Lecture Exam 2 study guide
Lecture Exam 2 study guide 262
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Skyla Stifter on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 262 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Morgan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Kinesiology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Lecture exam 2 Anatomy 262 Introduction skeletal muscle tissue and muscle organization 3 types of muscle tissue Skeletal moves the body by pulling on bones of the skeleton Cardiac pushed blood through the arteries and veins of the circulatory system Smooth pushes uids and solids along the digestive tract and perform varied functions in other systems Muscle tissues have 4 basic properties Excitability the ability to respond to stimulation Skeletal respond by the nervous system Cardiac amp Smooth respond to nervous system and circulation hormones Contractibility ability to shorten actively and exert a pull or tension that can be harnessed by CT Extensibility ability to continue to contract over a range of resting lengths Elasticity ability of a muscle to rebound towards its original length after a contraction Functions of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscles perform the following functions Produce skeletal movement muscle contractions pull on the tendons and move the skeletal bones Maintain posture and body position without constant muscular contraction we could not sit upright without collapsing or stand without toppling over Support soft tissues abdominal all and the oor of the pelvic cavity support the weight of visceral organs and protect internal tissues from injury Regulate entering and exiting of material muscles encircle openings of the digestive and urinary tracts and they provide voluntary control over swallowing defecation and urination Maintain body temperature heat lost by contracting muscles keeps our body temperature in range required for normal functioning Gross anatomy of skeletal muscles Each skeletal muscle has 3 concentric layers of CT Epimysium is a dense irregular CT layer that surrounds the entire skeletal muscle very outside muscle Perimysium divides the muscle into a series of internal compartments each containing a bundle of muscle bers also called fascicle Endomysium is a delicate network of reticular bers that surrounds each skeletal muscle ber Endomysium has 2 functions It binds each muscle ber to its neighbor Supports capillaries that supply individual bers Collagen vers of the epimysium perimysium and endomysium often converge to form a brous connection of the muscle to bone skin or another muscle These form tendons look like thick cords Microanatomy of skeletal muscle bers Skeletal muscle vers differ in several other respects from the quottypicalquot cell Skeletal muscle bers are multinucleated each skeletal muscle ber contains hundreds of nuclei just inside the sarcolemma Myo brils and myo laments myomuscle The sarcoplasm of the skeletal muscle ber conatins hundreds to thousands of myo brils myoblastmyocytes The cell membrane sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle ber surrounds the cytoplasm Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules vesicles and cisternae within cells and stores calcium ions needed for muscle contraction Mitochondria and glycogen granules are scattered among the myo brilsused to power the cell When a myo bril contracts the entire cell shortens because the myo brils are attached to the sarcolemma at each end of the cell Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which new mitochondria are formed in the cell Actin laments are quotthin lamentsquot Myosin laments are quotthick lamentsquot Myosin heads crossbridges Sarcomeres repeating units of organized actin and myosin laments As a result the entire muscle ber has a banded appearance corresponding the bands Sarcomeres are the smallest functional units of the muscle ber Interactions between thick and thin laments are responsible for skeletal muscle ber contractions Sarmrnare Iballd l Alband l lband Aotin lament Mlyoain lament Nebulirl w Z39dif quot39 l Cazone A thin lament also contains the associated proteins called Tropomyosin molecules which form a long chain that covers the active sites preventing actinmyosin interaction Troponin which holds the tropomyosin strand in place Sarcopenia age related loss of muscle mass and function lullband Tltin Muscle contraction Trigger for a contraction calcium ions as well as ATP Sliding Filament Theory occurs when the myosin heads of thick laments bind to active sites on thin laments When crossbridge binding occurs the myosin head pivots toward the M line pulling the thin lament toward the center of the sarcomere The crossbridge then detaches and returns to its original position ready to repeat the circle of quotattach pivot detach and returnquot Immediate trigger for a contraction is the appearance of free calcium ions in the sarcoplasm Creatine is naturally produced in the human body from amino acids Creatine anaerobically donates a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP during the rst 27 seconds following an intense muscular neuronal effort Chemicals are released by the motor neuron at the neuromuscularjunction alter the transmembrane potential of the sarcolemma this release initiates the contraction Each skeletal muscle ver is controlled by a motor neuron Axon extends into the periphery to reach the neuromuscularjunction of the muscle ber Synaptic terminal expanded tip of the axon at the neuromuscular junction KEY STEPS IN THE INTITIATION OF A CONTRACTION INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING a At the neuromuscular junction nmj Ach released by the synaptic terminal binds to receptors on the sarcolemma b The resulting change in the transmembrane potential of the muscle ver leads to the production of an action potential that spreads across its entire surface and along the T tubules c The sarcoplasmic reticulum releases stored calcium ions increasing the calcium concentration of the sarcoplasm in and around the sarcomeres d Calcium ions bind to troponin production a change in the orientation of the troponin tropomyosin complex that exposes active sites on the thin actin laments Myosin crossbridges form when myosin heads bind to active sites e Repeated cycles of crossbridge binding pivoting and detachment occur powered by the hydrolysis of ATP These events produce lament sliding and the muscle ver shortens f This process continues for a brief period until g Action potential generated ceases as Ach is broken down by acetylcholinesterase AChE h The SR reabsorbs calcium ions and the concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm declines i When calcium ion concentration approach normal resting level the troponin tropomyosin complex returns to its normal position This change cover the active site and prevents further crossbridge interaction j Without crossbridge interactions further sliding does not take place and the contraction ends k Muscle relaxation occurs and the muscle ver returns passively to resting length Axial Musculature Lower back pain dorsalgia or lumbargo Muscles of facial expression originate on the surface of the skull When they contract the skin moves innervated by the 7th cranial nerve the facial nerve The largest group of facial muscles is associated with the mouth Six extraocular muscles also extrinsic eye muscles originate on the surface of the orbit and control the position of each eye Superior rectus Inferior rectus Medial rectus Lateral rectus Inferior oblique lateral and up Superior oblique muscles Muscles of mastication chewing move the mandible at the temporomandibular joint Temporomandibular joint articulation between the condyle of the mandible and squamous portion of the temporal bone 2 motions occur when opening the jaw rotation around a horizontal axis through the condylar heads Translation sliding condyle and meniscus move together anteriorly beneath the articular eminence TMj syndrome paindysfunction of the muscles of mastication and the temporo mandibular Causes bruxism malalignment excessive gum chewing Muscles of the pharynx swallowing muscles and includes paired pharyngeal muscles Anterior muscles of neck control the position of the larynx Sternocleidomastoidius amp scalene anterior middle and posterior 3 distinct layers of the back muscles Super cial layer trapezius amp latissimus dorsi they move the pectoral girdle and upper limb Intermediate layer erector spinae iliocostalis longissimus spinalis Deep layer deepest layer interconnect and stabilize the vertebrae Spinal exors muscles of the vertebral column include many extensors but few exors The vertebral column does not need a massive series of exor muscles for 2 reasons The body weight lies anterior to the vertebral column and gravity tends to ex the spine Large trunk muscles ex spine Diaphragm refers to any muscular sheet that forms a wall amp is a major muscle of respiration lts contraction increases the volume of the thoracic cavity to promote inspiration lts relaxation decreases the volume to facilitate expiration Hiatal hernia top of stomach protrudes through the diaphragm mimics a heart attack at times The muscles of the pelvic floor extend from the sacrum and coccyx to the ischium and pubis Appendicular Musculature Appendicular musculature muscles that are responsible for stabilizing that pectoral and pelvic girdles and for moving the upper and lower limbs Appendicular muscles account for roughly 40 percent of the skeletal muscles in the body There are 2 major groups of the appendicular muscles Pectoral girdle and upper limbs Pelvic girdle and lower limbs Muscles that move the pelvic girdle Large trapezius muscles cover the back portions of the neck while extending to the base of the skull The two deep chest muscles arise along the ventral surfaces of the ribs Subclavius muscle inserts upon the inferior border of the clavicle Pectoralis minor muscle attaches to the coracoid process of the scapula Rotator cuffs tear or pulling away of the tendinous insertions away from greater tubercle and associated humeral head structures Medial epicondylitis chronic in ammation of the tendons and their insertion points along the medial epicondyle attachment of the forearm exors Lateral epicondylitis involves forearm extensors muscles attachments along the lateral epicondyle of the humerus Most common lT Band Syndrome continual rubbing of the band over the lateral femoral epicondyle combined with the repeated exion and extension of the knee 0 Consistently running on a banked surface which causes the downhill leg to bend slightly inward Excessive uphill and downhill running Positioning the feed quottoedinquot to an excessive angle when cycling Running up and down stairs Hiking long distances The adductors of the thigh include Adductor mangus big muscles Adductor brevis muscles Adductor longus muscle Pectineus muscle Gracilis muscle Deep hip exor Psoas major muscle illiacus muscle Osgood Schlatter Disease jumpers knee irritation of the patellar tendon at tibial tuberosity 4 muscles of the quads Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius Rectus femoris Compartments of the upper limb Anterior compartment biceps brachii coracobrachialis and brachialis muscles Posterior compartment triceps brachii muscles Deep fascia of the antebrachium Super cial compartment 0 Deep compartment Extensor compartment Compartments of the lower limb Anterior Posterior Medial Compartments of lower leg 0 Anterior 0 Lateral o Super cial posterior 0 Deep posterior Compartment syndrome insuf cient blood supply to muscles and nerves due to increased pressure within one of the body s compartments Fasciotomy treatment for compartment syndrome Endocrine System Homeostatic regulation involved coordinating the activities of organs and systems throughout the body The nervous system produces shortterm but very speci c responses to environmental stimuli The endocrine gland cells release chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body Hormones alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously Endocrine cells are deep structures that are glandular secretory cells that release hormones into the interstitial uids lymph system and blood Exocrine glands secrete onto an epithelial surface and are super cial Hypothalamus main connection for endocrine and nervous system secretes regulatory hormones that control the activities of endocrine cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland Hypophyseal portal system a blood system of vessels in the brain that connects the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary Its main function is the transport and exchange of hormones to allow a fat communication between both glands Hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal axis HPA axis response to stress system 3 hormones in HPA axis Corticotrophinreleasing hormone CRH Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH Glucocorticoid hormones CORT Pituitary glands is the most compact chemical factory in the body About the size of a grape and lies inferior to the hypothalamus within the sella turcica Hormones released by the posterior lobe ADH antidiuretic hormone Primary function is to decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys Also causes the constriction of peripheral blood vessels which helps to elevate blood pressure Oxytocin stimulates the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the uterus and contractile myoepithelial cells surrounds the secretory ells of the mammary glandsaka milk discharge Hormones released by the anterior lobe Thyroidstimulating hormone TSH targets the thyroid gland and triggers the release of thyroid hormones Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH stimulates the release of steroid hormones by the adrenal gland Folliclestimulating hormone FSH promotes the development of oocytes female gametes within the ovaries of mature women Also stimulates the secretion of estrogens by follicle cells In men FSH secretion supports sperm production in the testes Luteinizing hormone LH induces ovulation in women and promotes the ovarian in women and promotes the ovarian secretion of progestins steroid hormones that prepare the body for possible pregnancy in men stimulates production of testosterone Prolactin PRL stimulates the development of the mammary glands and the production of milk Melanocytestimulating hormone MSH is the only hormone released by the pars intermedia Stimulates the melanocytes of the skin increasing their rates of melanin production and distribution Growth hormone GH stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis GH has a particularly strong effect on skeletal and muscular development Thyroid gland Dominates the anterior surface of the larynx and has a butter ylike appearance Consists of 2 main lobes Thyroid Follicles and Thyroid Hormones The C Cells of the thyroid gland Thyroid follicles manufacture store and secrete thyroid hormones Under the in uence of TRH from the hypothalamus anterior lobe of pituitary gland releases TSH thyroid stimulating hormone C Cells of the thyroid gland a second type of endocrine cell lies among the cuboidal follicle cells of the thyroid C Cells produce the hormone calcitonin CT builds up Calcitonin lowers calcium ion concentrations by inhibiting osteoclasts Parathyroid Glans There are typically four peasized reddish brown parathyroid glans located on the posterior surfaces of the thyroid gland Produce PTH when the calcium concentration falls below normal the chief cells secrete parathyroid hormone which has three functions PTH stimulates osteoclasts and osteoblasts and elevated blood calcium and causes kidneys to hold back calcium Thymus embedded in a mass of connective tissue inside the thoracic cavity usually just posterior to the sternum Adrenal glands rmly attached to the superior border of each kidney by a dense brous capsule Adrenal gland can be divided into two regions Super cial adrenal cortex lnner adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex produces hormones collectible called adrenocortical steroids or simply corticosteroids GREAT FRIENDS RELATE Zona Glomerulosa Zona Fasciculata Zona Reticularis Zona Glomerulosa the outermost cortical region and produces mineralocorticoids MC steroids hormones that affect the electrolyte composition of body uids Zona Fasciculata ACTH stimulates steroid production in the zona fasciculata from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland Produces steroid hormones collectible known as glucocorticoids GC because of their effect on glucose metabolism Zona Reticularis secretes small amounts of sex hormones called androgens Aldosterone is the principal mineralocorticoid and it has 2 main functions The retention of sodium ions and water thereby reducing uid losses in the urine Cortisol and Corticosterone speed up the rates of glucose synthesis and glycogen formation especially within the liver increase blood sugar Suppress the immune system Suppresses in ammation cells 0 Aids also in fat protein metabolism Ergogenic aids are any external in uences that in uence body processes in performance Steroids structurally related to testosterone in the body They increase protein within cells especially in skeletal muscles Adrenal Medulla contains two populations of endocrine cells One secreting epinephrine adrenaline Norepinephrine noadrenaline Together called catecholamine catabolic meaning breaks down material for energy Their secretion triggers cellular energy utilization and the mobilization of energy reserves Lymphatic System consists of a network of lymphatic vessels Lymph the uid CT transported in these vessels Functions of the lymphatic system Produce maintain and distribute lymphocytes Maintain normal blood volume and eliminate local variations in the chemical composition Provide an alternative route for the transport of hormones nutrients and waste products Structure of lymphatic Lymphatic vessels carry lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system LYMPH the uid that is carried by the lymphatic vessels A solution that bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals It is the main component of the extracellular uid Found in the interstitial spaces also known as the tissue spaces On average a person has about 11 liters 24 imperial gallons or 29 US gal of interstitial uid Function providing the cells of the body with nutrients and a means of waste removal Lymph returns protein and excess interstitial uid to the circulation Lymph may pick up bacteria Lymphatic Capillaries form a complex network within peripheral tissues Takes a uid and only allows it to go in one way and out one way Lymphatic capillaries absorb any viruses or other abnormal items such as cell debris or bacteria that are present in damaged or infected tissues Lymphatic capillaries are present in almost every tissue and organ in the body but are absent in areas that lack blood supply Major lymphcollecting vessels 4 kinds Super cial lymphatics travel with super cial veins and are found in the subcutaneous layer found in loose CT that line the digestive respiratory urinary and reproductive tracts Also the loose CT tissues of the serous membranes lining the pleural pericardial and peritoneal cavities Deep lymphatics are large lymphatic vessels that accompany the deep arteries and veins ex Palouse snake Columbia Lymphatic trunks come from the formation of the super cial and deep lymphatics Lumbar trunks Intestinal trunks Bronchomediastinal trunks Subclavian trunks Jungular trunks The lymphatic DUCTS are two large collecting vessels They deliver or dump the lymph uid into the circulatory systemex They are like big storm drains that accept all the lymph uid in the body The thoracic duct collects lymph from both sides of body inferior to the diaphragm and from the left side of the body superior to the diaphragm The right lymphatic duct relatively small right lymphatic duct collects lymph from the right side of the body superior to the diaphragm Lymphocytes PRIMARY CELLS of the lymphatic system and they are responsible for the speci c immunity They respond to the presence of the enemy such as lnvading organisms such as bacteria and viruses Abnormal body cells such as virusinfected cells or cancer cells Foreign protiens such as the toxins released by some bacteria They travel throughout the body circulating through the bloodstream then moving through peripheral tissues and eventually returning to the bloodstream through the lymphatic system Lymphocytes attempt to eliminate these threats by a combination of physical and chemical attacks Types of Lymphocytes T Cells thymusdependent MOST OF B Cells bone marrowderived NK Cells natural killer Hemophoieses means the making of blood Lymphopoieses means the making of lymphocyte cells Lymphoid Tissues lymph tissue is not vessels or cells but rather little storehouses or junctions where the vessels enter in and out of Lymphoid nodule densely packed within the loose CT collection of loose CT Digestive tract located on lymphoid nodules have an extensive array of lymphoid nodules collectively known as mucosaassociated lymphatic tissue MALT Lymphoid Organs are separated from surrounding tissues by a brous connective tissue capsule Lymph nodes FILTER and purify lymph before it reaches the venous system They are small and oval resembles a lima bean Blood vessels and nerves attach to the lymph node at the hilus 2 sets of lymphatic vessels are connected to each lymph node Afferent in enter Efferent out exit Largest lymph nodes are called lymph glands Lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes are distributed in areas particularly susceptible to injury or invasion Cervical lymph nodes head and neck Axillary Lymph nodes trunk from upper limbs Popliteal lymph nodes thigh from the leg lnguinal lymph nodes trunk from lower limbs Thoracic lymph nodes lungs respiratory passageways mediastinal structures Abdominal lymph nodes urinary and reproductive systems
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