Popular in Comparative Politics of Western Europe
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Origins and Development of the NationState in Europe Civil society Putnam39s argument in quotbowling alonequot applies More ties to the community the more ties to the public sphere Can play on the public sphere Not always at odds with the government but has to be separatedifferent Thin de nition of democracy contested elections in place Thick de nition adds freedoms rights protection of free and fair election Institutions the structure of the behavior of people quotThe rules of the gamequot Goals of a representative government Responsiveness Accountability Regime how you distribute power within a government or within a polity Power used to be organize on loyalty And all was subject to the state quotLoyaltyquot is not used here to describe a feeling of identi cation So the idea of neighborliness applies more to identi cation State Territoriality physical aspect of the state Legal order binding authority over members citizens and territory Centralized Organization hierarchical arrangement where higher sources authorizenull lower ones Requires recognition by other states that you are a state The void between the lacks of recognition by other states creates phantom states Hobbes State would play the role of a 3rd party enforcer Leviathan 1651 Situation of quotcontinual fearquot Life is quotsolitary poor nasty brutish and shortquot Rousseau Social Contract Implicit agreement among individuals to create the state Elaborates on Hobbesian What do you get in return for consenting to the authority War Making and State Making as Organized Crime Predatorily view of the state Government is called forth by the ideas of On open market in which operators of armies and states offer services to willing consumers The idea of a social contract The idea of a society whose shared norms and expectations War makes a state Considered practically organized crime Without branding all generals murderers and soldiers as criminals The States are selling human protection for revenue Citizens have no real choice No room for consent National states relatively centralized differentiated organizations the of cials of which more or less successfully claim control over the chief concentrations means of violence within a population inhabiting a large contiguous territory Apologists for particular government and for governing in commonly argue precisely that they offer protection from local and external violence Legitimacy depend on the conformity to an abstract principle or on the assent of the governed or both at once Racketeer governments do not need legitimacy of inheritance but rather the legitimacy of circumstance if they can create a promise of security against a threat they gain more legitimacy According to Stichcombe quotthe person over whom power is exercised is not usually as important as other powerholdersquot 9 Legitimacy is the probably that other authorities will act to con rm the decisions of a given authority European states wared in order to check or overcome their competitors and thus to enjoy the advantages of power when a secure or expanding territory Violence and Government Early in the statemaking process any parties shared the right to use violence The idea of legitimate and illegitimate forces can by slowly Ex Richelieu monopolized violence in favor of Louis Xlll by destroying the castles of all rebels protestant and catholic and then by outlawing the carrying of lethal weapons and the maintained of private armies 9 By the end of the 18th century39s monarchs controlled permanent professional military forces 9 Created an issue no local opposition meant that the king had to govern all the territory and distribute resources which requires more than a military alone So they moved to indirect rule and then 1 extended their of cialdom moto the local community 2 encouraged the carto no police forces that were subordinate other government rather than to individual patrons Protection as Business Before the state it was the lords that extracted tariffs or real goods But now the state wants money for war Taxes scal systems The production of violence enjoyed large economics of scale 9 Protection rent Ex if a prince could create a suf cient armed force to hold off his subject39s external enemies and to keep the subjects in line for 50 m but could charge 75 for protection he gained 25 m merchants would also gain a protection rent Economies of scale in the production of effective force counteracted y diseconomies of scale in command and control Bean says that the imprudent of artillery in the 15th century shifted the curve of economies and diesel monies to make larger armies standing armies and centralized governments Doesn39t hold up 0 Occur really in the 16th and 17th centuries So the advance in artillery does not account for the increase in the size of sates Could have been naval warfare at the time o It was about conquering new territory Symbiotic relationship between state military power and the private economy39s ef cient in the age of absolutism Banking families SUPER IMPORTANT Lasted beyond the 15th century and the 16th century 15151785 It39s the paying of interest on the debt which accounts for the greatest discrepancy tween the two economic curves for the cost of military and the cost of state building What Do States Do States are formed between 15th and 17th centuries and the following 4 aspects came about over Time All depend on the state39s ability to monopolize all means of coercion The smaller the pool of resources and the less commercialized the enemy the more dif cult was the work of extracting resources to sustain war and other governmental actives No shit you need more money to get shit done A territory populated by great landlords or by distinct religious torus generally imposed larger costs one conqueror than one of fragmented power or homogenous culture The cost of protection mounted with the range over which theta protection extended Ex Portugal39s effort to bar the Mediterranean to its merchant39s competitors in the spice trade unsuccessful More war D more land D more expenses but also more revenue gt more war How States Formed Popular resistance toward making and state making made difference When ordinary people resided vigorously authorities made concessions guarantees of rights representative instructions courts of appeals The relative lance among war making protection extraction and steam acing signi cantly affected the organization of states that emerged from the four activates Things to keep in mind The difference between external and internal enemies was very unclear Especially with lords loyal to the state Flows of resourced in the forms of loans and applied Completion among state for elegy in disputed Terries which stimulated war making and temporarily erased the distinction between war making state making and extraction Intermitted of coalitions of sates War as International Relations War became the normal condition no the international system of sates Global power stretched hosted states that attained it relatively to all other political and other organizations Three stages 1 The differently success of some power holders in quotexternalquot struggles established the difference between and quotinternalquot and an quotexternalquot area of the deployment of force 2 External competition generates internal state making 3 External compacts among states in uence the form and locus of particular states ever more powerful y However states outside of Europe developed differently European states build up their military apparatuses through sustained struggles with their subject population and by means of selective extension of projection to different classes with those populations Congress of Vienna 1815 Napoleon tried to spread the idea of a nation Ex Napoleonic code Applied everywhere Language was spread everywhere Values were spread everywhere Stateness Stephan Demos the population Nationalism modern state Demos is the rst thing that needs to be de ned Otherwise it will not be a successful state We have an issue de ning the state as such Because you would have various nations within a state quotHow do you de ne the demosquot So maybe this de nition doesn39t work because if you insist that only one nation can rule you have a Stateness problem It is the problem of stateness that Linz and Stephan want to analyze But I disagree with the primary de nition because it is possible to have a functioning state maybe not the best state but a state with various nations You run into the problem with biasing the government or creating too many interest groups by opening the demos The main issue with transiting to democracy is actually deciding what portion of the demos should be involved and how But the idea of a sovereign state needs to exist rst To avoid separatist ideals Like that of Catalan and Basque nationalism A Sovereign State as a Prerequisite to Democracy Without a state no democracy is possible Max Weber state has to have administrate and legal order with binding authorty Tilly the ability of a state to control the population in the territory Without this the government cannot access its monopoly on the legitimate use of force Hong Kong can you have a democratic subsystem in a nondemocratic state The dissonance would generate a persistent exemption for the sovereign state to subvert those democratic situations The state would still thane the righto modify the political status of any component unit States and StateBuilding Nations and NationBuilding National building and state building are overlapping but separate processes Statebuilding accelerated with the crisis of feudalism and the development of the renaissance and the formation Resulted of the crisis in the Christian empire Nationalist movements really came about in Europe with the French revolution States coming about in the 15th century didn39t need a strong sense of identity within the boundaries Loyalty was seen in the dynasty Then nationalism would develop Ex War Sind eon Volk Nation does not have officials there are no de ned leadership roles although there are individuals who act as carriers A nation is not organized A state is organized and is autonomous has agents rules and resources Nation s resources is psychological The word quotnationquot emerges in the 19th century Exponential growth in this area with Wilson s idea of selfdetermination post WWI In a modern state complex notional pacts and possibly territorial realignments and consensual agreements are often necessary before the majority formula will be accepted as legitimately binding In a nondemocratic regime it is not necessary to include the wants and to create compacts with minority group GOD THIS THING IS SO FUCKING BLACK AND WHITE I CAN T ANY MORE Modern democratic governance is inevitably linked to stateless This is not to obey confused with the Hobbesian notion that no form of organized society can exist without a state Many kinds of belonging exist without formal membership 2 main theories of state making Warmaking protection rent Assenting to avoid the state of nature Today the main parts are territory and sovereignty And then legal order and organization Consolidated States 1 Free and lively civil society 2 Autonomous and valued political society 3 Rule of law to ensure freedoms and rights 4 State of bureaucracy 5 institionalized economic society It needs to respect and uphold the law Claim monopoly over force in a territory There cannot be a nonwar time consolidated democracy in a command economy There will never be a modern consolidated democracy in a pure market economy State and Peripheral Nationalism Catalan Industrialized area Subjected speci cally under Franco Denied the right to use their language Were coerced into Spain after the Bourbons took control and created the modern state Were previously allied to the Habsburgs September 11 is the day of the Fall of Barcelona to the Bourbons and is now politicized as the Catalonian independence movement day 80 approval rate for independence in 2014 The spike in want for independence comes from the economic crisis 2010 autonomy protest In 2003 the socialist government promised to pass through a constitution thing that would recognize Catalonia as its own territory Wanted more autonomy Was passed in a referendum in Catalonia But was sent to the supreme court in Spain and was seen as a symbolic gesture wasn t shot down but it wouldn39t hold any legal value with the state Spain said it was a way for them to recognize the psychological effects of it 7 million people live in Catalonia The miles long human chain protest was seen as the greatest failure of Spanish politics French Revolution First use of the idea of a citizen The people are sovereign First revolution of its kind Because it was a revolution of the people The basic ideas of nation and nationalities o Founding of the state Napoleon Concurred almost the whole of Europe So he brought the ideas of nation to other places Especially to despotic states And then you have a nationalist reaction to Napoleon Spain didn39t want to be quotFrenchquot Patterns of State Formation Absolutist kingship France Prussia Kingship facing judges and representative bodies England and Sweden D to limit the monarch39s power Confederation or federation Switzerland and US Through conquest Germany Through independence Belgium Norway Finland lreland Nationalism Voluntary selfcategorization And voluntary selfidenti cation Sentiment of solidarity in the face of other groups It has a territorial character and political nature Nations started in the 19th century With the process of industrialization Literacy Emergence of the mass media Gave them means for intellectuals and common people to actually come out with the idea of a nation It used to be that people lived their lives at the local level Neighborliness But now they could identify with people they had never met Primordia list Nations are timeless phenomena Constructivist We create nations Because they quotmake sensequot for certain people to align Not organic State Bridling The origins of the state are dated on the 15th century Just about the way power is organized and controlled Nation Building Late 18th century The process of nationalbuilding entailed the formation of a wefeeling Identi cation shaped by agents of atonal socialization Family school peers media The army is super important Mechanism exposure indoctrination adjustment Napoleonic Homogenized policies Beginning of the process Napoleonic Code Called everyone citizens quotThe sovereign units of the statesquot quotThis is your homelandquot Peasants became Frenchmen 18701914 The nationalizing policies included the construction of roads the generalization of schooling and military conscription Nation State Without competition for the de nition of the demos Linz Spain has been considered a case of early statebuilding Failed to integrate the different parts of the state Maintained the different components of different kingdoms Also the statebuilding came before the nationalism era The nationalist era coincided with a period of erce ideological con icts in Spain and the distress caused by the loss of overseas colonies Process of NationalBuilding Belgium independence from Netherlands 1830 Greece independence from Ottoman Empire 1832 Very important Were likely to use One of the strongest nationalist movements Germany German Reich more the product of statebuilding by Bismarck but strong nationalist movement ltaly Risorgimento and uni cation State building under Cavour Nation building by Mazzini and Garibaldi World War I Process of selfidenti cation n We wanted to create nationstates Wilson Nations should have their own states But this wasn t fully possible To intermixed So you had a majority population And the minorities would feel discriminated against Would employ nationalizing policies To assimilate people THESE ARE DISCRIMINATORY AND NOT DEMOCRATIC lncrease chances of democratic consolidation if State policies grant equal citizenship No majoritarian formulas Multipledual identities not xed Cannot force polarization Nation State One state one nation Minorities have to be cultural assimilated Very simple from a constructivist approach Statenation Multicultural or multination political entities but with a strong identi cation and loyalty from their citizens Trying to assimilate all would have a backlash effect Ethnic group Not a nation Similar characteristics But no desire to selfgovern Ethnic Nationalism Nations are constituted by ethnic groups and precede the state Membership in the national community is given or secretive by descent Permeability is limited Although ethnic boundaries can be socially and political expanded Narrowed or reordered Ethnic identities were imposed Nationalism Nations and states are not the same contingency Nationalism holds that they were destine for each other s quotNationalism comes before nations Nations do not make states and nationalisms but the other way aroundquot Hobbes The idea of putting together a community with a common future Bareilly the term nationalism refers to political movements seeking or exercising state power and justifying such action with nationalist arguments Civic nationalism Identi ed with stat nationalism Tolerant and integrative Most citizens conceive their national in inclusivecivic terms While few others conceive it simultaneously in both inclusivecivic and exclusiveethnic ones Nationality a politicized movement representing one policy A nation in movement Division of Power The Federal Unitary and CentralizedDecentralized Contrasts Lijphart The prime characteristics of a democracy is the concentration of power in the hands of the majority Thin de nition Consensus model noncentration of power Sharing of power Or division of power Crucial distinction is whether in the consensus democracy power is dispersed to political actors operating together when the same political institutions or disperse to separate political ignitions Federalism is the most topic and drastic method of dividing power Because it divides power between entire levels of government Aka quotdivision of powerquot Federalism described as a spatial or territorial division of power in which the component units are geographically de ned States provinces lander cantons or regions Lijphart wants to focus on quotno centralizationquot of power To see federalism as quotthe fundamental distribution of power among multiple centers not the devolution of power form a single center or down a pyramidquot Second level of federalism a bicameral legislature with a strong federal chamber to represent the constituent regions A written constitutions that is dif cult to amend Supreme Court or special constructional court that can protect the construction by means of its power Five characteristics of no centralizeddecentralized federal systems 1 States have formally federal constructions a Difference between federal and unitary systems 2 The federalunitary and centralizeddecentralized differences are closely related a Most federal systems are decentralized b Most unitary systems are centralized India is only considered quasifederal Only the four Nordic countries and japan can be classi ed as decentralized Smaller countries don39t need as much decentralization Belgium the Netherlands and Israel are classi ed by quotsociologically federalquot The central governments of these outcries have long recognized heavily subsides and delegated power to private association with important semipublic functions especially in the elds of education culture and health care But not geographically concentrated sociological federalism deviates Spain site most dif cult to classify Autonomy in several regions Catalonia Bas use Country and Galicia So some experts think it is a federal system Others call it an incomplete federalism and an imperfect federalism Federation in all but name It does not A measurement of centralization in the central government39s share of a country39s total tax receipts Federalism is used in two kinds of countries relatively large countries and plural societies The least populated federation is Switzerland If the political boundaries are drawn so as to approximate the social boundaries the heterogeneity in the federation as a whole is transformed into a high degree of homogeneity at the level of the comment unites lncongruent federalism 0 Makes a plural society less plural In theory the states can amend and experiment with their local constituents and government as they please So long as it coordinates with the federal constitution In practice however we nd most complete isomorphism both between the central and comment units39 government forms and mount ghost of the components units in each country Exception Illinois uses a semi proportional system Whereas the rest of the US is a solidly presidential system Gourevitch Main question why do some ethnic groups become politically organized rather than not He would answer with economic health and disparity between ethnic groups Ex France CORE AND PERIPHERY also how political power is divided Ethnic potential necessary condition and contribute factor Political leadership economic development incongruence necessary condition Their combination suf cient conditions The scope only applies to consolidated democracies Look at the Quebecois in Canada Leadership and Economic Growth Gourevitch Challenges in the nation state in advanced industrial societies In some places nationalism is con ned to the folklore level Songs literature language etc In others there are separatist movements Aka Quebec Regions are not actors their inhabitants are So why do some people nd nationalism attractive Relationship between two functions of the modern state political leadership and economic development Political leadership constructs and maintains strong central institutions common to the whole country Law police taxation army bureaucracy and formulates common policies in key areas trade defense foreign policy etc Economic growth constructs and maintains an industrial economy involving the building of factories And towns Ethnic Potential the existence of some distinctive character is among the people living in a region such As language instructions and or historical traditions in that order of importance Ex Wales and Scotland In places where both political leadership and economic dynamism take place in the same region peripheral nationalism is weak UK England was the wealthiest and most dynamic for 2 centuries Though wales and Scotland never equaled the core region in wealth they did develop industrially by means of their association with that core Wales and Scotland both dealt with the e same political cleavages as England Class and religion Seeds of discord sewn in 19201945 England began to lose its dominance And importance was placed on Scotland and Wales For ship building during the wars Scotland and Wales would feel that the British core was deteriorating the poundNaslo ng Value and the labor party was no longer the party they could align it France State builder and industrializes in the center The north and east are the peripheries Benefited both from natural resources and location because of transportation and Proximity to large markets The west and south declined in the 19th century These areas developed the standard relationship of periphery to core Supplier of food manpower and politicians Consumer of manufactured products But the challenges to the state at present are just that not national movements For that to occur would require deterioration not the encomia health of the core region and the develop of some economic trump in the peripheral region If the center ats andor the periphery takes economy leadership likely to develop strong nationalism Center is not delivering and alternative is plausible Tradeoff loss markets and subsidies The greater the ethnic community and common sentiment away from the center the less you need these other things to happen aka center may not have to be weaker politically if a strong periphery sentiment of ethnic nationalism exists and an alternative economic setup is found You can appease nationalism or appease it Mitigating the perceive threats Eliminates sources of perceived grievance Providing answers to their aspirations Promote separatist movement Fostering the perception of con ict Forms of Government Presidential vs Parliamentary Systems Douglas North Institutions are the human devised constraints that structure Huma interaction Formal constraints rules laws and constituents Informal constraints norms behavior conventions With punishments and rewards to keep behavior in check Institutions Representative democracy Responsive Accountability Fundamental questions Whose e preferences should the government be responsive to How to ensure responsiveaccountability Whose Presences Majoritarian exclusive competitive adversarial Clear winners and losers Consensus share and disperse power r Compromise and broad agreement Lijphart believes it39s all a continuum Pure majoritarian democracies are rare Ex UK Most democracies have consensual traits Some relatively pure cases of consensus democracy Ex Switzerland Belgium EU How power is diffused 1 Collective agency a Power disperse to political actors within the same institutions i Executiveparties dimension 2 Divided agencies and responsibilities a Power divided btw separate political institutions i Federal unitary dimension Actors Executive power Majoritarian single party cabinets Consensus mulita party coalitions Party Systems Majoritarian two party system Consensus multiparty system Interest Groups Majoritarian Pluralist interest group system Consensus coordinated quotcorporatistquot interest group system ExecutiveLegislative Majoritarian executive is dominant Consensus executive legislative balance of power Institutions Centralization Federalism Majoritarian unitary and centralized government Consensus federal and decentralized government Legislatures Majoritarian unicameral legislature Consensus bicameral legislature Constitutions rigidity Majoritarian exible constitutions Consensus rigid constitution Judicial Review Majoritarian legislatures have nal word on constitutionality Consensus laws subject to judicial review Decentralization Devolutiontransfer of part of the power of the central government to regional authorities Federalism Sovereignty is constitutional divided between a central government and constitution political units Guaranteed division of power Territorial division Equal status Secondary features Bicameral legislature Written constituent Conditional court and strong judicial review Liberal Democracy Guarantees for free and fair elections Universality of political rights Contestation Limitation of power Rule of law Separation of power Minority rights Separation of Powers Executive legislative judiciary Checks and balances Separation of powers is what differentiates presidential from parliamentary systems Share Power and Division of power Share power Disperse to poetical actors within the same institutions Division of power Separate political institutions Levelsloci of government Decentralization central government transfers part of tis woe rot reginal airhosts Federalism severity is constitutionally divided These are the dimensions of a majoritarian vs consensual democracies Are Parliamentary Systems Better john Gering Tests parliamentary rule on 14 indicators ranging across three policy areas Political development Economic development Human development The greatest difference between these two constitutional molds is that one presidentialism by virtue of greater institutional fragmentation offers greater resistance to change Proximate casual effects of presidentialism and parliamentary electoral behavior legislative behavior interbank relationships cabinet formation the operation of the bureaucracy the policymaking process the organization of interests within civil society and the size of the welfare state But all of these are inconclusive And all have ambiguous effects on good governance Theoretical Debates Ceteris paribus it is understood that parliamentary systems foster stronger political parties More centralized and partyaligned interest groups More centralized decision making process More centralized and hierarchical administrative structures Veto points 0 Separate power introduce an additional veto point into the political process fragmenting politics at all levels A presidential systems fosters a style of politics centered on in del politicians and smaller less established organizational entities Yet none of these have clear cut implication on the effects of good governance Ex do stronger political parties truly foster good governance Good public policy not the interests of ape arty should guide behavior in the ballot box and on the floor of the assembly Ex interest organization Separated power is thus a key feature of interest group pluralism Parliamentarianism is a key feature of corporatism Ex bureaucratic organization Lines of organization nares always more complicated in a separate power system They have to masters their nominal chief executive and the controllers of the budget Ex transparency and accountability Separate powers underline the fact that a direct vote for the chief executive leads to a transparent relationship between elections and electoral outcomes Parliametnarism points out that postelection coalition negotiators affect only those circumstances in which no single part yes able to gain a majority of the legislature Ex information Division of power between exec and legislative in a spate government creates an informationrich environment Each branch has the authority to investigate the other However this also leads to misinformation and smear campaigns Ex electoral accountability Separate powers greater accountability at the local levels Where the local representatives whose positions and legislative record are distinct from their parties and the presidential candidates of the majority Parliamentary greater accountability at the national level For separate power haste idea of accountability is continuous as exercise through multiple bodies each quotchecking and balancingquot the other In a parliamentary system accountability yes seen arising from the concentration of authority in a single set of hands which allows for a direct punish and reward systems by which the voters exact accountability from agents They know where to place the blame ExpoH calchance Political stability in separate power systems To a set of policies But they are also rigid no way to remove a sitting president in between elections other than impeachment Ex institutionalization Parliamentary fosters a highly predictable institutionalized form of politics and Policy making In a presidential systems presidents legislators interest group leaders and even bureaucrats al enjoy a degree of independence form the instruction of which they are nominally members Ex connotation and consensus Con ict is endemic and continual in a presidential system But because a higher threshold of consensus is needed it can be argued that consensus is mandated in a separate power system But no formal objection or opposition in a parliamentary system Clarifying Executive Types Parliamentary system of government in which the executive the prime minister and cabinet collective the government is chosen by and responsible to an elective body the legislature Thus creating a single locus of sovereignty at the national evil Presidential a system where policymaking power is divided between two separately elected bodies the legislature and the president This is all on a continuum Need to calculate history Recent history matters more Dependent Variables Outcome indicators that are measures for the quality of governance in a parliamentary system Five indicators of economic development Number of telephone mainlines per 1000 inhabitants lmport duties Trade openness Euromeoney39s country risk ratings Real per capita GDP Three variables capture the level of human development Infant mortality rate Life expectancy Literacy rate Resu s Parliamentary appears to be associated with some aspects of political development though the relationship is not robust across all dependent variables and speci cations Parliamentary seems to be correlated with the World Bank measure of corruption control but only in the educedor model Clear patterns emerge in the area of economic development Better telecommunications infrastructure Lower import duties Greater trade openness Better investment ratings ln 23 cases parliamentary is associated with higher levels of human development Long time parliamentary systems have lower levels of infant mortality and longer life expectancy No clear patterns about illiteracy Parliamentary is never associated with bad governance Populism Populism Started in the enlightenment A homogenous people versus the elite Ex the Jacobin Theory of communism is a derivative of populist theory It claims to be on no side of the political system Dissatisfaction with the status quo Put blame of the economic status on the upper class Or on refugees Ex Golden Dawn party Ex UK independence party Strong senses of nationalism Tony Blair Third wave labor party Somewhere between the traditional values of social democracy And the liberal policies of the conservative part y So the labor party was less representative of the working class The working class felt disenfranchised But now the labor party is polarized Newly elected Jeremy Corbyn is seen as a populist Going back to the traditional values of the labor party So there are those who liked Tony Blair39s values and are charging against them Interpreting of democracy Participatory pillar gt liberal pillar Emphasizing the importance of the voting over other principals Appeal to the peal Voicing popular grievances systematically ignored by mainstream parties and media Distrust of bureaucrat jargon Against dominant values Personalized leadership Ex Donald Trump Negative connotation s recurrent feature of democracy We have a wave of liberal parties coming in too in other countries Ex SYRIZA in Greece Emerging Parties Populism quotNew politicsquot Started in 19701980 Disenchantment with social and political institutions Beyond leftright cleavage Left women minorities environment Right individual achievement instrumental zing distrust Austria Freedom party ltaly Legal Nord France Front NannaD Right wing parties Antiimmigrant Xenophobic Antiau Left wing parties Antiausterity measures Reactions against traditional socialdemocratic parties EU criticism technocrats nancial power or antiEU Governments and Parliaments Conditional support rom tis own parliamentary group Importance of party discipline and cohesiveness Formal rules Allow opposition parties to confront the government and beat legislation Laws requiring a majority Laws requiring a quali ed majority There exists also a political culture of governmental selfrestraint and opposition parties39 participation in lawmaking Government with a majority A constant in a majoritarian system The parliament is an extension of the government The government proposals will be passed Opposition propels will be very often unsuccessful Government with the minority Common in a consensus system Parliament lays a more relevant role Give and take relationship with parliament Majoritarian vs consensus models of government Are you dispersing power or concentrating it Majoritarian vs consensus also deal with how coalitions are formed Second dimension federalist or centralized You are not concentrating the power in one single layer of organizations in a federalist system Q to whom should the government be responsive Majoritarian view the majority of people Clear winners and losers Consensus as many people as possible Share and disperse power Or you divide institutions Q how to limit power Share power dispersed to political actors within the same ignitions Ex proportional electoral systems fostering coalition governments Division of power serrate political institutions Levelsloci of government Decentralization central government transfers part of its power to regional authority Federalism sovereignty constitutionally divided A federal state is a characteristics of a consensual system UK is the most majoritarian systems All democracies have consensual traits Switzerland and Belgium have consensus democracy Are all multinational And federal EU Discourages majoritarian systems And does not abide by such itself EXCEPT with the euro crisis and the refugee crisis The west outvoted the east on immigrant quotas something abnormal for the EU Presidential vs Parliamentary Q how to limit power Executive legislative judiciary Checks and balances Montesquieu and Madison 3 core differences between presidential and parliamentary 1 Term of executive a Presidential xed b Parliamentary dependent on legislature 2 Selection of chief of executive a Presidential popularly elected b Selected by the legislature 3 Nature of executive a Presidential one person b Parliamentary collegial Ex inlay 20082009 Euro crisis Led to a series of government crisis Put a technocrat in power Decentralization Devolution of transfer of parts of the power of the central government to region authorities Federalism Sovereignty is constitutionally divided between AA enteral governments constitutional Austria is a formally federal states but culturally and practically it seems for centralized Spain is a federalist state but is not recognized by the construction as being a federalist state Geranyl and Switzerland are the best impressions of decentralized federal rue Government 5 The executive The main player Executeenforce policies administration and take executive decisions It is the ultimate source of political power BUT subject to legislating and litigations Parliamentary Governments The head of state Procedural nominate dismiss parliament etc Diplomatic functions Symbolic Ex the Belgian monarch calls himself quotThe only Belgianquot The head of government Prime minister chancellor Selected by the majority of the parliament Investiture vote Tacit support If party has majority depends only on party discipline If party has puraity depends nonsupport by other parties Can dismiss parliament Will do so in the face of con ict to make people decide From a position of strength strategic timing Form position of weakness The cabinet Collegial body Collective responsibly And con dentiality Anonymity You defend the policy of the party Appointed and dismissed by pomp The ministerial departments Each individual minister Policies in that area The ones running the country In a particular area Not just advisors France Head of state has power As well as the prime minister Can dismiss the legislature Cannot dismiss the pm In charge of foreign policy Presidential vs Parliamentarianism Review Where is the legislative power held With the executive Or with the legislature In a presidential system the president is the only main decision maker A cabinet is only advisory In a parliamentary systems the Prime Minister and the cabinet Cabinet has to back all government actions a collective entity Head of the state separate from head of government By monarchy Elected hybrid systems France reform 2002 enforced presidency If there is no cohabitation the president takes over the PM Indirectly Then you have ministerial departments Head of government Prime minister will be more powerful than a president Because he is the head of the government and the head of the power Control the schedule the legislation and the military etc He appoints the ministers Creates a system of obligation and favors Tendency in Europe to move towards technocratic governments rather than politicians Parliamentary in Consensus vs Majoritarian Majority system UK No input from the opposition party Government controls the agenda Parliamentary work is done on the oor of the chamber Bills go to omitted only after being approved in the chamber Consensus system Germany More parties can contribute to the laws being made Opinions of the opposition party matter more Threshold of votes to pass General actions occurs in committees Political culture is the government is the initiative but the opposition will always have input via committees Second Chamber Lower chamber more powerful Means the chamber that represents the people Not the states BundsTag Upper chamber less powerful Check mechanism Bunds Rat Federal justi cation Representation states particularities are represented in the second chamber The bases of representation are different rst chamber individuas second chamber territories Nonfederal justi cation Extend the process of legislative maturation delay or veto Provide a check and balance of the lower house Origin l linked to monarchies and the political elites Antimajority argument Second chamber generally delays the process of the rst chamber Very partisan When there is a true split in the decision the upper chamber will overrule the lower chamber Interpart mode Ministers and MP5 relationship revolve around parties39 af liations High party discipline Common in majority systems Crossparty mode lnvolves crossparty bargaining in committees Common in consensual democracies Constitutional Courts and Constitutional Reviews Role of the Judiciary Referee when con icts between branches of government and intuitions emerge Check on legislative executive power Limit and regulate legislation substantive policy making legislative power Standards of acceptable behavior Such as in the election process Or during the stay of an elected of cial if they are found to be corrupt Ex Italy clean hands campaign Principle of democracy vs legal principles People think that a judiciary unelected of cials unchecked may inhibit democracy Allocation of legislative power Legislature Government Cou s Questions beyond majority principle Such as protecting minority rightshuman rights And moral principles Administrative agencies more and more becoming international agencies Technical specialization argument Central banks Development of technical standards Accountability ofjudges Selflimited by jurisdiction and law Deliberative body With justi ed decisions Dependent upon the government on funding and appointments Risk of politicization Opinions not too far away from public opinion unjusti ed on the risk of being ignored The Law Constitutions quotBody of rules that speci es ow all other legal rules are to be produced applied and interpretedquot Procedural rules that establish how political decision are made powers of each actor are clearly de ned Normative human and civil rights provisions with which political decisions have to be made compatible post WW2 and aspirational social rights ldealistic rules as well Such as having a house But a state cannot give a house but is expected to make it available if the resources exist Constitutions and the nation two traditions US Constitution is revered Seen as the founding act of the country and the nation FranceEurope The French nation has existed long before the French constitution Consultation emanates of the nation Nation has power to constitute and reconstitute its severing owner Ex France has had 5 republics 5 constitutions Origins 19ht century Napoleonic wars and the revolutions of 1848 20h century all the world wars Generally after independence After civil or international war After a communistdictatorial regime Then the case of the UK Rigid constitutions Referendum DK IRE Super majoritarian greater than 23 GER Flexible Between 23 and ordinary majority GRE lTA Or simple ordinary majority UK Judicialization of Politics Increased power in courts and other legal institutions Seen in courts trying kings dictators Three ways in which courts have taken on new and important roles relative to legislatures 1 Courts have been increasingly able and willing to limit and regulate the exercise of parliamentary authority by imposing substantive limits on the power of legislature instructions 2 Have become places where policy is made 3 Judges have regulated the conduct of political activity itself a Construct and enforce acceptable behavior Political activists now have to take courts into account as well Widespread adoption of institutions and practices of constitutional adjudication Ordinary European judges are not permitted to strike down legislation Con ded to special constitutional courts Super national judicial institutions in Luxembourg and Strasbourg Namely the European Court ofjustice and the European Court of Human Rights Have limited the capacities of national political institutions to make and implement domestic and International policy Three judiciaries in Europe that can review legislation are ordinary judges constitutional justices and the justices serving on the European Courts In a republic the legislative power is vested in the legislature Vertical power constitution legislative process ND power to the provinces or sates Horizontal power executive patriates in the legislative process in various ways as a proposer of legislation a veto player or both Power will relocate itself to institutions Legislative power shifts around among all the branches of government In erode the most substantial legislative power is in the hands of the government itself Not as present in the US but still apparent When courts engage in law making it is done so as a reaction to structural political factors The structural conditions favorable to judicial legislation are also favorable to judicial regulation of the Conduct of candidates for of ce elected officials and their appointees politics tends to follow legislations Legislative Power Montesquieu believed that the combining of legislative and judicial powers was the very Essene of tyranny judicializaiton of politics The judiciary is taking more legislative power away from the legislature They are themselves producing more policies Regulating behavior Ex what constitutes a PAC If they wanted to draw a limit on terms in the housesenate The more judicial zed a system the more likely it will become politicized judicialization is not guaranteed Depends upon the behavior of the populace and the normative practices therein 1 Fragmentation a To mediate the con ict i Checks and balance systems are set up to create con ict b The more fragmented the system formally or informally more judicial power 2 Rights hypothesis a As the judiciary protected more rights they were granted more power to protect those rights b Especially on the international level c After the second world war And would not have been possible before the world because the quotleftquot opposed any judiciary involvement in the legislative process After the war the left wasn39t going to push this anymore As people called on more protection for rights the more authority the judiciary was granted To regulate the behavior politics and the civilians And it is still the most highly regarded institution 9 Leads to the judicialization 9 of politics 0 Because the citizens have a new way of promoting their interests EU Crisis Monetary crisis Euro has depreciated Has resulted in several governments within the Eurozone falling Series of new challenges to the authority of the European Union Most prominent being Grace Could not pay debt Or bail out their national banks Germany is the most prominent intervener Principle actors Spain Greece Portugal Italy and Cyprus debt Fall of the Berlusconi regime in Italy Unemployment rate skyrockets 27 of the population 2009 government of Greece and Ireland have been forced to resign 9 Increased in radicalization 0 Left is social Greek party is called the radical left Antiausterity Social democratic 0 Left includes the labor party with Germany and France supply Which it is taking out of its own social programs Austerity keeping your de cit low But are also decreasing the consumption rate in Greece UK is considering leaving North South crisis North lends cheap credit to the south Because south is in debt But the northern banks will bene t from this At least on the private level SYRIZA Radical left Admit that Greece has making the level of indebtedness worse By the previous government Had been taking more money than they needed So they promised to reform In exchange that they would get more room to breathe on their debt repayment Germany and other northern said no 0 Left parties running everywhere want to change the way politics is ran in EU They don39t want everything to be based on money Fight against austerity measures Migration Crisis August Germany and France announced after a terrorist attack on a bus a joint effort to deal with migration In the quotSchengenquot zone contagious zone of 26 countries Have to all work together Germany wanted a quota Per country Based on size So that the problem is equally distributed Because the postsoviet countries and eastern European countries bene t greatly from the Schengen zone As do the other countries So Germany is trying to bargain with them quotIf you want to be in the open zone you have to have quotaquot Otherwise Germany is heading towards a path of isolation In September Germany created a former border control with Austria Because of the terrorist attack Borders in the EU Anything that borders outside the Schengen zone is required to have border control Hungary Turkey Greece These are the countries that are the rst to receive immigrants Germany does not have external borders but is trying to manage the refugee ow In response to the peak of the crisis for a few weeks Germany accepted refugees regardless of Where in the Schengen zone they entered Still hold this policy But control the ows that arrive TUrkey 1 billion given by the EU To build camps But not everyone is giving the proper amount of funding Turkey is not part of the EU But want to be Could this be a negotiating point The president of Turkey is arguing at the same time to low the passport Political Cleavages and Party Systems Electoral Systems Levels and Governance Welfare States EU
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