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Exam 2 study guide

by: Olivia SaoBento

Exam 2 study guide CHEM 1111

Olivia SaoBento
GPA 3.76
General Chemistry I
Besson, C

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General Chemistry I
Besson, C
Study Guide
Chemistry, Exam 2, lewis structures
50 ?




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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia SaoBento on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1111 at George Washington University taught by Besson, C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/16/15
Exam 2 outline as given by instructor Naming ions and molecules 0 Ions 1 2 3 o Covalent Molecules Diff in electronegativity X gt 2 ionic bonds Metalcation 1st Cation anion ide 0 Sodium chloride Number Prefix 1 Xlt16 sum Xgt4 1 Mom 2 Xlt16 Sum Xlt4 metalic bonds 2 Di 3 Prefixatom Prefixatomide 3 TH 0 Nitrogen monoxide 4 Tetra o Dinitrogen tetroxide 5 penta Know common ions 6 Hexa 7 Hecta Lewis dot structures 8 Octa o Octet Rule atoms will lose or gain e to achieve 8 e 9 Nona 0 Exception HHe only want 2 e 10 Deca 1 2 3 Place dashes on outside atoms 1st to fulfill octet rule if octet not fulfilled Draw skeleton of molecule Count valence e introduce multiple bonds 0 Formal charges 1 2 3 Cut bonds in half Count lone pairs and half bonded pairs Compare to valence e more less 0 Sum of formal charges charge of molecule 0 Overall rules of determining Lewis structures 1 2 3 o Resonance two structures have same number of e pairs but placed differently 1 2 Octet rule Avoid formal charges if possible Put charge on the most electronegative atom Significant follows as many rules as possible Nonsignificant not best configuration 0 Exceptions to octet rule Incomplete octet less e9 Li Be Mg B Al and all that follow suit missing 1 3 pairs of e Incomplete octet odd 9 molecules odd number of e central atom can have less e than needed 8 May have 75 NEVER 9 Expanded octet only 3rel period and below VSEPR molecular geometry 0 AXnEm 1 Acentral atom 2 X neighboring atoms 3 E lone pairs around central atom o Bondse will try to be as far apart as possible 0 Lone pair gt bonding pair gt single e in terms of repulsion 0 Parent geometry AXnm know parent geometry and real geometry composition by mass 0 Molecular mass sum of atomic masses g o Molar mass mass of a mole of molecule gmol Molar mass of element 100 0 com b mass total molar mass of molecule 0 p y o If given percent s of each element 1 Assume a 100g sample percent s become mass g 2 Use formula to find moles mass 2 moles Molar mass 3 Divide each value by the lowest number of moles 4 These whole numbers are the subscript for each element 5 Use knowledge of cation v anion and common ions to determine Molecular formula Molecular Orbital o Bonding constructive interaction overlap of black to black andor white to white 0 Antibonding destructive interaction black to white 1 Stabilization bonding energy is smaller than destabilization antibonding 0 Axial symmetry 6 bonds 0 Lateral overlap Tl bonds 1 TI bonda have smaller stabilizationdestabilization energy e in bonding orbitals e in antibonding orbitals 2 0 Bond order 2 o Magnatism 1 Paramagnetic molecule with unpaired electrons 2 Diamagnetic molecules with all e paired Last exam material E o E hv l1 o c 2 Av COMMON ERRORS TO AVOID Formal charges must be included in all Lewis Structures Atoms do not move between resonance structures of e do o If resonance structures are not significant do not add if present denote or cross out Remember exceptions to octet


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