Study Guide for Exam 3
Study Guide for Exam 3 BIOL 1306/1106
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Tissue Organ An Orgon39zed group Of Cells That have features In An anatomical features that consists of several types of tissue that common and that work together as a structural and Together COW OUT 0 particular function functional unit Root system Rods Anchoes plant in place The organ responsible for anchoring the plant in the soil and absorbing water and minerals and producing certain hormones Dermal Tissue Forms plant epidermis usually one cell layer Some epidermal cells Shoot System differentiate The aerial portion of a plant body consisting of stems o Stomata pores for gas exchange leaves and flowers 0 Trichomes leaf hairs protect from herbivores and damaging solar radiation 0 Root hairs increase root surface area Meristem The tissue in most plants containing undifferentitated cells modem meristematic cells found in zones of plant where growth Capable of developing into complete organisms or differentiating info can take place Meristematic cells give rise to various any of its cells or tissues organs of the plant and keep the plant growing Indeterminate growth Taprooi GrOWTh processes That do OT Tefm mle When The com Largest most central and most dominant root from which other roots stage IS reached or a predetermined structures has ll formed Instead growth is open ended and lifelong SprOUT Idem y Hormone Signaling molecules that regulate and control physiology growth or behavior Allelopathy The chemical inhibition of one species by another The quotinhibitoryquot chemical is released into the environment where it affects the development and growth of neighboring plants Pigment A compound that has a distinctive color due to selective color absorption Chlorophyll photosynthesis Accessory pigments Carotenoids xanthophylls photoprotection Anthocyanins Production during senescence often color flowers and fruits Endosperm A specialized triploid seed tissue found only in angiosperms contains stored nutrients for the developing embryo Secondary metabolites Organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth development or reproduction of an organism Often they contribute to a secondary function such as defense against herbivory Soil The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants Seed Bank Natural storage of seeds often dormant within the soil of most ecosystems In 2012 Russian scientists were able to germinated an Arctic plant from a 32000 year old seed this shows how long a seed can be dormant before being germinated Fun Fact There is a global seed vault in Svalbard Semelparity and Iteroparity Semelparity and iteroparity refer to the reproductive strategy of an organism A species is considered semelparous if it ischaracterized by a single reproductive episode before death and iteroparous if it characterized by multiple reproductive cycles over the source of its lifetime Semelparous put all their energy into making seeds so they end up dying Annuals Biennials two year life cyclequot First year they grow and collect resources and second year flower and die Perennials flower every year so they are iteroparous Photosynthesis 6C02 6H20 light energy gt C6H1206 602 Important equation to know Microbe A microscopic living organism often single celled though microscopic multicellular organisms are included Microbes include all the bacteria and archaea and almost all the protozoa They also include some fungi algae and certain animals such as rotifers Same as quotmicroorganismquot There can be up to 10000 species in a handful of soil and 1010 cells per gram Nitrogen Fixers Some plants are nitrogen fixers They contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within nodules in their root systems producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete with other plants When the plant dies the fixed nitrogen is released making it available to other plants and this helps to fertilize the soil nitrogch N2 311 8amp5 l ATP 2NH 3 H2 l ADP mp Chapter 24 Key takeaways 0 See Image I after Chapter Takeaways Semelparity and Iteroparity Semelparity and iteroparity refer to the reproductive strategy of an organism A species is considered semelparous if it ischaracterized by a single reproductive episode before death and iteroparous if it characterized by multiple reproductive cycles over the source of its lifetime Semelparous put all their energy into making seeds so they end up dying Annuals Biennials two year life cyclequot First year they grow and collect resources and second year flower and die Perennials flower every year so they are iteroparous Soil Organic Matter Organic carbon based material typically brown in color that builds up in the upper layers of soil as a result of long term decomposition of living tissues by soil microbes Water Potential The tendency of water to move from one area to another due to osmosis gravity mechanical pressure or matrix effects such as capillary action which is caused by surface tension Water moves toward more negative water potentials o The shoot system consists of stems and leaves in which photosynthesis takes place 0 The root system anchors the plant and provides water and nutrients for the shoot system 0 See Image 2 for Plant Morphogenesis 0 See Image 3 for Leaf Anatomy 0 A taproot system has a long thick root with many smaller lateral roots A fibrous root system has many adventitious roots See Image 4 0 See Image 5 for Monocots vs Eudicots Chapter 25 Key takeaways o Photosynthesis is defined by 6C026H20 light energy gt C6HI206 602 0 Plant respiration is real there is leaf stem and root respiration The net primary production is photosynthesis plant respiration See Image 9 0 See Image IO for Phloem Transportation 0 Plant will move toward like phototroplsm o For Different tropisms See Image I I o Macronutrients are elements required by plants in relatively large amounts Nitrogen is very important because it is used for proteins and nucleic acids 0 Micronutrients often function as catalysts and are only needed in small amounts o Nitrogen is needed in large quantities because if is used to make enzymes and proteins This can be the most limiting nufrienf to plant growth Phosphorus and Potassium follow nitrogen in being the next most important limifing nufrienf 0 Soil is composed of three layers the fopsoil this is composed of organic matters and is nutrient rich is a dark brown the subsoil a light brown and the parent rock or bedrock o In Soil there are many microbes 0 See Image 12 For Plant Water Relations 0 Plants can direct their phofosynfhesized sugars and nutrients fowards growth reproduction maintenance storage defense or uptake of additional resources The energy costs for different tissues is similar but the nutrient requirement is different Chapter 26 Key to keaways o Gibberellins are plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes including stem elongation germination dormancy flowering sex expression enzyme induction and lead and fruit senescence See Image 8 o Auxin is a plant hormone produced in the stem tip that promotes cell elongafion Auxin moves fo the darker side of the plant causing the cells there to grow larger than corresponding cells on the lighter side of the plant 0 See Image 6 and 7 for Plant Growth Hormones o Chlorophyll phofosynfhesis o Accessory pigmenfs Phofoprofecfive pigments Carotenoids accessory and phofoprofecfion Anfhocyanins produced during senescence offen flowers and fruits o lngraffing the scion is aligned so that its bascular cambium is adjacent fo the vascular cambium in the stock Chapter 27 Key to keaways o Phofoperiod related to plant growth based on how many hours there are light to dark Some plants only flower when there is more darkness fhan lighfness o Annuals and Biennials flower produce seeds fhen die 0 Perennials live longer and reproduce repeatedly continued on back Chapter 28 Images are 13 and 14 about Secondary Metabolites Image 1 The ground tissue system carries out The dermal tissue photosynthesis stores photosynthetic system is the outer products and helps support the plant covering of the plant Shoot apical meristem The vascular tissue system conducts water and solutes throughout the plant Dermal quot 39 Ground Vascular Seedling Root apical Dermal meristem Ground Nascular PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 246 0 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Image 2 Epidermis dermal Shoot Radial axis Apical basal Radial pattern axis Root Y Apical basal pattern PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 244 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Image 3 Cuticle Upper epidermis Palisade mesophyll cell Bundle sheath cell Xylem Vein lt Phloem a Guard cell7 Stoma PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 2412 2014 Sinauer Associates lnc Lower epidermis Spongy mesophyll cells Image 4 A Taproot system B Fibrous root system Leaves bulb Lateral root M gt l U39t39 I l 39 Adventitious 39 39 quot39 roots Ta root P PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 2410 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Image 5 Monocots Eudicots n Embryos 39 One cotyledon Two cotyledons Vascular tissue arranged in concentric circles Vascular tissue Stems scattered Veins form a network Veins usually parallel R t t Fibrous 00 SYS em 39 no main root Leaf venation Taproot main root usually present 1563 Floral organs usually in multiples Floral organs Flowers usually in multiples 3quot of three 39 of four or five Pollen grain Pollen grain P en with single with three furrow or pore furrows or pores PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 22 Figure 242 D 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Image 6 Plant Growth Hormones Part 1 Hormone Common Structure Typical activities Abscisic acid CH3 CH3 Maintains seed dormancy closes HSC stomata OH 0 CH3 COOH Promotes stem elongation adventitious root initiation and fruit development inhibits axillary bud outgrowth leaf abscission and root elongation Auxin indole 3acetic acid Brassinosteroids OH Promote stem and pollen tube elongation promote vascular tissue differentiation H 0 II PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Table 262 Part 1 2014 Sinauer Associates inc Image 7 Plant Growth Hormones Part 2 Hormone Common Structure Typical activities Cytokinins H CHZOH Inhibit leaf senescence promote C 3 cell division and axillary bud out HN CHQ CH3 growth affect root growth N l Ngt Ethylene H H Promotes fruit ripening and leaf gtCclt abscission inhibits stem elonga H tion and gravitropism Gibberellins 0 Promote seed germination stem growth and ovule and fruit devel w CH2 opment break winter dormancy mobilize nutrient reserves in grass CH3 H 002H seeds PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 22 Table 262 Part 2 1 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Image 8 Fruit and seed coat Endosperm with stored reserves Gibberellins u 39 V Nutrients Aleurone monomers The embryo imbibes H20 and swells that diffuse into the aleurone layer the endosperm and starch in the endosperm where they trigger the synthesis of releasing monomers amino acids hydrolytic enzymes and sugars from which the embryo synthesizes new cells The embryo secretes gibberellins The hydrolytic enzymes move into The enzymes digest the proteins PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 264 2014 Sinauer Associates lnc Image 9 Substratelevel Substratelevel Oxi ive phosphorylmon phosphorylatton phosphorylatlon WOWEMNMuWQm Image 10 1 Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels 2 Source cells load Sieve Source sucrose into companion tube Ge cells The sucrose Companion enters phloem sieve tubes reducing water potential 3 so water is taken up from the xylem by osmosis raising the pressure potential in the sieve tube Sieve tube element Sieve Sink cell plate 4 Internal pressure differences drive the phloem sap along the sieve tube to sink cells 5 Sucrose is unloaded into and water moves back sink cells increasing the into the xylem by osmosis water potential in the sieve tube PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 2514 2014 Sinauer Associates inc lmoge ii Chemetrepiam meeement er greatlh in reepenae tel chemicals Geetrepiam er gravitrclpiam meeement er greedh in reeneinae tel maturityr lielietrclnpiam diurnal metien er aeaaenal metien elf plant part5 in reepenaei Hydretrepiam meeement er greenith in reepenae tel water Phcatciatrepiam mecrement er gremlith in reapenae tel Iighta er celera cit light Thermetrcipiam meeement er gremlith in reepenae te temperature Electretreptam mertrement er grewth in reepenae te an electric elcl ii39higmcatrcapiam mecrement er greatlh in reepenee tel tench er contact Image I2 3 Tension pulls water from the veins into the apoplast surrounding the mesophyil cells 4 which in turn pulls water in the veins of the leaves upward and outward from mesophyll cell walls Mesophyll cell During transpiration water vapor diffuses out of the leaf through pores called stomata which in turn pulls the water column in the xylem of the shoot and root upward water molecules forms a continuous water column from the roots to the leaves PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 251 2 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc 8 Water enters the root from the soil by osmosis Image 13 TABLE 281 Class Type Role Example Nitrogencontaining Alkaloids Neurotoxin Nicotine in tobacco OH Glycosides Inhibit electron Dhurrin in sorghum H transport CH3 Nonprotein amino Disrupt protein Canavanine in jack acids structure bean CH3 Ephedrine an alkaloid Nitrogen and sulfurcontaining Glucosinolates Inhibit respiration Methylglucosinolate in cabbage Sglucose H30 C N 0 so Methylglucosinolate PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Table 281 Part 1 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Image 14 i TABLE 281 Class Type Role Example Phenolics Coumarins Block cell division Umbelliferone in carrots Flavonoids Phytoalexins Capsaicin in peppers Tannins Inhibit enzymes Gallotannin in oak trees HO O O Umbelliferone Terpenes Monoterpenes Neurotoxins Pyrethrin in Chrysan H C themums 3 Diterpenes Disrupt reproduction Gossypol in cotton o and muscle function R If 0 Triterpenes Inhibit ion transport Digitalis in foxglove o Sterols Block animal Spinasterol in spinach hormones Pyrethr39n Polyterpenes Deter feeding Latex in Euphorbia PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Table 281 Part 2 E 2014 Simuer Associates inc
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