Study Guide for Exam #2
Study Guide for Exam #2 CHEM 121
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kesley Wood on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 121 at University of Montana taught by Daniel J. Dwyer (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 229 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Intro to General Chemistry CHEM121 Study Guide Exam 2 I NAMING IONS A Naming Monatomic Cations positive charge 1 Metals that only form ONE positive ion Add word ion after element ex H Hydrogen ion Ca2 Calcium ion 2 Metals that form MORE THAN ONE positive ion Place Roman Numerals with the metal s charge following element name with no space then the word ion ex Cu Copperl ion Cu2 Copperll ion B Naming Monatomic Anions negative charge Add quotidequot to stem part of name ex F39 Fluoride 0239 Oxide II IONIC BONDS A Binary Ionic Compounds Formed from two elements one positive and one negative CrissCrossquot charges to figure out number of atoms for each element for metals that can form more than one ion include the charge in compound name ex Al3 and C139 AlCl3 Aluminum Chloride Cu2 and 0239 CuO Copperll Oxide B Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions CrissCrossquot Charges again but put polyatomic ion in parenthesis if more than one ion is needed Name positive ion first then negative ion ex Na3 NO NaNO3 NH 3032 NH4ZSO3 III POLYATOMIC IONS Try to memorize Charge Ammonium WWWW WWW 7 7 E 77 L UU ng EEMUUFJMJ ilmf f 7 quot b iflu W V Z WWE fchiirs w L JUN IMW 3 ilfi WWff H irir r at gUu 1 1 UMP Chemical bond resulting from the sharing of electrons between two atoms Polar difference in electronegatiVity is between 05 and 19 note if First word is name of first molecule in compound with its proper prefix if Second word is the name of the second molecule with its proper prefix and IV COVALENT BONDS A What is a covalent bond either two nonmetals or a nonmetal and metalloid electronegativity is gt19 it is an ionic bond Nonpolar difference in electronegativity is lt05 B Naming Covalent Bonds there is only one atom there is no pre x 2 ending in quotidequot 3 Prefix is related to number of atoms in compound Prefixes 1 mono 2 di 3 tri 4 tetra 5 penta 6 hexa 7 hepta 8 octa 9 nona 10 deca V Polarity if bonds in a molecule are polar the molecule may be polar gtquotifbonds are SYMMETRICAL molecule is NONPOLAR if bonds are ASYMMETRICAL molecule is POLAR gtquotPOLAR molecules dissolve in WATER gtquotNONPOLAR molecules dissolve in LIPIDS LEWIS STRUCTURES How to Draw 1 3 Determine the number of valence electrons in the molecule eX for CH 20 the Lewis Structure must show 12 valence electrons 4 from Carbon Group 4A 2 from 2 Hydrogens Group 1A and 6 from Oxygen Group 6A Determine the connectivity of the atoms The central atom is the least electronegative refer to electronegativity trend Connect all bonds by SINGLE bonds eX CH20 O H c H Arrange remaining electrons so that each atom has a complete outer shell 8 valence electrons Note Add double bonds two lines between atoms triple bonds three lines between atoms only occurs between carbon nitrogen and oxygen or electron pairs where needed VI BOND STRUCTURES A VSEPR Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Lewis Diagrams are 2Dimensional representations of molecules but molecules exist in 3D but Lewis Diagrams can help us figure out shape The shapes of molecules are determined by areas of electron density H H I O H C H C 0 I H 39 H H H CH4 4 areas of CHZO 3 areas of H20 4 areas of electron electron density electron density density B Shapes and angles Memorize Areas of Lone Bond Shape Electron Pairs Angle Name Density 2 0 1800 linear 3 0 1200 trigonal planar 3 1 1200 angular 4 0 10950 tetrahedral 4 1 1070 trigonal pyramidal 4 2 10450 bent C Visuals you do not need to know trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral Mnaar ilinear bent or angular E gonal manar t gonal tetrahedral a l 39 7 pyramidal trigonal octahedral bipyramidal VII ORGANIC CHEMISTRY A Basics Compounds that just contain carbon amp hydrogen follow their own rules CXHY The names of these compounds are determined by of carbon atoms in molecule ex 1meth 226th 3pr0p 4but 5pent B Alkanes CnH2n2 CH 4 methane C3H8 propane C4H10 butane C Alkenes CnHZn CZH4 ethylene C3H6 propylene D Alcohols CXHyOH CH4 methane gt CH3OH methanol CZH6 ethane gt CZHSOH ethanol E Organic Acids CXHyOOH CH3COOH acetic acid F Aldehydes CHO CHZO formaldehyde CHBCHO acetaldehyde VIII PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS REVIEW INCREASING ELECTRON g i IIntIaI 5 I 39F 3 39ri I I Li EL II C H I I Ni Inquot 13 a IL IIIbu quot F3939I I ird u i JJ 39s39III39TI39 IIJJEI IEJJIIIJ HIMH Li39s39l ll I 39 riii39k 39I irquotquot I I 2 I3 I I L5 III I IE Na Mg III 3955 I39 III III I39 39IJ 11 39 5 Illn1 5d m hga 55 H I39I39 quot51 3939 1W ITII 39 Ili39II x Elsiquot I 39 EEI 1311 II ivquot I III EJJIIIL I If 7 Elz39 jz I1 2 21 ii 23 2 23 2E 21 E 3 25quot III 3 I 33 Ii II 35 3 EIII Er TI quotIf Cr EIIII III Cu Ni Cu EII Ga GE is 5 Br III V em 39quothI1 93 w mug H 7 1 I 971 n LI i a g EIIh ir my a yr IV39 is p 1 mp Iu39i irIIi III l39I Isl 39Wf39JIII IT 39Iquotquot I iIiil1 El Liw ul 39r I 39i39IP W39I39I 39H aul 393 ia nl Pia I Jlrl IF u IP39II I39a39 QII 3 El 1 I 39 I II IEI 39 S 39A I T i 39iIH II III I IIIaquot 53 33921 III II I 612 I39IIIII l III I45 I39EIFI III 39II II I39IJJ 3 5 5 5d IEIIII SI I if III III III III quotIII Hill IEII III39IIII fig EL II I II Ell SI TI I Kl a II III115 Intain auge s iusx quota I IIiEII It cussi quot 354 gig I E I n Iliilil 1IF 3211 m w 55 5a 539 31 3 III 139 in 7 TR 39quotI III II39I I 53 35 E39 I35 I11 LII Izill TI W I11 I35 I r Pl dm lglg 39I39II FIJI i F1 AI Rn 39 r Iquot w 39 a a 39 a r inm Ira IJIIL lug II Iu dun lurei IIu39giai mziazu I ha Hair 395 In quotaka I a rim 1L rum I39 39l I U IlaI 39II Iquot5I IIImniiu I I I I I III I I I IiTIc I IIII39I II I quotHfquot LIJ 39II39IIc Is3939i Illa Ie E III Ina 39IEIE III quotIIII III III IILI III III 1I13l III J 5 ma a 513 39I i39quotII Ili iI I39 IEIIII IL39lIISI IiiMI ifILh El Ii 39I39II IJ39II39 L39I39EI i n39l Ml ll a QH Hlj I DHIE HQIHZIHI 1 I II III IIWI ads I 1 I Inl il gillI 5 I I II I In II I H I F NI I 17 Juan I r In IIL IL I A IIII39 IIIII39CIIJI I39II3939P39 I IH IZquot391 39IJJ quotquot I3 II I5 III I IE I ll HI I39 2395 Ell AI II II 134 I 4 it if 23 213 15 26 2139 E L 239 HI 3 I 32 33 31 35 3E Ti V Cr Mn FIE in NI Eu EII Ga III II39LS Si ZEIr III Va 39irgig 1 1 7 m II zLIH a III39 mac j a gag Em IniI39 g 1973 Iwr hilt3951 E nd my I 39IquotT39 film3I 5 GUM 39r I39i lII I ri H Il393 awlulla n l 3 I J39aI IUZ I I L 5 El 1 I NIFII39HI 5539 T i39iH Il III In HI I 41 Id 45 aa I 45 d 5U 5 2 53 SI 1 EI NI Mn TI u IIII FIJI I39Lg EEII III SII quotIlle I MI Ia I I a L39IanlhtJI Ed s u a Li um 11 ram Ir a 7 L a I I HLH a Ital Ejl IIfIs IIiI nixwquot IiI u I ll I39lquot I39g j IJIIEFEI win quotIanin 23 I ll all IIIIn ll If quotEEII Ili nlu II 211 L1 quot1 31 F3 39ILI T We F39 1395 39quoti39 IIIII II 2353 35 3F III Tu W Ea Chg III P1 Inquot Illg quotI ll FIJI Bi Po AI Rn III In dun Iiie39ii1 III19 Human I lb I iIaEu u ICE a39lfliCIf India In 211 F 1L in If iuI iasmniiu lil ihI I IIEIi39 IHIEI I quot quotII II IiT v latma a 2115 39IIUIFI EL I J 39II39I39v 39i Illa I225 INCREASING MIJMII RADIUS MEI 13935 IIZIE III III IIIII III III I I39E III II I III III 5g uh HE quotIIII u a IEIIII IL39IICI I Il ifI39LH Emi I3939l39iI Iquoti Ilu39ln i39EI39I IX CHEMICAL EQUATIONS A State Symbols 5 solid 1 liquid 9 gas aq aqueous dissolved in water B Balancing Chemical Equations SUPER IMPORTANT 1 Place a 1quot in front of the compound with the most elements Nas HZOI gt H2g lNaOqu Insert coefficients that balance elements in compounds use fractional if necessary Nas 1HZOI gt H2g lNaOqu Insert coefficients that balance pure elements use fractional if necessary 1Nas 1H20l gt Hz q lNaOHaq Multiply so there is no fractional coefficients gNas gHon gt H2g gNaOqu C Net Ionic Equations ALSO SUPER IMPORTANT 1 Conventional equation AgNO3aq NaClaq gt AgCls NaNO3aq Total ionic equation Agaq NO339aq Naaq Cl39aq gt AgCls Naaq NO339aq NET IONIC EQUATION a Remove quotspectator ions ion that does not actually react AgTaq C139aq gt AgC1S D Reactions Ions in a solution react when two ions form a compound that is insoluble two ions form a gas that escapes the solution an acid neutralizes a base one of the ions can oxidize another E Solubility Compounds containing Group 1A elements 1 charge or NH 4 are soluble All nitrate N03 chlorate C103 perchlorate C104 and acetate CH3COO39 or CZHBOZ salts are soluble All chloride Cl39 bromide Br39 and iodide I39 salts are soluble except for those of Ag Pb2 and ng2 All sulfate SO 4239 compounds are soluble except those of Ba2 Sr2 Ca2 Pb2 Hg22 and Hg2 Ca2 and Ag sulfates are only moderately soluble All hydroxide OH39 compounds are insoluble except those of Group 1A alkali metals and Ba2 Ca2 and Sr2 All sulfide 3239 compounds are insoluble except those of Groups 1A and 2A alkali metals and alkali earths All sulfites 303239 carbonates C032 chromates CrOf39 and phosphates PO43 are insoluble except for those of NH 4 and Group 1A alkali metals see rules 1 and 2 F Oxidation Oxidation loss of electrons gains more positive charge ie C139 gt C12 Reduction gain of electrons gains more negative charge ie Na gt Naz39 G Single Replacement Redox Reactants Metal A plus a solution of either an acid or an ionic compound BX B is a metal Eguation As BXaq gt AXaq Bs A is oxidized and B is reduced 6X Zns CuSO4aq gt ZnSO4aq Cus ZnS 311276161 304216161 ZHZYGCI 304216161 3115 NET IONIC Zns Cu2aq gt Zn2aq Cus X STOICHIOMETRY A Definitions stoichiometry analysis of quantitative relationships among species in a chemical change molecular mass the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms that make up the molecule mole 602 X 1023 amus 1 mole in grams Avogadro s number B Patterns GIVEN MOLES OF MOLES OF WANTED MASS gt GIVEN QUANTITY gt WANTED QUANTITY gt MASS gmol gt molmol gt gmol Grams Given x Moles Given Molar Mass Given x Moles Wanted Moles Given x Molar Mass Wanted Moles Wanted Grams Wanted C Solving Limiting Reactant Problems 1 Identify the problem the amount of 2 reactants is given ex A 200 g sample of ammonia is mixed with 400 g of oxygen Which is the limiting reactant and how much excess reactant remains after the reaction has stopped The 2 reactants given are ammonia 200 g and oxygen 400 g 2 Write a balanced chemical equation ex 4 NH3g 5 029 4 NOW 6 HZOW 3 Convert given amount of reactants into moles ex NH3 2 1 70gmol 02 320gmol 4 Calculate number of moles of product produced for each given reactant using mole ratio from balanced equation 1W 4W 300gND anewalmwa4lewa53gne 1W 4W 300gND 4390Ug egxazegejxsrnpmjxigim 5 Reactant that produces least amount of product is limiting reactant and other reactant is in excess ex Oxygen is the limiting reactant because it only produces 300 g of product 6 Use limiting reactant to predict the amount of product produced and amount of excess reactant consumed 6X 1 4M 10gNH3 400a320 a 5M KIM 17 UgNH3 200 g NH3 original sample 10 g reacted 030 g NH3 remaining D Yields The actual yield of a chemical reaction is usually less than the ideal yield predicted by stoichiometry because reactants may be impure reaction may not go to completion other reactions may occur Find percent yield by dividing grams reacted by grams given ie 170 g NH3 200 g NH3 085 0850 x 100 850 THERMAL CHEMISTRY thermochemistry study of energy ow during a chemical reaction w ability to do work or transfer heat enthalpy thermochemical energy stored in a chemical compound Symbol H if AH is negative exothermic if AH is positive endothermic
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