Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Geology 101
Popular in Geology 101
Popular in Geology
This 168 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chandni Morar on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Geology 101 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Paul Arthur Giesting in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Geology 101 in Geology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
uartz A very common rockforming silicate mineral consisting of crystalline silica i I that i u d nt i A r rckfr in fa a r i l th at ta i rthoclase One of the most common minerals and occurs in numerous mineral environments Silicates igneous livine A green ironmagnesium silicate mineral that composes much of the upper mantle and also occurs in ma c and ultra ma c igneous rocks Pyroxene One of a group of mostly dark singlechain silicate minerals Amphibole A group of silicate minerals including hornblende characterized by double chains of silicate tetrahedra most common in igneous and metamorphic rocks xru p of she t ilicte i era Is incl I I7 a teria Is havin rly e rfet asal cl H e IVIuscovite A light colored sheet silicate mineral that is part of the mica family Hematite An iron oxide metal that has a reddish streak and commonly forms under oxidizing conditions Magnetite An iron oxide mineral that is typically black and is strongly magnetic A rock frmin lciu rnte mine I rrin in esto riet of te r a ted a x it f 9 rb it i i I nta i i ng lc i i Halite A salt mineral NaCl generally formed by the evaporation of water cleaves into cubes and has a distinctive salty taste Pyrite A common pale bronze to brass yellow iron sul de mineral commonly called quotFool s gold Crystal Solid material whose constituents such as atoms molecules or ions are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions Silicate lightdark Minerals that contain siliconoxygen tetrahedra the most common mineral group on Earth it h a ta I I i nt Ii in at ta i inral pe cia I Iy thse f ir n er th t f0 th rfa banded w 3 nt i i in i of t h rn e ombinatin lled Caronate Sul de A group of minerals containing sulfur bonded with a mineral Granite A coarsegrained felsic igneous rock containing mostly feldspar and quartz iorite A medium to coarse grained intermediatecomposition igneous rock the phaneritic equivalent of andeshe rained ma c k h i If s f basalt ieou rck genera of olca ic i i n t i l l ic h pi f u ic an ri Ie ts of ta I Andesite An intermediatecomposition igneous rock that is the ne grained equivalent of diorite typically gray or greenish gray Basalt A nedgrained dark colored ma c igneous rock with or without vesicles and phenocrysts of pyroxene olivine or feldspar Phenocryst Crystals in an igneous rock that are larger than those around them as in a porphyritic rock Ma c A generally dark colored silicate mineral with a high magnesium and iron content h itu f fel i d i neu that r I ti el 1 T fel a r n in el ments t ht f q rtz IntrusivePlutonic Rock An igneous rock that solidi ed from magma below Earth s surface Extrusive Rock An igneous rock that forms when magma is erupted onto Earth s surface PIutonIntrusion A subsurfact magma body or the mass of rock in which it solidi es sheet I i ke i ntrusi that gut for e uith st ntation I re p ri t u r i s intrusio tht a llels Iae 39ther Ia ct f t h u d i n C a lt 339 I Q suhrizon39tl frient n Stock Stock Batholith One or more contiguous plutons that cover more than 100 km Shield Volcano A type of volcano that has broad gently curved slopes constructed mostly of relatively uid basaltic lava ows Stratovolcano or Composite Volcano A common type of volcano constructed of alternating layers of lava pyroclastic deposits and mass wasting deposits including mud ows A la re vlcanic e r essin that is tyia I I circular t elon ate i e a d f rmed cll a pse f mama ch b rsin frm id sinkin cl la ps f the rfa lyi n ve void cha er the th b th ru tin f vlcani vnt Volcanic Ash Particles of volcanic tephra that are sand sized or smaller and accumulations of such materials Volcanic Cinder Rock fragments are glassy and contain numerous gas bubbles frozen into places as magma explodes into the air and cooled quickly Volcanic Bomb A large rock fragment representing either a large blob of magma or a solid angular block ejected during an explosive volcanic eruption h n k f k th t i 39 f r ha e stru t re int FOUndEd that f hen lava tlt rater Pahoehoe A type of lava or lava ow that has a smooth upper surface or folds that form a ropy tecture A block type of lava with a rough jagged surface Tuff Volcanic rock composed of consolidated volcanic ash and other tephra commonly including pumice crystals and rock fragments Cinder Cone A dark gray black or reddish volcanic rock that contains abundant vesicles usually having that composition of basalt or andeshe Sand A grain or rock fragment smalled than 2 mm and larger than 116 mm Silt A ne grained rock fragment or clast 1256 to 116 mm in diameter Clay 1 Any ne grained sedimentary particle that is ner than 1256 mm 2 A family of nely crystalline hydroussilicate minerals with a two or three layered crystal structure fra nt f d i nt f ned t br n d in i d mtrix f sand and mud Sandstone A medium grained clastic sedimentary rock composed mostly of grains of sand along with other material Siltstone A sedimentary rock composed of consolidated silt sized particles generally mostly quartz Shale A ne grained elastic sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of clay and other ned grained material Mudstone A rock composed of consolidate mud i cti n tht affect 0th ate rial y b re a i n i nerals an in lubl material fr he ial brea kin f h Erosion The wearing away of soil sediment and rock through the removal of material by running water waves currents ice wind and gravity Transport The processes by which the sediment is moved along Maturity of sediment Describes the composition and texture of elastic rocks Angular Angular Sorting Particles become sorted on the basis of density because of the energy of the transporting medium CIastClastic Rock CIastClastic Rock ChemicalBiochemical Rock ChemicalBiochemical Rock Eva porite Fomed by evaporation of sea water or lake water Contact Metamorphism Contact Metamorphism Regional Metamorphism Regional Metamorphism Gneiss Gneiss Marble Marble Quartzite Quartzite Foha on Foha on
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