Popular in 17th and 18th Art History of Spain
Popular in Art History
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1135 at George Washington University taught by Deharo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see 17th and 18th Art History of Spain in Art History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Art History World Views Some Dominant Traits In a period of controversy people may be extremely conscious of their attires to religion or the state while remaining virtually unaware that they hold a particular conception of space or time reason or necessity Marxists concern themselves with the history of ideologies Reduced themselves to weapons in a class struggles French historians collective mentalities Assumptions and feelings as well as conscious thought Find it dif cult to decide where one mentality ends and another begins Worldview including structures of feeling to avoid the risk inherent in this third approach of providing description without analysis or remaining at the level of consciously formulated opinions View of the Cosmos Views of time and space are rarely conscious Expressed more in practice than in text Evidence form the towns during the Italian renaissance suggests that much more precise attitudes to time were widespread Like the mechanical clocks which both expressed these new attitude and encouraged them Came into use in the 14th century 1450 a clock was made for the town hall in Bologna Time and space are now both seen as measurable Mechanical clocks a pictorial perspective were developed in the same culture Brunelleschi was interested in both These new views of time and cosmos were accompanied by a tradition view of the cosmos Ex Dante s Divine Comedy Pulled on classical tradition writings of Greeks emphasizing the dissention between Heavens and Earth quotheaven in the plural seen as spheres in uenced and de ned by the planets The planets in uenced the body and even days of the week Vasari offered an astrological explanation of the artistic creativity in the life of Deviance So we see a lot of zodiac signs and celestial references in renaissance art Astrology was permitted by the church quotJupiter is a planet which moves only its own sphere but there is a higher power which moves Jupiterquot Lorenzo d39Medici Yet there was some competition in practice between the two Ex both saints and planets controlled the days so people would take their problems to a priest or an astrologer 9 So if astrology was rejected it was done so on honest religious grounds 9 Pico dea Mirandola 9 Fra Giralamo Savonarola God is found above the seven heavens In the writing of the period God was everywhere YHS Jesus the Savior of Mankind Two views of God during this period 1 The pathetic tenderness of Christ a Ex Savonarola addresses Christ with endearments such as my dear Lordquot 2 Detached view of God as the creator of the universe a Transferred God to a more commercial environment b Looked on God as quothead of the rmquot The sublunary world in which man lived was composed of 4 elements Air water earth re Contrasts of hot cold dry a wet Four levels of earthly existence Human animal vegetable and mineral Many believed in demons seen in Botticelli s Primavera Were seen as part of a population of the universe and not mere gments of the Artist39s imagination Fortune She Associated with the winds or the wheel quotFortune of the seaquot meant a tempest a vided example of a change in affairs which is oath sudden and uncontrollable But paired with a sail shows good fortune The power of the individual to adapt to circumstance and to manage them Another famous image of fortune is the classical one of the goddess of with a forelock which must be seized quickly for she is bald behind quotFortune is a woman and to keep her under it is necessary to strike her and beat herquot Machiavelli the Prince It is dif cult to assertion whether fortune was literally device or a serious or halfserious way of describing whatever lies outside of human control Alchemy Magic To manipulate the world of earth Along with magic and witchcraft Depended on the idea that there is a hierarchy of metals Gold being the noblest Some religious men did engage with alchemy Would call it quotcabal of metalsquot to avoid the hostel Council of Ten Others denounced it with skepticism The only connection to art were the symbols used in alchemy that could possibly be translated over Ex Christ represents the Philosopher39s Stone Ex marriage is the union of Sulphur and mercury Ex dragon stand for re Ex fountain stood for the puri cation of metals Discussed more openly than alchemy At least white magic was Black magic is abhor quotThe other when it is rightly pursued is nothing else than the utter perfection of natural philosophyquot Pico Della Miranda Generally the highly educated clergy was suspicious of magic Magician was also seen as employing the use of evil spirits Literature of the period is steeped in magic Ex Ariosto s Orlando Furioso Fascination with Circe Depicted by Dosso Dossi Witchcraft was seen as the poor woman39s magic Believed to have made a pact with the devil In Rome 1427 two women admitted to turning into cats murdered children and Sucked their blood A few writers did express skepticism Ex humanist lawyer Andrea Alioto how claimed these people needed medicine not torture Views of Society First the term society did not exist until the 17th century established So a de ned system or structure or anything close cannot be truly Body politics serious Social elaborate More than a metaphor Analogy between the human body and the political body is quite Seen in Castiglione s Courtier However in Italy this quotnaturalquot or quotorganicquot view of poetics was less dominant than elsewhere inequality Acutely aware of the differences in society The vocabulary for describing these differences was unusually Medieval view of society consisted of three groups those who pray who ght and those who work the soil Did not appeal to the Italian cities Society was differenced not by function but by grades generazioni Developed out of the classi cation of citizens for tax purposes into rich middle and poor Terms ice fat people and little people Pool enjoyed political rights Plebe did not enjoy political rights NobH y Differences based on birth or individual worth Antiquity Mantegna is very interested in antiquated items Including language Which is discovered to have developed from Latin in this time Complex paradox in Italian culture Need to innovate But innovation was considered a bad thing quotNew ways39 were undesirable Views of Man Four personality types Choleric sanguine phlegmatic and melancholy Were taken seriously by writers in this period All great men were considered melancholic to Plato s concept of inspiration as divine fancy Creative people were seen as melancholia and even frantic Renaissance individualism Not discussed at the time but seen in analysis later The idea of self is not natural It is a social construct The idea of unique is seen in differences in style Selfassertion More language and words asserting oneself In order to promote oneself Strong desire for fame Words like quotcompetitionquot quotemulationquot quotgloryquot quotenvyquot and quothonon39 Ex Leon Battista Alberta uses all of these words frequently in his writing So he is seen as having a high achievement drive Often compared life to a race Mirrors may have well encouraged selfassentation Dignity of Man Favorite topic of writers Talked about the quothuman conditionquot Ex pope Innocent lll treatise on the misery of man as a symbol of the middle Ages Ideas of dignity and mystery were considered as complementary rather than contradictory Change of emphasis rivaling an increasing con dence in man in intellectual39s circles Using the words quotheroicquot or quotdivinequot Saying that those few rational men should be counted among the gods Shifted to nding the human body admirable Very different form Pope Innocent lll39s view that it was disgusting Man was also supposed to be rational calculating and prudent Speech was a sign of rationality Fascination with precise gures necromancy Utilitarianism came about as well or at least is hinted at So the society had to be organized just as the universe was Nobles citizens and peasants Precious stone semiprecious stone and common stone Contrasts seen everywhere between the study of the universe and the small world of man and the individual Questions about Art We look at the color We look at the representation of space How realistic is it Pay attention to size it is realistic or is the artist emphasizing certain people Where is the light coming from Perspective The point of focus is where the most important item is Ex el transito de la virgin 9 The focal point is not on the virgin 9 But in the air 9 Where her soul is 9 BECAUSE THAT S THE IMPORTANT THING El ln erno de los amantes The story of the jilted lover The woman should die a hundred deaths for shirking his affections Was given as a gift for the wedding of Pucci Botticelli Nastagio is the male character Brunelleschi and Ghiberti would create these tils pieces Made of iron That would decorate the doors Told religious stories or humanist perspectives as well Competition for the door of the church in Florence Florence baptistery The tiles tell stories of the Old Testament Ex when Abraham was tried by God to sacri ce his son on the alter The Door of the Florence Baptistery Scenes from the New Testament In other pieces we can see aspects of the pagan religion While the engraving is completely religious the forms nude are somewhat harking back to a pagan time Relates back to the articles idea of the use of magic in combination with religion Cupula El deumo BruneHeschi 1419 The Florence Baptistery is near by Pantheon Rome Augustus Projected the peace of Augustus Has a cupula as well Very large Based on Brunelleschi39s design But eliminated the central structure point Didn39t need the climax of the arc to be that Required a lot of math Required many workers People to work inside and outside it was a lot Like a quotcapulloquot a bud Capilla Pazzi BruneHeschi Inspired by Roman architecture again Corinthian pillars Main arc in the center Lots of rectangles and circles perfect forms Circles for the ceiling and rectangles on the oor Circles represent the sky and heavens Rectangles represent the earthly world Rectangles on the ground in the pattern of the tile Changes the way we see the space Made of ceramic Blue and yellow Very realistic Not arti cial Trinidad By Masaccio 1425142 The focal point is not in the center The focal point is based on where the spectator would view the photo So it is below And you look up Artists Donatello Estatua ecuestre del condottiero Gattamelata Mantegna Lamentacion sobre Cristo muerto 1457 A shortened painting 0 Shows perspective Flagelation of Christ Pierro de la Francesca 14501470 On the left we have the representation of the Roman Empire Christ is being whipped Everyone is wearing roman clothes Pontious Pilot looks on But on the right we have more humanistic elements of the renaissance Separated by a column Only those that know the people or know the modern story can understand the whole picture A way of separating the audience And of communicating with the elite audience Represents the past and the present future possibly too The giving of keys to Saint Peter Perugino 14811482 Notice the use of math and symmetry as is typical for the renaissance Clear focal point In the door of the main church Primavera Botticelli 14801481 Use of mythological creatures Typical of renaissance Very important for this reason Would relate mythology to the modern day The gures stand out because the background is 5 dark But the clothes are translucent Central gure dressed in oral arrangement represents spring critics say Birth of Venus Mythology tells us that Venus was born by virtue of having previously been a man A god was denied his manhood Thrown into the sea And thus Venus was born Goddess of spring is waiting for her to clothe her Two of the demigods of wind are coming to her To push her to shore Like the previous this Aeolus was said to have had twelve children six sons and six daughters According to Diodorus he was father of six sons by Cyane daughter of Liparus the eponym of the island Lipara whom Aeolus assisted in conquering lands above Surrentum Italy The sons39 names were Agathyrnus Astyochus Androcles locastus Pheraemon Xuthus whereas the daughters are not mentioned at all The sons were said to have become kings locastus of the region in southern Italy as far as Rhegium Pheraemon and Androcles of the part of Sicily between the Strait of Messina and Lilybaeum Xuthus of Leontini Agathyrnus of what was known as Agathyrnitis having founded Agathyrnum and Astyochus of Lipara All were said to have been remembered as just and pious rulers Other myths say there are 4 gods of wind Boreas god of the north wind and winter Eurus god of the unlucky east or southeast wind Notus god of the south wind Zephyrus god of the east wind The woman depicted is a lover of either the artists or the commissioner Medici The Calumny of Apelles Botticelli 1494 At the end of the 15th century the Medici lose power and are expelled from the city So Botticelli is no longer commissioned by them Needs to nd new commissioners Paints Savonarola inspired the repainting of the calumny of Apelles because Botticelli believed them to have similar stories Savonarola is a friar who was believed to be a prophet as well But challenged the power of quottyrantsquot So he was hunted down Harbored in Florence for a while But eventually set on ames Combination of religious and nonreigious At the foot of the stage are images of mythological stories But the gures in the columns are bibica The scene itself is about a false accusation calumny The naked truth legitimately stands on the It Two women are coming the hair of 39 the accuser Represent the spirits of treasurydeceit and fraud The gure in all black is repentance The woman wearing blue is the gander An the man next to her is hate The marriage of Arnol ni Van Eyck 39 Bed represents the wedding night The puppy shows happiness The green dress shows fertility Meanwhile white represents pur y Shoes are off in a customary showing of marriage and habituation Alhambra The last Muslim reference in the catholic kingdom Overtaken by Isabel and Fernando Toedo Monastery Made by Flemish architects The interior has gothic references Very Flemish But the outside is very extravagant in its stone work Chains all around represent the Christian prisoners of the Turks Mixed with Italian art The main doors has roman columns The circular arc around the door Reference antiquity The two architects are buried within Patersco Salamanca Seems amost roman in architecture Very regal Round doors But gothic in uences as well Patero39s are always part of a building Roman paintings Mixture of animal images and images of man Symmetrical With metal For decoration Retablos College de San Gregorio 15th century Everything is concentrated in one area All the design Typical of a platers Images of the renaissance and of religion Putti Palacio de loss Duquesne Del lnfant ado Guadalajara 15th century Flemish architecture again Once again most detail is in a concentrated area around the door Design on the wall as well tilestone put into a diamond shape Scale the wall like footholds for climbing Family crest above the door The door sits on the left of the building Not symmetrical lnterior patio Has roman type columns on the bottom oor Decorated round pillars on top ALL lavishly decorated Colegio Mayor de Santa Cruz Lorenzo Vazquez de Segovia Much colder Very stark Symmetrical Not very many windows Door is in the center Mason work not craft No decorations in the stone The architecture is about the placement of the stone Supposed to be a piece of antiquity Gothic is seen as modern Flamenco is modern This is not Mathematically quotpurequot forms Auto de Fe Pedro Berruguete A tribunal of the unfaithful This one in particular shows a heretic Two being burned at the stake Critique of the harshness of Catholicism And its ties to politics It was used to take down any political opposition St Domingo is there Because it s an inquisition School of Athens Rafael 1508 1520 Aristotle and Plato in the center of the frame Aristotle on the left looking at the ground Because his philosophical work dealt with the world at hand Plato on the right looking up Because his philosophical work deal with the ideal Michelangelo is the main man sitting in purple Rafael39s portrait is on the right The only man looking at us Notice the architecture large arcs Sometimes there is a ceiling In other areas we see the sky La Galatea Rafael 1512 David Michelangelo 15011504 Represents David before the ght Holding the stone for the sling shot He looks out very erce fully Had to crate this giant work out of a stone of the same size very impressive The proportions of the gure are off to make sure that the vantage point is from below to make it look normal to the naked eye from below Sistine Chapel Michelangelo 15081512 The chapel where the pope is elected It is fully decorated though not all was made by Michelangelo The ceiling contains the image of the breath of God The moment that God gives life to Adam Pope Sixths lV commissioned the work The colors are very bright Allegory of the Triumph of Venus Bronzino 1545 This is an example of mannerism The bodies are not logically constructed It is very complicated sophisticated And has several interpretations Venus is in the front and Cronos is behind Possible alchemy references at least references to something secretive and almost cult like Descendimineto Pontormo The descent of Christ off the cross But there is no cross It is a form of mannerism It is a way of playing with the viewer Also note the clothing Some of it is voluminous Others are practically painted skin Does not exist realistically but it to portray something that doesn39t exist Terms Vanishing point Punto de fugal A concrete point in relation to the picture Puts the viewer in a speci c point Puts the person in a place How the painting is brought to you to seem the most realistic Point of view Depends on the person who is viewing the painting The line of site based on where you are standing When the vantage point and the point of view are the same it becomes the focal point Phylacteries scroll in paintings that tell the story of the painting Manerism A style of art Colder colors Contorted bodies Acidic colors People take up more space At the time artists were thought of new gods new creators They could create new worlds Almohadillado pillow effect in the brick pattern
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