases blood flow This layer richly supplied with sympathetic nerve endings exception is in the clitoris and penis which have parasympathetic nerve endings o Tunica adventitia externa the outer layer composed of CT Vaso vasorum 2 What are blood ow blood pressure and resistance how do they work to regulate blood pressure Blood flow The volume of blood flowing through vessel or organ mlmin Usually equal to cardiac output CO 0 Difference in Blood PressurePeripheral Resistance Blood pressure The force per unit area exerted on the blood vessel wall by the blood mmHg 0 Systemic pressure is usually about 12080 mmHg 0 Systolic when the ventricles contract 120 mmHg 0 Diastolic when the heart relaxes 80 mmHg The difference in pressure is necessary to keep blood moving from areas of higher to lower pressure ResistanceOpposes blood flow in a vessel It increases as you get further from the heart 0 Diameter has the most impact on resistance 0 Blood viscosity and Blood vessel length both impact resistance 0 Resistance is the most important effector of flow because vessels can dilate or constrict What happens to flow if resistance increases or decreases o If resistance goes down then the blood flow increases 0 If resistance goes up then the blood flow decreases 3 Know the major pathways of arteries we discussed blood to upper limb o Subclavian a I axillary a I brachial a D radial and ulnar a superficial and deep palmar arches terminal digital a blood to brain 0 Right and Left vertebrals fuse into basilar a which splits into posterior cerebral arteries Posterior communicating arteries arise from internal carotids and internals also give off anterior cerebraswhich join the anterior communicating arteries blood to lower limb 0 External iliac crosses inguinal line to become the Femoral a popliteal a Anterior and Posterior tibial a D Fibular a Anterior tibial also gives off Dorsal pedis a celiac trunk o Becomes the Hepatic a Gastric a and Splenic a 4 Know the major veins of importance that we discussed SVC lVC they RETURN blood to the heart 0 SVC return blood from head neck thorax and upper limbs o lVC return blood from abdomen pelvis and lower limbs I Hepatic portal system a specialized vascular system that begins and ends with a capillary bed 0 Veins include Mesenteric veins gastric veins and splenic veins Nur 0013 Spring 2014 o Hepatic portal vein drains blood from the SI Ll pancreas spleen and stomach It empties back in the IVC Veins of upper limb o Subclavian axilary basilica I palmar arches digital veins hand veins 0 Subclavian axillary brachial radial and ulnar deep arm veins 0 Subclavian axilary basilica median cubital gt cephalic superficial veins Median cubital is where blood is often drawn Veins of lower limb 0 External iliac D femoral anterior and posterior tibial fibular venous arches digital Chapter 20 Lymphatic System What are the three major functions of the lymphatic system o 1 Fluid Balance about 3L a day returned to circulation by the lymphatic system o 2 Fat Absorption Lacteals located in the villi of intestines o 3 Defense Immune functions o What the major pathways for lymph return from the body o Lymph Capillaries interspersed with loose endothelial connections very permeable Collect tissue fluid not captured by the venous end of capillaries and return it to the venous circulation Fluid is lymph o Lymph Vessels Formed by coalescence of capillaries contain valves to facilitate one way movement of lymph back into general circulation Same 3 layers of veins but much thinner o Thoracic Duct Drains the legs abdomen left half of thorax left arm and left half of head Cisternae chyli in thorax is beginning of thorax duct It enters the left subclavian vein o Right Lymphatic Duct Returns lymph from right half of thorax right half of head and right arm It enters the right subclavian vein What are some other lymphatic organs o Lymph nodes When a foreign cell invades a node lymphocytes undergo rapid proliferation at the germinal centers to deal with them Contain lymphocytes macrophages reticular cells A collection point for several afferent lymph vessel but usually only one or two efferent lymph vessels Outer cortex filled with bcell lymphocytes Deeper medulla filled with b and tcell lymphocytes 0 Spleen upper left quadrant Filters cleanses and destroys foreign substances in the blood and destroys worn out RBCs Stores iron for later to make hemoglobins and acts as a blood reservoir and stores platelets Red pulpmainly venous sinuses and capillaries White pulp mainly lymphocytes o Thymus superior mediastinum Aids in the developing immune system esp babies Houses and matures tcell lymphocytes Increases in size until puberty then disappears The thymusblood barrier prevents pathogens from invading the thymus gland and prematurely stimulates t ce lymphocytes 0 Tonsils Filled with epithelial lined crypts that trap and then destroy pathogens form a ring of lymphatic tissues around the entrance to the pharynx Palantine tonsilsoften removed Lingual tonsils Pharyngealtonsils adenoids 10 O Nur 0013 Spring 2014 Chapter 21 Immune System 1 Be able to distinguish between the specific and nonspecific immune responses 0 Nonspecific are innate every response is the same Cannot differentiate between types of invasions every pathogen treated the same 0 Specific are adaptive every response is unique 1 Antigenspecific 2 Systemic 3 Has memory Which has memory 0 Specific has memory The second exposure to a pathogen a much faster response because it remembered the pathogen from previous encounters 2 Know the components of the nonspecific immune response Mechanical What are the different physical barriers Skin and mucous membranes tears coughing sneeing Acidic secretions from skin destroy pathogens Stomach acid and enzymes kill microorganisms Saliva and tears have lysozymes that destroy bacteria Mucosa of nose throat trap and expel pathogens Overall function is to prevent entrance of pathogens into the body Can be breached when skin is broken Cells Know the different types of WBC cells we discussed 0 NEUTROPHILS are FIRST to enter infected sites 0 Neutrophilsphagocytes 1 time use Pus dead neutrophils microbes pathogens 0 Macrophages in tissue monocytes in blood They leave blood and increase numbers at infected sites The clean up crew Include dendritic cells microglia alveolar hepatic o Basophilsmobile Release factors which attract more WBCs chemotaxic factors 0 Mast Cells nonmobile Are found near sites of possible pathogen influx release chemotaxic factors can also phagocytose bacteria 0 Eosinophils Act as moderators of inflammatory response and kill parasites by releasing enzymes all over them 0 Lymphocytes o B cells and T cells 0 Natural Killer Cells NK recognize tumor and cancerous cells in general Inflammation Chemical Can be localized or systemic in nature Vascular Permeability allows protein rich fluid to seep into the injured region from the blood vessels exudate Vasodilation caused by the release of histamines prostaglandins from injured tissues Edema the result of vasodilation and vascular permeability in injured area PHAGOCYTE MOBILIZATION 1 Leukocytosis 2 Margination aka pavementing 3 Diapedesis 4 Chemotaxis following the chemical signals to the injured site I Compement a group of about 20 proteins They normally circulate in plasma in inactive state bind to bacterial cell s surface and cause it to lyse o It works in both innate and adaptive responses 0 Classical pathway stimulated by antibodies 0 Alternate pathway stimulated by factors C3 which break down into different components 0000000 11 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 I lnterferon protects body against viral attack Virusinfected cells produce interferon which stimulates neighboring cells to produce antiviral proteins 3 Why is inflammation so important in the immune response 1 Prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues 2 Disposes of cell debris and pathogens 3 Sets the stage for repair process Be able to discuss the structures and processes involved in the inflammatory response What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation what causes each of them 1 Rednesscaused by vasodilation 2 Heat caused by vasodilation 3 Swelling caused by increased permeability 4 Pain caused by increased permeability What are the roles of vasodilaiton and vascular permeability in inflammation 0 These cause edema This is good because the surge of proteinrich fluids into the tissue spaces sweeps foreign material into lymphatic vessels for processing in the lymph nodes It also delivers important proteins such as complement and clotting factors into the interstitial fluid 4 For the Specific Immune response What are the two major branches what types of cells are involved how do they react o Humoral antibody mediated response immunity ANTIBODIES DEFEND BODY B cells Provided by antibodies present in body s fluids Produced by lymphocytes but antibodies circulate freely in blood and lymph and primarily bind to extracellular targets bacteria bacterial toxins free viruses 0 Cellmediated immunity LYMPHOCYTES DFEND BODY T cells Also has cellular targets virusinfected or parasite infected tissue cells cancer cells and foreign cells Lymphocytes act against the targets directly by killing infected cells or indirectly by releasing chemicals that enhance the inflammatory response or activate other lymphocytes or macrophages 5 Know the difference between the 4 types of lmmunotherapy we discussed in class and be able to give an example of each Active immunity Individuals will produce their own antibodies Passive immunity Antibodies are injected from another source 0 Active Natural Individual is exposed and develops antibodies and memory cells get an infection and suffer 0 Active Artificial get a vaccine 0 Vaccination antigen is introduced in altered form No disease and memory cells are formed 0 Passive Natural Passed from mother to fetusnewborn through the placentamilk lgA Effects wear off in a few months as the child s own immunity develops verticaly 0 Passive Artificial Antibodies taken from another source are given via a vaccination This is a quick fix as your body will produce no antibodies naturally from donor Chapter 22 The Respiratory system 1 Review the anatomy and function of the structures of the respiratory system Pharynx 12 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 o Nasopharynx posterior nares to soft palate lined with pseudostratified columnar cells Contains adenoids is the opening for the Eustachian tubes 0 Oropharynx soft palate to the hyoid bone lined with stratified squamous cells Contains the palatine and lingual tonsils o Laryngopharynx area where the trachea and esophagus split lined with stratified squamous cells above vocal cords and pseudostratified columnar cells below Bronchioles Trachea leads to 2 primary bronchi which continue divisions and serve as the lobules of the lungs bronchioles Changes from peudostratified cells into cuboidal cells by the terminal bronchioles 0 Conducting Zone trachea bronchi terminal bronchioles LAST 0 Respiratory Zone respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveoli ONLY Alveoli Type I and Type II cells macrophages 0 Type I cells single layer squamous walls of alveoli 0 Type II cells cuboidal scattered secrete surfactant and microbial proteins 0 Alveolar Macrophages Crawl freely along internal alveolar surfaces 2 The Respiratory Membrane Composed of Type I cells Type II cells and macrophages What factors affect diffusion across the membrane 0 Thickness of the respiratory membrane 0 How easily a gase diffuses across the membrane CO2 is 20 times more soluble than 02 0 Surface area of the membrane Usually about 70m certain diseases decrease surface area and impair diffusion across the membrane emphysema fluid 0 Partial Pressure Difference Gases move from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure 3 Be familiar with the movements of CO2 and O2 in these areas Between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries o 02 pressure is much higher so oxygen moves into blood 140 mmHg 40 0 C02 higher in pulmonary capillaries so it diffuses into alveoli 45 mmHg 40 Between systemic capillaries and tissues 0 Arterial End of Capillaries 0 02 concentrations are greater so more 02 is moved into the tissues from the blood 104 40 ENTERlNG TISSUES o Venous End of Capillaries 0 C02 concentrations are higher than 02 so C02 moves from the tissues into the blood 4540 LEAVlNG TISSUES 4 Where Respiration is controlled respiratory centers and what nerves are in control 0 Doral and Ventral Respiratory Centers in medulla of brainstem Neurons spontaneously become active and then faiguesets up basic rhythm of breathing Send their impulses along the phrenic and intercostal nerves to the muscles of inspiration 0 Pontine Respiratory Centers apneustic pneumotaxic coordinate and regulate the respiratory center to ensure that breathing is rhythmic and even Modifiers of Ventilation 0 Voluntary Control ie hyperventilation increase RR voluntary apnea decrease RR 0 Chemoreceptors are located in the carotid and aortic bodies as well as in the medulla 13 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 o Peripheras pick up changes in pH PCO2 and P02 levels o pH lt735 decreased RR and respiratory acidosis gt745 increased RR and respiratory alkalosis 02 an increase in will actually decrease respiration rate PC02 is MOST IMPORTANT regulator of rate An increase will cause an increase in respiration rate Centra due to blood brain barrier only pick up on pH changes 0 Stretch receptors in lungs response to overinflation receptors signal the medullary respiratory centers via afferent fibers of the vagus nerves sending inhibitory impulses that end inspiration and allow expiration to occur 0 Emotions excitement increase respiration gasping decreases respiration rate 0 Painful stimuli anger and gasping decrease respiration rate 0 Proprioreceptors a sensory receptor that receives stimuli from within the body esp one that responds to position and movement 0 Chemical or mechanical irritants stimulate receptors in bronchioles that promote reflex constriction of air passages and decrease respiration 1 External Respiration 02 from lungs blood CO2 from blood lungs 2 Internal Respiration 02 from blood tissue cells CO2 from tissue cells I blood Chapter 25 Urinary System 1 Know the location of the gross components of the urinary system I Kidneys ureters bladder urethra Be able to discuss the external and internal anatomy of each structure 0 Kidney Bean shaped right lower than left about 11cm 5in long Located in the retroperotineal space in the lower abdomen at about the level of the psoas muscle T12L3 Surrounded in a fibrous connective capsule and surrounded by a protective renal fat pad Renal hilum is the small raised portion on the medial side where the renal artery nerve and veins enter and exit 0 Ureter ONLY exit the hilum run inferiorly and medially to where they enter the bladderthe trigone Narrow muscular tubes lined with transitional epithelium and smooth muscle Urine is forced towards bladder by peristalsis o Bladder In pelvic cavity just posterior to the pubic symphysis Fully distended the bladder can hold 500600ml Composed of transitional epithelium except trigone surrounded by a smooth muscle layer Transitional epithelium is special because when the bladder is empty it can be 5 or 6 layers thick but when the bladder is distended it can expand and only by 2 or 3 layers thick Urine output is controlled by the micturition reflex which stimulates two sets of sphincters the internal urinary and the external urinary The internal is smooth muscle but the external is skeletal muscle so control for the most part is voluntary 14 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 I Urge to urinate occurs when about 200 ml of urine accumulate If voiding is resisted urge goes away until another 200 ml or so have collected I Control of reflex is from the sacral spinal nerves brainstem and voluntary centers in the cortex 0 Urethra I Lined primarily with stratified squamous epithelium I Females 34 cm in length I Males 20 cm in length combination of urinary and reproductive functions I UT s more common in females because they have a shorter urethra than men do which cuts down on the distance that bacteria must travel to reach a woman39s bladder I Pathway of urine formation 1 Filtration hydrostatic pressure pushes fluid across the filtration membrane into the nephron tubules 2 Reabsorption movement of fluid from filtrate back into the blood vessels 3 Secretion movement of wastes from the blood vessels into the filtrate 2 Know the blood supply to the kidneys starting with the renal artery I Be able to describe the blood flowing into and out of the glomerulus o Afferent arterioe Glomerulus capilaries Efferent arterioles 0 About 90 of blood entering goes to renal cortex I Structure of the glomerulus and renal corpuscle I Each glomerulus has an efferent and afferent arteriole to supply and take blood away from it I Bowman39s capsule surrounds the glomerulus It has a visceral and parietal layer I Renal corpuscle Bowman s Capsule Glomerulus I The glomerular capillaries are fenestrated which allows filtration of blood plasma to occur from the capillaries into the surrounding capsule and proximal convoluted tubule I Podocytes are the visceral layer of Bowman s capsule and have many filtration slits in them I The glomerular capillaries form the filtrate I Afferent and Efferent arterioles o Afferentlj towards o Efferent away 3 Know all the parts of the nephron I What is reabsorbed and or secreted at each point along the way 0 PCT Proximal convoluted tubule I Reabsorbed 65 of filtrate AA glucose NA ions K ions CL ions and water I Secreted Urea H NH4 creatine 0 DL Descending limb I Reabsorbed 15 of filtrate water I Secreted Urea 0 AL ascending limb I Reabsorbed Sodium Potassium Cl 0 DCT Distal convoluted tubule I Reabsorbed Sodium water HCO3 Cl I Secreted H Potassium NH4 I What are some substances that can exit the glomerulus and enter the nephron o Solute rich protein free fluid 15 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 What is the structure of the filtration membrane 0 3 layers thick Fenestrated glomerular endothelium Visceral layer of Bowman s capsule podocytes aid in filtration Basement membrane between the two layers 0 Allows passage of filtrate but not blood cells 0 Most macromolecules are trapped by podocytes Why can t some substances cross the filtration membrane The barrier is small only about 7nm so most objects are too large to pass easily across it Plasma proteins RBC s gt7nm so stay in capillary Small hormones minerals lt7nm go across filtration membrane 4 Filtration Reabsorption Secretion Filtrationhydrostatic pressure pushes fluid across the filtration membrane into the nephron tubules Reabsorption movement of fluid from filtrate back into the blood vessels Secretion movement of wastes from the blood vessels into the filtrate What is GFR o Glomerular Filtration Rate rate of filtration formation by the kidneys 0 GFR125 mlmin What hormones are responsible for reabsorption of sodium and water in the nephron o Aldosteronecauses Na to be actively transported across the walls and into the interstitial fluid and K ions to be secreted 0 ADH works in both the DCT and CD but really has a pronounced effect in the CD Water is 4x more concentrated from entering CD to leaving CD where it enters minor calyx Where does most secretion occur 0 DCT distal convoluted tubule Chapter 26 Fluid and Electrolytes 1 Know the different compartments and where body water is normally held Make sure you review how water moves from the ECF into the ICF and vice versa 1 Dehydration Excessive water loss from the ECF causes fluid to shift out of the ICF to try and balance it Causes include prolonged vomiting profuse sweating water deprivation etc 2 Hypotonic Hydration Water intoxication is when there is too much water in the ECF and it shifts into the ICF and cases the tissues to swell Causes include renal insufficiency or rapid overhydration 3 Edema Excess accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space Causes include inflammation injury CHF high blood pressure What happens if the ECF is too salty too dilute o If ECF is too salty the plasma will cause cells to dehydrate o Hypernatremia increased Na ions in plasma caused by too much aldosterone as well Leads to confusion lethargy neuromuscular irritability with twitching and convulsions What drives the thirst mechanism 0 Thirst center is in the hypothalamus near the third ventricle 16 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 o If plasma osmolality increases only 12 increase is needed or blood volume drops hemorrhage the osmoreceptors in hypothalamus are stimulated o The osmoreceptors over activity causes the sensation of thirst and causes dry mouth 0 Drinking immediately quenches thirst Also stretch receptors in stomach and SI activated and this also inhibits the osmoreceptors 2 Know how Sodium Potassium and Calcium are regulated For each of them know both the hyper and hypo conditions and what are the causes and symptoms of both hyper and hypo conditions 1 Hypernatremia increased Na ions in plasma Causes too much aldosterone hypertonic saline solutions and dehydration Symptoms CNS dehydration leads to confusion and lethargy neuromuscular irritability with twitching and convulsions 2 Hyponatremia Causes vomiting diarrhea burns dilution increased diuresis aldosterone deficiency Symptoms CNS edema leads to lethargy confusion seizures coma 3 Hyperkalemia increased K ions in plasma Causes decreased aldosterone cell rupture due to burns or other trauma Symptoms restlessness neuromuscular irritability followed by fatigue due to overexcitement which leads to muscular weakness and flaccid paralysis 4 Hypokalemia decreased K ions in plasma Causes Too much aldosterone reduced intake GI tract problems Symptoms Causes hyperpolarization of cells and leads to muscle weakness and mental confusion 5 Hypercalcemia increased Ca ions in plasma Causes hyperparathyroidism too much vitamin D Symptoms bone wasting fractures kidney stones cardiac arrhythmias depressed respiration 6 Hypocalcemia decreased Ca ions in plasma Causes nutritional vit D deficiencies burns Symptoms neuromuscular excitability tetany depressed excitability of the 3 Make sure you know the difference between respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis 1 Respiratory Acidosis Breathing is impaired so PC02 levels are high and blood pH is low If the kidneys are trying to compensate then HC03 levels will also elevate 2 Respiratory Alkalosis Breathing rate is increased PC02 levels will be lower and pH will be higher If the kidneys are trying to compensate HC03 levels will begin to fall 3 Metabolic Acidosis There is a renal problem blood pH is lower and blood HC03 levels are lowered Respiratory systems compensates by increasing the rate and depth of breathing so PC02 levels go down below normal 4 Metabolic Alkalosis I There is a renal problem blood pH is higher and blood HC03 levels are elevated Respiratory systems compensates by decreasing the rate and depth of breathing so PC02 levels go up and pH levels go down What are the major causes of each type 17 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 1 Respiratory Acidosis I Caused by any condition that impairs gas exchange also shallow breathing can cause it I PC02 increases and pH decreases 2 Respiratory Alkalosis I CO2 is washed out of the body too quickly I PC02 decreases and pH increases 3 Metabolic Acidosis I Severe diarrhea renal failure starvation excessive alcohol intake I Low blood pH and low blood HC03 levels I Not caused by C02 fluctuations 4 Metabolic Alkalosis I Vomiting or suctioning of acidic gastric contents excessive bicarbonate intake I Increasing blood pH and increasing HC03 levels I What does it mean to compensate o If the cause of the imbalance is respiratory often the kidneys will try to compensate o If the cause is metabolic the respiratory system will try to compensate Chapter 23 Digestive System 1 Make sure you review the parts of the digestive tract I Review the basic 4 pattern of digestive tract histology o Mucosa I Comes in contract with food first I The epithelium changes I Inner most I MUFFSA o Submucosa I Dense connective tissue I Contains nerves blood vessels and small glands I Has submuscosal plexus PARASYMPATHETIC I SIMBA o Muscularis I Smooth muscle I Oblique layer I Inner circular squeezing I Outer longitudinal pushing I Meyenteric plexus I Mixing part I MONKEY o Serosa I Outer connective tissue I Provides support and protection to the hyenas I Adventitia lacking serosa I Visceral peritoneum I Review the structure and functions of the esophagus stomach SI and LI 0 Esophagus I Upper skeletal I Lower smooth I Lower sphincter prevents food from regurgitating back into esophagus 18 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 0 You have GERD when the lower sphincter isn t working Buccol o Voluntary o Bolus is formed and pushed down Pharyngeal o Involuntary o Pushing down into stomach o Peristalsis Gastroesphageal junction o End of esophagus and start of stomach o Stomach Holds 24 L of food Superior end o Entrance of esophagus 0 Can have hernias here Pyloric sphincter 0 Opening into duodenum Rugae Folds to INCREASE SA Mucosa Iayer secretes mucus Gastric glands o HCL lower pH o Pepsinagen lower PH 0 Small Intestines Duodenum starts and does a majority of the work Jejunum continues the chemical digestion and absorption Fold to INCREASE SA Brush border enzyme o Effects digestion by attaching to microvilli Functions o Digestion hydrolytic digestion by enzymes o Absorption active or passive transport across the epithelium 0 Segmentation and peristaIsis physical processes 0 Large Intestines Ileocecal valve o Regulates passage of material from SI and LI Muscularis layer is reduced to 3 longitudinal bands called teniae coli Haustra 0 Small sacs caused by bunching of smooth muscle Epiploic appendages 0 Small pouches of visceral peritoneum filled with adipose tissue Functions 0 Consolidate and move unusable fecal material out of body o Reclaims water and some electrolytes from undigested food o Mass movements occur three or four times a day o Vitamin B and K are made here Review the secretions from the gastric glands and how they aid digestion o Cephalic Phase Stimulated by sensations of taste smell and thoughts of food chewing and swallowing 19 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 The vagus carries this information to the nerves within the stomach wall These Parasympathetic nerves in the stomach wall release ACH and this stimulates the release of gastrin which comes back around to stimulate additional release of pepsinogen and HCL by the stomach o Gastric Phase Triggered by Stomach distention amino acids and proteins in stomach Rising pH in stomach due to food The distention and pH causes local receptors to trigger reflexes and release more gastric secretions HCI gastrin etc Gastrin is released in a positive feedback fashion during this phase However when the pH lt2 in the stomach then gastric secretions are inhibited o Intestinal Phase Chyme released into the duodenum stimulates both neural and hormonal mechanisms As long as the pH remains gt3 gastric secretions are continued with gastrin being released from the duodenum and causing the stomach to continue its secretions Enterogastric reflex inhibition Secretin released when SI becomes too negative and inhibits gastric secretions GIP gastric inhibitory peptide inhibits gastric secretions when there are fatty acids present in the SI CCKcholecystokinin inhibits gastric secretions but also increases the secretions of the pancreas and gall bladder in order to digest fats Why is surface area so important in digestion 0 Because it the greater the surface area the more things that can absorbed in a shorter distance 2 Make sure you review the accessory organs of digestion Review the functions of the liver gallbladder salivary glands and pancreas 0 Liver Attached to diaphragm via the falciform ligament Lobules hexagonal in appearance are the smallest functional units of the liver Hepatocytes are the main cells of the liver that process nutrient laden venous blood Between the sheets of hepatocytes are the leaky sinusoid capillaries o Liver extracts glucose amino acids and other nutrients from the blood coming from the digestive tract o It also secretes substances into the blood 0 angiotensinogen albumin clotting factors It also manufactures bile which emulsifies fat from cholesterol Sends bile to gallbladder for storage via the hepatic ducts o Gallbladder Stores concentrates bile which is released upon a signal from the duodenum CCK Bile released through the cystic duct 0 Cystic and Hepatic ducts merge to form Common bile duct this joins with the pancreatic duct to form the Ampulla of Vater Bile salts contain large amounts of cholesterol and excretion of bile through the digestive tract is the way our body gets rid of excess cholesterol 20 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 Clinical note 5F s fair fat forty female fertile perfect conditions for gall stones 0 Salivary Glands Parotids submandibular sublingual two of each Secrete saliva mucin salivary amylase into oral cavity to begin the digestion of starches o Pancreas Produces many important enzymes pancreatic amylase pancreatic lipase etc more later Enzymes are produced by acinar cells 0 remember that the islet cells produce insulin and glucagon Also secretes large amounts of bicarbonate ion HCO339 o Which buffers the contents of the duodenum Pancreatic juice digestive enzymesbicarbonate ion The pancreatic duct joins common bile duct at the hepatopancreatic ampulla Ampulla of Vater 0 products enter the duodenum through the hepatopancreatic sphincter Sphincter of Oddi Major duodenal papilla 0 opening into the small intestine Pancreatic secretions are regulated by intestinal hormones and the vagus nerve Alkaline pancreatic juice neutralizes the acidic chyme coming out of the stomach NOTE If there is any blockage for example at the ampulla of Vater or anywhere else along the duct system the enzymes produced by the pancreas can back up and will eventually begin to consume the pancreas Anything that causes the pancreas to swell can lead to pancreatitis Make sure you look over the anatomy of the hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter is K V Common GYgi uc1 Anti riagjalic rJiIEFt 1 itornmom 3 A 7 W 77 I3i Iriiacrn39er T s y 3 Review the basics of chemical digestion and enzyme activity Fats glycerol and 3 fatty acids 0 Can be used for a energy source 0 Padding cholesterol and phospholipids o Bile emulsifies fats 21 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 Carbohydrates What are some of the different classes of carbohydrates 0 Monosaccharides fructose galactose glucose 0 Disaccharides sucrose maltose lactose o Polysaccharides starch from plants glycogen stored in muscle Proteins chains of amino acids o 9 essential and 11 nonessential o Building bones muscles etc o Regulatory proteins I Enzymes transporters hormones What enzymes are involved in the digestion of each type 0 Carb Enzymes I Salivary amylase breaks down polysaccharides into disaccharides I Pancreatic amylase breaks down disaccharides into sucrose maltose and lactose I Brush border enzyme breaks down sucrose maltose and lactose into monosaccharides 0 Protein Enzymes I Pepsin and HCL break down protein into polypeptides I Pancreatic protease breaks down polypeptides into dipeptides I Brush border enzymes breaks down dipeptides into amino acids 0 Lipid Enzymes I Bile Emulsifies the fats I Micelles I Are small phospholipids bubbles that allow production of fat digestion to get close to surface of the mucosa of the villi I Once close enough to the surface the micelles dissolve and fatty acids and glycerides can diffuse into the cell I Lacteals Absorbs lipids in SI and put back in the blood I Where in the digestive tract is each type digested o Carb I Stomach 0 Protein I Absorbed in the capillaries of the SI and go to the liver via the Hepatic portal vein 0 Lipids I First they enter the small intestine and are oriented to bile salts secreted by gallbladder in order to interact with the aqueous environment They are broken into the glycerol backbone and free fatty acids by pancreatic lipase which would not be able to approach many of the lipids if it weren39t for the bile salts I What are the final products of digestion o The end product of carbohydrate digestion I mainly glucose o The end product of protein digestion I digested by protease enzymes into one of 20 individual amino acids o The end product of lipid digestion I fatty acids and glycerol The glycerol part is immersed by the liver and is changed into glucose while the fatty acid is stored as body fat I Know how each is absorbed in the intestines I Carbohydrates into villi and then into hepatic portal vein I Proteins into villi then into hepatic portal vein 22 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 I Fats micelles chylomicrons lacteals thoracic duct Chapter 24 Metabolism 1 Review the function of enzymes as catalysts I What are the properties of a catalyst 1 lsn t changed or destroyed in a chemical reaction 2 Lowers energy needed to break down bonds of reactants 3 Speeds up the rate of reaction I What are specificity and efficiency in regards to enzymes 0 Specificity I Only work to break down certain items 0 Efficiency I Break it down effectively 2 Review the process of glycolysis I How it relates to aerobic respiration o Occurs mainly in the mitochondrial membranes 0 PRENSENCE OF OXYGEN 0 Final product is 2 pruvic acid molecules and when O2 is present it can move on to next step I What are products of aerobic respiration o 1GIucose3438ATP6H2O6C02 I How it relates to anaerobic respiration o WITHOUT OXYGEN I What are the products of anaerobic respiration o 1 Glucoselj 2 ATP and 2 Lactic Acid I What differentiates aerobic from anaerobic o Lactic acid and fermentation oxygen vs no oxygen 3 Reveiw the different parts of the aerobic respiration cycle what goes into each part and what is the output I Glycolysis o Requires 2 ATP 0 A 4 ATP are made for a net of 2 ATP 0 2 NADH formed I Acetyl CoA formation 0 Pryuvic acids move into the mitochondrion where they are stripped and converted into 0 Results in I 2 Acetyl CoA I 2 NADH I 2 CO2 I Kreb39s cycle 0 2 Acetyl CoA enter this cycle and undergo a series of reactions 0 Results in I 2 ATP I 6 NADH I 2 FADH2 I 4 CO2 I Electron transport chain 23 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 Takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane Oxygen binds up to free hydrogen FADH FADH2 0 Causes phosphates to be added to ADP to create ATP What would happen if the electron carriers are blocked o If blocked then you are unable to do the Electron Transport Chain ATP synthase 0 Final step if this is messed up then you are messed 0 An important enzyme that provides energy for the cell to use through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate ATP 000 4 How can we use fats and proteins to produce energy 0 We can use fats by breaking them down into glyercol and free fatty acids Glycerol can EASILY be converted and go into glycolysis by forming pyruvic acid Free fatty acids undergo BETA OXIDATION to be come acetyl CoA which enter into Krebs cycle 0 We can use proteins when we REALLY need to we don t like to use them very oftenll Amino acids can be interconverted to allow them to enter phases of carbohyrate metabolism Usually associated with STARVATION Chapter 27 Reproductive System 1 Male Anatomy Review the anatomy of the testes o Encased in a fibrous sheath of tissue known as the tunica albuginea which divides into septa o Interstitial cells leydig cells LH secreted Endocrine Testosterone production 0 Seminiferous tubules FSH secreted Spermatogenesis Exocrine Produce sperm cell put in epididymis could be there for 2 months leave body Empty into rete testes o Transport IMMATURE sperm into efferent ductules from there empties into epididymis stored and matured Review the anatomy of the accessory glands o Seminal vesicles Near the back side of the bladder Empty their contents into ejaculatory ducts SPERM CELLS Producesecrete simple sugar to nourish the sperm Secretes coagulating enzymes and prostaglandins o Prostate Under the bladder and surrounds urethra Secretes a milky ALKALINE substance that helps sperm Secretes PSA 24 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 o Releases a coagulating enzyme that helps dissolve the eggs membrane for implementation 0 Bulbourethral Secrete thick mucous like alkaline substance to help neutralize the acid environment in the vagina allow sperm to survive Know the pathway a sperm would have to follow to get out of the body 0 seminiferous tubules of testes gt epididymis gt vas deferens gtejaculatory duct gt prostatic urethragt membranous urethragt penile urethra Review the HPG axis for males what do LH and FSH do Green positive ilnlflulenlce Red neglatilve influence 1 ii I Too much testosterone willlll inhibit the secretion of H and FSHILHL Testosterone lnhibin o Ign LH stimulates the Leydig cells to produce testosterone o FSH primarily bind to the sertoli and germ cells causing spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules o The MORE testosterone that is present in the blood the LESS GnRH released from the hypothalamus 2 Female Anatomy Review the anatomy of the ovaries o Held in place by large ligaments o Surrounded by tunica albuginea o OUTER CORTEX Gametes are developed 0 INNER MEDULLA Houses large blood vessels and nerve supply 0 Ova egg develops in an ovarian follicle FSH starts the process and followed by LH 0 Corpus luteum remains in the ruptures follicle after ovulation Produce high levels of estrogen and progesterone Collects cholesterol so tends to be a yellow color 0 Ovulation When mature follicles eject their ova from the ovary Review the anatomy of the accessory structures 0 Fimbriae Guide the egg into tubes Contains smooth muscle contractions to help move the ova towards the entrance of the uterus o Tubes Held in place by ligaments Fertilization usually takes place in the tubes Can cause ectopic pregnancy egg begins to grow in the tubes Folds over and terminates in a funnel shaped infundibulum surounds the ovary o Uterus Superior and posterior to the bladder 25 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 Roughly triangular o Fundus body and cervix Anteverted tilted forward when uterus meets vaginal canal o Vaginal canal I Slightly acidic Antimicrobial Composed of adventitia lacking serosa muscularis and mucosa layers Lined with stratified squamous Glycogen is released to make lactic acid which makes the vagina acidic PARASYMPATHETIC CONTROL What path does the oocyte have to take to get out of the body 0 When an egg is released from the ovary it first enters the fallopian tubes and Here it can be fertilized by a sperm cell or remain unfertilized Either way it travels through the fallopian tubes and into the uterus If it is fertilized the egg will implant on the lining of the wall of the uterus and begin to grow Review the HPG axis what do LH and FSH do Green positive influence Red negative influence Too much estrogen and progesterone will inhibit FSH the secretion of GnRH and I LH FSHILH 0 Estrogen Progesterone o FSH Development of a follicle early in the uterine cycle 0 LH When follicle ruptures the body then moves into ovulation Triggers production of progesterone which prepares uterus for a pregnancy 3 Spermatogenesis and oogenesis What is the purpose of meiosis o The purpose of meiosis is to reduce the normal diploid cells 2 copies of each chromosome cell to haploid cells called gametes 1 copy of each chromosome per cell In humans these special haploid cells resulting from meiosis are eggs female or sperm male 0 23 chromosomes 0 1 cell 4 daughter cells What are the final products of both spermatogenesis and oogenesis o Spermatogenesis 26 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 ElE ll39J 39l39i EllIl1L iil1 tErlna5ei o Oogenesis J i 5 Puller tardy quotlil llrill LlE f Wpl t J 4 lat a lrfar far 1 E J L 1 Slili l V 2 S Lima l ep ini K 0 lF t ll9irhnLll1l lliiTEl39iJ39lJ ElEI I O g V r 139 1 llLI1EI t I39 ill Q 1 I Why are the final products different in number 0 The final products differ in number because male keep producing more sperm while the women are born with the amount they will have their whole lives 4 Review the phases of the ovarian and uterine cycles Ovarian o Follicular phase Days 114 Day 15 under influence of FSH primary follicles immature ooctye become secondary follicles maturing ovarian follicle Secondary follicles contain granulose cells which secrete estrogen o Luteal phase days 1425 27 Nur 0013 Spring 2014 I Follicle collapses and fills with lipids and becomes a corpus luteum thus secreting progesterone I LH and FSH levels decrease and estrogen and progesterone levels increase I IF PREGANCY OCCURS I Positive feedback with the developing placenta keeps the corpus luteum patent until about the third month of gestation I IF NO PREGANCY OCCURS I Corpus luteum quits secreting hormones and degenerates into the corpus albicans scar tissue I Uterine o Premenstrual Days 2628 I Estrogen and progesterone increase and work together to create changes in the lining of the uterus that prepare it to accept an embryo should conception occur When conception or pregnancy does not occur estrogen and progesterone levels decline and the lining of the uterus called the endometrial lining begins to shed which leads to menstruation o Menstrual Days 15 I Levels of estrogen and progesterone are LOW I By day 5 estrogens are being produced by the developing follicles I Walls of the endometrium are shed during menses o Proliferative Days 614 I Levels of estrogen and progesterone INCREASE thus promoting the thickening of the endometrial functional layer I Endometrial glands and spiral arteries being to invade this new layer 0 Secretory Days 1526 I Endometerium prepares for implantation I Blood flow increases to progesterone from corpus luteum I Also causes the cervical mucosa to form a plug to prevent entrance of additional sperm into uterus I Go over the chart from class I How are LH and FSH related to the ovarian and uterine cycles I It is usually negative feedback I When is there a positive feedback created 0 Positive feedback during the proliferation of the uterine lining 28
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