History 150C1 Midterm Review
History 150C1 Midterm Review History 150C1
Popular in Europe in the Modern World
Popular in History
This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by juan gomez on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 150C1 at University of Arizona taught by Minayo Nasiali in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 216 views. For similar materials see Europe in the Modern World in History at University of Arizona.
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History 150C1 Key terms Midterm Review 0 The Peace of Augsburg O O O O O 1555 Went down between the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and eight German princes Gave each German prince the right to determine the religion of his state Catholicism or Lutheranism Based on quot Cuius region eius leigioquot One king one faith one law Confessional States 0 O O O 0 Principal of quot one king one faith one lawquot Under the treaty the rulers were the German princes which chose Lutheran or Catholicism as the of cial religion for the state Subjects or citizens who did not want to be the appointed religion were given time to leave or convert Clergies were in charge of enforcing the will of the pnnces In some places there was many as three active confessions as well as minority sects Huguenots O O O O 0 French protestants Massacred while attending Henry of Navarre s wedding Harshly critical with church rituals They felt that the catholic church needed a radical purge Wanted the pope to be the world leader of religion 0 Edict of Nantes O O O O O O 1598 Declaration of religious tolerance Published by Henry IV of Navarre Granted Huguenots liberty of conscience as well as the ability for public worshiping Huguenots could live peacefully in France Ends religious ghting in France 0 The Peace of Westphalia O 1648 OO O Ended the Thirty Years War Recognized Dutch Independence Extended the terms of the Peace of Augsburg to Calvinists Weakened the authority of the Holy Roman Empire Turning point in European political religious and social history 0 The Thirty Years War 0 O O O 0 16181648 Bohemian Danish Swedish French Phases Caused by the exclusion of Calvinists from the Peace of Augsburg Fought primarily in Prussia modernday Germany Religious war Catholic countries vs Protestants Protestants win Germany loses power and France gains power Defenestration of Prague Protestant leaders threw emissaries out of the castle window Protestants wanted a protestant emperor Peace of Westphalia 1648 Series of agreements took a long time to negotiate Established by signing a number of treaties over the years Established xed territorial boundaries for many of the countries involved in the ordeal German princes were recognized sovereignty Viewed as instrumental for laying the foundation for sovereign states Marked the end of the Thirty Years War Laid the groundwork for nationalism as absolute o Witch Hunts O O 0 Period of fear and uncertainty that swept throughout Europe Prosecution and execution of alleged witches Alleged practice of witchcraft 0 Around 100000 people were accused and tried for O O O witch craft and around 50000 people were executed gruesomely Torture of the accused would sometimes lead to names of other witches being released Last execution for witchcraft in England was in 1760 Witchcraft act of 1735 ended witchcraft as a legal offence 0 Thomas Hobbes O 0000 O O 0 Thought Europe was different Published Leviathan in 1651 Argued that man in his natural state was violent Life would soon become short nasty and Brutish Political instability would be gained by getting the neighbors to unite People needed to enter a sort of social contract in which the freedom possessed was given up A strong hand was needed in order to rule ef ciently King does not represent the will of the people he is the will of the people Englishman who wrote that human beings are naturally cruel sel sh and greedy Believed that there should be absolute unlimited rule by kings Absolutism O O 0000 O 00 Form of government where all the power is placed in one ruler Ruler is seen as the representative of God on Earth Ruler is there until they die or abdicate Ruler is chosen by divine right Political system where only one unrivaled power People give up their freedom in order to be protected Rulers are the originators of the laws and are also above all human law Subjects cannot resist the will of the absolutist ruler Rulers are beholden to the law of God Practical absolutists were most often kings or rulers that took an extra step to become a supreme authority ruler possesses 0 Most important power of the ruler was to make the laws himself 0 Theory of divine right O 0000 O O Idea God created the monarchy The monarch was God s representative on Earth God invests rulers with power Ruler appointed by providence to rule on earth According to this doctrine only God can judge an unjust king Deposing the king or attempting to restrict his powers run contrary to the will of God Subjects are unable to resist the monarch under any circumstances 0 Cardinal Richelieu O O O O O O o The 00 Louis Xlll s advisor mostly ruled France Wanted France to be powerful He weakened the protestants and strengthened the middle class Started the Thirty Years War Decreased protection of Huguenots Policies lntendants helped create a more centralized bureaucracy lntendants answered directly to the royal council lntendants Loyalties tied directly to the king 0 Did not answer to the nobilities 0 They do much to lay the foundation for a central bureaucracy in France Fronde 16481653 French civil wars resenting the increased power of the monarchy Important players in society feeling ignored Fronde had 2 main phases 1St phase started in parliament 0 Parliament wanted the king to sign a document to limit the King s power O O 2ml phase was the war of the nobles Open war breaks out between the royal army and a nobles army 0 Nobleman was defeated in 1653 Challenged monarchies attempt to change to an absolutist system Revealed to the monarchy how strong the nobility was at the time 0 Louis XIV The Sun King 0 000000000000000 16381715 Becomes leader at 4 years old when mother rules At 14 appoints Cardinal Mazarin to rule Weakens nobles by excluding them from the councils Increase the government s power Hires Jean Babptiste Colbert Repelled the Edict of Nantes Decreased the nobles power Increased the middle classes power Kept the nobles at Versailles Promoted absolutist values Said to be the strongest ruler of all time Says to Huguenots quotconvert leave or die Believed that his power came from God quotKeeps your friends close keep your enemies closer Taming the Nobility Gets complete loyalty and dependence of the nothy Requires members of the aristocracy to come to Versailles At Versailles they were engaged in the court life Building on his dad s efforts of trying to take away some powers to the nobility Convinced the nobility to give power by giving them privileges for those members of the nobility pleased him Nobility stopped competing with the king but started competing with each other for the king s favon King Louis founds international trade companies Improves infrastructure Looks for ways to build up France Got a merchant eet for trade He decided to show military power as well Takes over land after starting multiple wars Reinforced religious uniformity Revokes the Edict of Naught Denies freedom of religions to millions Huguenots ee France for England and North America The military enforces catholic conversions Styled himself as the Sun King Dressed up in clothes to look as Sun ln Versailles what you were and how you wore it was a mark as of power Sun produces life and warmth makes clothes grow makes industry possible sun is in the heavens o Enlightened Absolutism Catherine the Great 0 The Trial of Charles O O OO 00 O Divine right absolutism vs ideas about popular sovereignty and limits to monarchical power Accusers must construct a theory of treason in order to try him for treason Accuse him of attacking himself According to absolutism the king is above the law The king can be tried because they have the will of the people Leaves holes in the theory of absolutism popular sovereignty and that no one is above the law King is found guilty and executed Convicted of being a tyrant public enemy and traitor House of Commons votes to abolish the monarchy itself Makes England a republic does not last 0 The Glorious Revolution OOOOOO Bloodless Revolution Makes William and Mary king and queen of England Established a constitutional monarchy William lands in England with 12000 troops Stages a revolution in England and takes over William and Mary are offered the throne by Parliament and become coregents 0 William and Mary 0 00000 O O 7 OOOOOOOOOOOfD o r 0 000 0 Made a constitutional monarchy Let parliament rule Formed the English Bill of Rights and the Cabinet Asked to overthrow Mary s father James II Brings an army to England causing James II to ee They are granted the throne on the condition that they accept limits to the power This document they bring about was the English Bill of Rights English Bill of Rights Gives people freedom of speech right to petition King cannot levy taxes without Parliament s consent Gives parliament more power Cabinet acts as advisor to the KingQueen Parliament is now in charge of England Limited the monarch s power Set elections for parliament Sets right to petition the monarch Permanently restricted the power of monarchs It gave more power to parliament Sovereign monarch of England is limited Locke Articulates his political theories in his Two Treatises of Government 1690 Man in a state of nature are brutish and warlike Locke believed man was not governed by his passions Man was governed by natural law or natural order which was reason Man was inherently rational Man was left to think and reason O O O Locke argued that people who agreed to a political society opt into a society as a mean to guarantee the protection of one s property Locke does not believe in absolutism he believes a group of people ruling will be more ef cient Believed in constitutional monarchies Believed that a government should be overthrown by the people if it fails to protect their rights 0 Scienti c Revolution 0 O 0 Changed the way viewed nature Complex interaction amongst scholars discussing ideas on how nature works Roots of the scienti c revolution Began in the mid16th century to the 18th century Transformed how Europeans thought about the world Moved common thoughts into question Major shift in thinking in which modern science emerged as a new way of gaining knowledge about the natural world 0 Universities 0 O O O O 0 Schools in which monks and nuns taught Became popular as princes and other leaders went there to study Focused on teaching students on how to write and live honorable lives Developed ideas about academic freedom No limits to the kind of research a scholar was able to do A scholar was able to educate himself as much as he wanted Geocentrism O 0 Most had accepted the views that the center of the universe was the earth and the universe revolved around the earth The planets sun and moon revolved around the earth 0 Beyond the planets was a sphere that contained the stars O 0 Each of the four elements had their place in the universe Ether was a fth element which was thought to be eternal Model fail to explain many other patterns in the slq By the 16th century the model was different due to all the additions done previously Based on the idea that the Earth was the center of the universe The sun stars and planets revolve around Earth PreEnlightenment theory Heliocentrism O O O O O O Copernicus idea that the sun was the center of the universe Nikolas Copernicus thought a simpler model existed He did not believe that the universe could be as messy as the geocentric model Argument that the sun was the center of the sun Included mathematical equations to support his claims Did not think his ideas as a challenge to God or any other types of divine creations Copernicus O O O O O O 0 Polish scientists Devised the Heliocentricity theory of the solar system Theoretician who dealt with mathematics Demonstrated that the planets and earth revolved around the sun The orbits followed an elliptical rather than circular path Physical laws governed how the universe worked Wrote quotrevolutions of the heavenly spheresquot Galileo Galilei O O 1609 Had heard that spectacle makers had made a lens that could magnify distant objects therefore he sought to reproduce this device ltalian astronomer and mathematician who invented the telescope Found four moons revolving around Jupiter Observed the surface of the moon and found out that it was rough instead of soft Observed that there was spots on the sun Observed that Venus appeared to change its shape throughout many months Discovered evidence for developing theories on the planets Found evidence that the planets revolved around the sung Was put on trial by the Catholic church for supporting Copernicus theory of Heliocentricity Proved Copernicus theory that the sun was the center of solar system He also disproved Aristotle s theory of the speed of falling objects and founded the theory of the pendulum and the principle of inertia o Inductive reasoning O 0 Process in which theories appear only after you observe during an experiment Demands that all scienti c experiments be tested 0 The Microscope O O O Invented by Galileo Galilei Used to gaze up at the sky observations of the universe Device that used lenses to magnify distant objects in order to make 0 Ren Descartes O O O O O O Came up with the Skepticism Cogt0 ergo sum 7e pense doncje suis quotI think therefore I amquot Wrote discourse on Method Believed in Cartesian Dualism where the body can be doubted but the mind can t so the two must be radically different Used deductive reasoning reasoning previously known facts to come to conclusions Believed that mind and body were distinct through Deductive reasoning O Opposite of inductive reasoning 0 Logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true Skepticism O O O O O O O ldea that nothing can be known for center French thinker who had seen the horror of religious wars and believed nothing can ever be known for certain To doubt old ideas was to nd the truth Brought up by Rene Descartes Tendency or obligation to doubt what we have been taught and are expected to believe Establishing a consensus in the eld Anything that does not seem possible you will reject or will not believe right away Consensus O O O O o The O Producing knowledge The Royal Society of England Universities giving academic freedom other universities had noble patrons funding them Led to important societies Group of scholars throughout the community general agreement about general information that is coming out in the eld Royal Society Established in 1660 chartered by Charles II In uenced by the Baconian model inductive reasoning and observation Members held demonstrations 1655 rst journal was established and devoted towards research Members published their ndings for colleagues to read Helped to start shaping how knowledge was produced Had to be a member in order to participate in the journal but the work had to be read and approved by senior members of the society before being added to thejournal Club in which members play an important role on determining how the world works meetings for experiments or 0 Elite academy of scientists and science based thinkers who used the Baconian method in order to nd hard evidence to prove theories 0 Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia O 00 Had asked Descartes quotIf the mind and body are two separate entities then how do they interact with each other To which Descartes never provided a satisfying answer to Fought against the exclusion of women from royal societies Challenged Descartes ideas on the body Correspondence between Elisabeth and Descartes revealed that Elisabeth was smart 0 Public house 0 O O O A Public house was a social institution that doubled as the social center for a village or a town By 1750 there was about 15000 public houses operating Consumption of alcohol was high during this time the average was a minimum of 2 quarts of strong alcohol consumed a day This was due to the fact that most of the waste from the city was dumped into the river which was also used as drinking water It was a place to gather after a hard day s work in the elds or a city job It was a place where magistrates or judges would hold court Business was dealt here It was a place for men to spend time with each other pubs where also places where you could go to meet people in order to obtain a job 0 Coffee house 0 18th century coffee houses where places in which mostly men were gathered o The O o o o The 0 For a penny a person could get a cup of coffee and engage in conversations or read printed materials They would speak about current events have debates or discussions This was a meeting place for groups as well as organizations here they could read any documents for or against the government Women were not allowed Women were not allowed because they are supposed to stay at home Women going out would be seen at not ladylike For them to circulate freely in public might say that she was circulating her body freely in public Pamphlets and newspapers were provided at coffee houses because it was paid for within the entrance fee Public Sphere The public sphere is constituted by the gathering of individuals who come together freely to discuss and identify societal problems The idea of the public sphere suggests that these discussions among individuals have the potential to in uence political action Notion of public space where people can come together and go through with their affairs Became the zone between the private space and the government in which individuals would come together to nd common causes Public realm has multiple and varied rules the church and European monarchies established a precedent in order to enact themselves as a public existence Buying selling reading debating voting are things people do together outside of their homes In the 18705 cafes were places for people to meet at 18th century is a period of questioning Enlightenment A new age of reason in which people discussed how governments and social institutions could be based upon rational understanding Enlightenment thinkers believed wholeheartedly in the power of human reason to illuminate the world rather CO 000 than divine revelation They also encouraged thought and attitude re ection rather than an acceptance of received wisdom There was a freedom for art and aesthetics This period of time improved man s ability to reason They tended to believed wholeheartedly that humans could change the world Enlightenment thinkers believed that Man had the ability to make sense of the world Criticism and thinking was the best way to make sense of the world Thinkers were interested in many things such as Economic problems Distribution of wealth between rich and poor Justi cation of taxation Science problems Social problems There was also those that believed using ones thoughts was important but they were ambiguous towards this Very religious men though they even had the ability to question God himself PhHosophes Lovers of knowledge Men and women who took all elds of knowledge under their charge and built on scienti c revolution thinkers laws They believed that they could come up with a unifying principle to make sense of the scienti c natural and social world French term that referred to the group of political thinkers of the 17th and 18th centuries French philosophers Enlightenment thinkers Wanted to educate the socially elite but not the masses were not allowed to openly criticize church or state so used satire and double meaning in their writings to avoid being banned Salons held by wealthy women philosophes safe also kept the O 0 They considered themselves part of an intellectual community and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas Their main tool was reason they also encouraged an attitude of critical re ection examination and doubt o L Encyclop die O O O 0 Published by Denis Diderot Parisian publishers attempting to create a text of all known knowledge at the time Was meant to be a comprehensive book that contained information of the world it became a set of books that addresses the knowledge It had 17 volumes of information and 11 volumes of pictures contained about 18000 pages and had even sold about 4000 copies This book was organized in alphabetical order It was considered an attack or challenge to religion for multiple facts Theology was put under philosophy which implied that religion was merely an idea thought up by someone The placement of the de nition for religion was near black magic which was also seen as an attack or challenge towards the church 0 Voltaire O O O OO Believed in religious tolerance and freedom of speech Wrote Candide Philosophic Letters on English amp Treatise on Toleration He admired the English freedom of the press and religious toleration Criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought Wrote plays novels essays poetry and history Gathered his knowledge from Emilie Du Chatelet Voltaire condemned the Catholic Church for millions of slaughtered natives in the Americas Condemned the persecution and execution ofJews and other heretics in Europe O O Becomes an admirer of England legal institutions during his exhile of 3 years In Candide Voltaire says that even the most innocent person will learn something by observing this book s main theme was selfexamination Emilie du Chatelet O O 0 Translated the works of newton into French Was Voltaire s lover and went off together to eastern France along with her husband Together they cultivated commitment to women s education and equality they also laid the foundation for Voltaire s attacks on Christianity 0 The Spirit of the Laws 0 O O O O 0 Written by Montesquieu Said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all depended on relationship and variables What spirit animates different forms of government Republic founded on the base of virtue Rested on the citizens Monarchy founded on the base of honor Pursuit by individual of distinction Despotism based upon fear 0 An allpowerful ruler whose will is unchecked by any competing institution Negation of a good government Political liberty had nothing to do with virtue or honor but was believed to only exist where political forces were existent The power should be separated and balanced in three ways Executive branch Legislative branch Judiciary branch There had to be a right to a fair trial without the in uence of the government Salons Salon society Literary gatherings hosted by aristocratic women Prominent women would gather a circle of individuals for an evening debate and communication lnformal social gatherings at which Enlightenment thinkers writers philosophes and others exchanged ideas Primarily in Paris France Informal meeting place where ideas are exchanged Elegant private drawing rooms in Paris used for regular social gatherings of great and neargreat Presided over by a number of talented and rich women allowed philosophes to exchange witty uncensored observations of literature science philosophy with great aristocrats wealthy middleclass nanciers high ranking of cials and noteworthy foreigners JeanJacques Rousseau O O Believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society Especially the uneven distribution of property Promoted rights of the individual Process of civilization and enlightenment had corrupter human nature Evil of the world founded upon uneven distribution of property Real purpose of society was to nurture Author of Emile 1762 The Social Contract 1763 Women must be con ned to a private space where they raise the children and do not concern themselves with public affairs Separation between the public and masculine world of politics Believed that segregating and creating a private and public spheres would conduct oneself to work rationally Described his ideal society Had a more radical idea of a social contract 0 Property was not a given right 0 People had to give up their freedom for the greater good 0 Choice to enter a society to become part of a calm and collected will 0 Acted rationally and enter a social contract naturally everyone s will would become that natural will of the society 0 Mary Wollstonecraft O O O O O O Called for reforms to give women the same education as men English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women Wrote quotVindication of the Rights of Womenquot Enlightenment critique of monarchy should also be applied to the family Very critical of enlightenment writers Supported Rousseau but criticized his notion of women in the public sphere o The Three Estates 0 O O 0 Total population of France 23 million people Separated into three different groups estates 1 Clergy 100000 people 0 Richest people next to the king 0 Richest section of society 2Nothy 400000 people 0 Just rich 3 Third Estate 225 million people Everyone else in the society It included peasants lawyers artisans o If a person was not a nobleman or clergy they were part of the third estate Legal system that determined who had what privileges or who paid taxes Church and nobility were exempt of taxes and had the right to tax the third estate o This meant that there was taxation alongside of the O king s taxes It was referred as the third estate 0 The Estates General 0 O O O O 0 Body that represented the Three Estates First challenge to the power of monarchy Estate General had not met since 1614 since it was cancelled by the king Met once again in 1787 after the king admitted he was unable to run the country Was decided to run as it was run before in 1614 Representatives from The Three Estates were to be elected which caused a political excitement to spread o Abb Sieyes O 0 Author of quotWhat is the Third Estatequot 1789 He was a priest but not one of the rich ones 0 Formed a critique on the form of government during the procedure of how the voting would work which turned into a debate of how the political system worked 0 There was widespread popular support for the idea of new voting procedures 0 They believed that it was unfair for clergy and nobility to get 1 vote each while the biggest of the three also received one vote 0 They wanted it to be voting per varied according to the population of the group 0 The National Assembly 0 Represented the nation was formed from the Estates General 0 Third estate declared that it represented the nation and even threatened the science club 0 The Tennis Court Oath 0 May 20th of 1789 0 They swore never to disband until France had a constitution o A legal document that described the limits to royal power O This act of the Third Estate pushed France into revolution in which the power lied on the people instead of the king 0 The Constitutional Phase of the French Revolution 0 National assembly debated when they werequot Drafting a constitution Drafting a declaration af rming the end of revolution Gens de couleur O O O O Wealthy land owners Plantation owners These were free people of color who had money and power They were around 30000 in Saint Domingue Slave Insurrection of 1791 O O Slaves in the northern part of the island began an armed rebellion Gens de Coueur argued that they needed a good position in order to control the slaves in Haiti properly Tens of thousands of slaves began a rebellion they had planned for months and had stockpiled weapons They burnt down plantations imprisoned plantation owners and even killed them By 1792 the slaves controlled most of the island During the insurrection many slaves invoked the Universal Rights of Man as justi cation for the uprising in order to attain liberty At the south the slaves did not revolt but they kicked out the overseers and continued to run the plantations themselves 0 The Radical Phase of the French Revolution 0 In spring of 1792 France was attacked by England Austria and Spain as well as other monarchies they were scared that revolution might spread to their countnes In August of 1792 an armed mob marched to the Louvre and stripped the king from his power as well as take him prisoner o The 1St republic was established in September 22ml of 1792 at the same time the Prussian army attacked France and most of Europe declared war on France 0 Revolutionary communities known as The SansCulotte They had two passions Equality o Punishment of the guilty They were the dominant popular force of the revolution The group was made up of workers and laborers They decided to remove the formalities of rank and race and decided people were to address each other as citizen Revolutionaries create labor unions Laws created for a women to be considered a citizen that eased up on women s rights to own property New opportunities for groups such as women for them to have more freedom Toussaint Louverture 0 He was born into slavery and worked as a coachman o In the 17705 he was emancipated 0 He had somehow become educated and became a serious leader working with the slaves 0 When France decided to emancipate all the slaves he came to their side with a strong army the soldiers were the heart of the army that won the war against the British and the Spanish 0 He and his army were ghting for the principles of rights and freedom 0 TheJacobins 0 Group of radicals that created the rst republic in France 0 They were in control from 1792 to 1794 0 They also believed that there could be no diverse opinion 0 Revolutionary Culture 0 People wore red white and blue with their clothing o The Vendee O O O O This was a counter revolution of peasants which were mostly royalists They were brutally put down by the Jacobins The Jacobins sent down 40000 soldiers in order to pacify the populists 50000 residents of the area were massacred for taking arms against the government 0 Haitian Revolution 0 O O O 0 OOO oNa OOUOOOOOOOO O O O Strides to consolidate power for Louverture Attempts to make an autonomous government Convinces the slaves to continue working the elds Begun to negotiate with the US and the British to establish trade He decides to draft a charter for his regime to make a country They also decide to draft a constitution Napoleon sent the army to take out Louverture Napoleon loses the war against the army of St Domingue Napoleon s army goes back to France Successful revolution by the slaves They continue to draft and establish a constitution They change the name of the island to Haiti Haiti is isolated for a while Haiti agreed to pay reparations to France Haiti forced to take out loans to pay reparations Enters a state of debt that lasts a century oleon Born in Corsica and spoke very bad French Defeated the Austrians in Italy in 1796 and even set up the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797 He demanded very high taxes and had even attempted to conquer Egypt in 17981799 In November 1799 he joined Sieyes on a coup in which he seized control of the Directory and suspended the legislature Napoleon became First Consul soon after 0 The Napoleonic Code o The Civil Code written in 1804 It was prepared by a commission of legal experts with Napoleon s active participation It was a uni ed legal system for the republic French state took the power to register births deaths and marriages from the church Principle of quotpaternal authorityquot 0 Made divorce more dif cult but it was still possible 0 Extremely restrictive view of women s civil rights Followed by the Criminal Code of 1808 and the Penal Code of 1810 0 Napoleon Crowned himself emperor in 1804 as well
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