Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide PSYC 440 002
Popular in Survey of Personality
PSYC 440 002
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
PSYC 450 001
verified elite notetaker
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Carroll on Friday October 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 440 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Eugene Hubener in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Survey of Personality in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for Exam Two Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/16/15
Exam Two Study Guide Freud and Psychosexual Development Phallic Stage ages 35 continued 0 Gaining a sense of power 0 Consciousness develops o Homosexuaityheterosexuaity develops here 0 Oedipus Complex Example of Na Na Boy a ve year old boy that would nurse whenever his dad wasn t around and slept in his place at night when he is out of town His dad did not agree 0 More than about sex but about power Healthv familv according to familv therapist Hierarchy C1 C2 C3 0 Children are subject to the authority of the parents 0 Example of hierarchy in Na Na Boy and the abuseimbalance of power 0 Na Na boy takes the position of the boy and the mother allows it Lack of communication between mom and dad C1 M Freud s Structural Model of the Mind Id 0 Driver primary motivator of personality Pleasure principle sex amp aggression 0 Reduction of tension through the immediate grati cation of instincts Primary process thinking dreams not bound by logic or reality Ego Reality principle 0 Secondary process thinking 0 Reality based problem solving thinking 0 Defense mechanism Formulate compromises between Id and Superego and the outside world by the reality principle acknowledgement of the outside world Superego A primitive internalized representative of the values of society that is formed in our psyches during the phallic stage from the same sex parent daughtermom or sonfather o Represents socia constraints 0 Animal house angel and devil example from exam 1 o Evolves out of the phallic stage Defense Mechanism 0 Regression retreating to an earlier and more primitive stage or mode of behavior in order to avoid pain threats or anxiety 0 Kids after trauma 0 Example a mother lapses into diversionary baby talk with her daughter whenever she confronts a tough decision or threatening situation 0 Displacement shifting an impulse from a threatening to a nonthreatening object 0 Example Kid got spanked and the kid takes his anger out on someone else weaker not who spanked them 0 Example angry at his boss because of a demotion the businessman goes home and argues with his wife Sublimation channeling socially unacceptable impulses into acceptable even admirable behavior 0 Surgeon cutting people and in return it saves them 0 Doing something frowned upon by society but for a good reason 0 Example a surgeon channels aggressive energy into constructive medical work an artist employs the libido to produce a masterpiece Repression a dangerous impulse is actively and totally excluded from consciousness 0 Push ideas away truly unaware 0 Multiple personality disorder the librarian and the prostitute 0 Example an aging father fails to recognized his own feelings of hostility toward his strong athletic son 0 Projection attributing one s own unacceptable and disturbing thoughts and impulses to someone else 0 Example Catholic man wants a divorce but it is wrong in his religion so he pushes his wife away until she wants a divorce 0 Example a man preoccupied with doubts about his own heterosexuality frequently accuses others of being homosexual Reaction Formation Warding off an unacceptable impulse by over emphasizing its opposite in thought and behavior 0 Mom wants to kill her baby but is head of an antiabortion foundation Rationalization devising an extremely reasonably explanation or excuse for an event or behavior that threatens the person s esteem o Sheldon 0 Example a wife explains her husband s repeated in delity as a product of his unfortunate upbringing or an overly seductive environment The Ego breaks down neurotic break down when it is overwhelmed by the id superego and the outside world 0 Example hand washing removing guilt from psyche action has a meaning Neopsychoanalysis Ego Psychology 0 Expand the functions of the ego o Ego as autonomous master integrator driver of personality Promotes adaptation through all of the brain Emphasize importance of interpersonal relationships as critical to development 0 Object relations provide structure for individualism Family stems theory problems are the result of failure of the family to individuate Competence motivation wants to be more competent through our lives 0 Erik Erikson ego psychologist interpersonal relationships most important In the context of other people is how people develop individually lThought this model re ected our ever changing evolving learning competent seeking people in a world of other people Symbiotic relationship where someone is completely dependent on the other 0 Throughout life relationships change and gain independence 0 Example motherfetus lndividuation Opposite of individuation trying to change someone based on your own needs Goethe quota good relationship is when each is the guardian of the others solitudequot Respecting the others difference and advancefacilitate their individuality Familv Svstems Theorv with Ego Psvchology Looks beyond the individual and identi es the issues within the family the ill person is like an escape goat and they are acting out the skewed family systems 0 Re ect an undifferentiated ego mass 0 Not allowed to have individual differences 0 Example of Ego Psychology Tuba Boy Sister Dad High school senior band student had so much anxiety about school he couldn twouldn t go Mom and Tuba Boy were really close and looked like dad and sister were excluded Dad worked a lot Tuba boy was not becomingwanting to grow in individuation Graduating leaving home going to work Parents lived in separate worlds and had not alone time Tuba Boy is too anxious when away from mom The counselors wanted the parents to spend more time alone together so the mother and son would spend less time together The setup of the room during counseling Mom Tuba Boy Family Structure Dad Mom Sister Psvchoanalvtic Counseling Free association gives a stimulus and ask them the rst thing that comes to mind dreampicture card 0 Gets at an unconscious behavior Blank screen behavior the therapist remains as neutral and ambiguous as possible 0 Sitting behind a client so they can t see the nonverbal behavior of the therapist o If the setting is neutral then the client will project unbiased unconscious behavior Transference transferring onto the therapist some of those unresolved con ict in the past CounterTransference can t objectively see the client because of the therapists own issues 0 Interpretation therapist gives meaning or interprets the client s behavior Very open ended statements and the session is client lead Freudian Theories Research support is weak because hypotheses are dif cult to test Freud s theories are so abstract to try and study 0 Operationalize constructs o Achieve interrater reliability 0 Achieve validity Example of a Freudian Theory that is Hard to Test Penis Envy Someone tried to research this 0 They used a paper pen test 0 The dependent variable was whether the participant walked off with the pen that they used from the exam 0 Women have more penis envy than men and in return they hoarded pen more than men 0 The study did nd a systematic difference of women hoarding pens more than men Research Support for Freudian Theories o Unconscious can in uence cognitionsbehaviors Silverman 0 Example Schizophrenic males shown a movie and a clip was shown a 4000th of a sec periodically throughout the movie that said one of three things 0 This is a population that is hard to manipulate and is very resistant to change That is why this is study is impressive that the messages did in uence behavior 2 Mom and l are one 0 PT increases 3 Destroy Mom 0 PT decreases 4 Neutral Message Men talking o The more sophisticated the more mature defense mechanism that we typically employ the more likely we are to be well adjusted Vaillant Harvard Study 0 Level 1 denial 0 Level 2 projection passive aggression 0 Level 3 intellectualization reaction formation 0 Level 4 altruism humor sublimation Example Small number of Harvard maes study over years that gave a lot of information longitudinal study 0 Defense mechanisms in the Harvard males 0 More sophisticated defense mechanism better mental health 0 They coded trends of how they dealt with daily tasks 0 Conscious Coping Strategies Lazarus 0 Problem focused o Emotion focused 0 Mixed Example coping is good because not everything in unconscious Problem focused strategies where you directly alter the stressor Emotion focused strategies that alter emotions use this in situations you can t control like death and with disabilities 0 Mixed Maior Findings in Research on Coning Those who use coping strategies do better than those who don t duh 0 Plan for different situations 0 Problem focused strategies are usually better than emotion or mixed focused History of Personality Psychology 0 Created in the 1930 s 0 First authoritative test for the eld was Gordon Allport39s 1937 Personality A Psychological Interpretation 0 Identi ed and important distinction in personality research between the nomothetic approach which aims to discover and test general principles of behavior across many individuals and the idiographic approach which focuses on the speci c and individual patterning of the single human life 0 Modern personality psychology can be divided into three periods 0 O 1 19301950 developing general systems and grand theories of personality 2 19501970 re ning measurement techniques and elaborating personality constructs 3 197Present began with a crisis concerning the legitimacy of personality studies and developed into the present sense of renewal and invigoration in the eld of personality psychology Trait Psychology 0 Traitare general internal and comparative dispositions that we attribute to people 0 0 Can guide future interactions with people Broad individual differences in social emotional functions There is a genetic component to traits Internal characteristics or tendency that are relatively stable across time and situations Differentiated from state state of anxiety Biologically predisposed to traits and shaped by the environment though of trait psychology Example Trait happy generally all the time 0 State how you feel at the moment 0 Situational Trait Measurement 0 De ne a trait 0 Write items 0 Select questionresponse format 0 Try out items 0 Item analysis itemtotal correlation 0 Factor analysis 0 Statistical procedure to reduce data to a smaller number of factors Smallest number of important domains 0 How many clusters are formed by looking at the interitem correlation matrix You want all the questions that pertain to one trait to cluster together and not with other traits don t relate 1 Replicate Measurement Principle 0 Reliability consistency of the measure across time and item 0 Testretest reliability consistent across items Coef cient Alpha mean of all possible splithalves Average score and you want it to be high 0 Individual purposes 90 0 Research purposes 6070 0 Note you cannot have validity without reliability but you can have reliability without validity You don t want test retest reliability when you expect a drastic change 0 Example improvement in reading during the 1St and 2nOI grade Measurement Principles Validity does the test measure what it says it measures 0 Content Validity does the content of items really relate to the trait under consideration 0 Example do the test questions match the material covered Criterion Validity extent to which a test correlates with independent criterion measures 0 Concurrentmeasured oncepredictivefuture measurement 0 How a test relates to an already proven Golden standard This is how you know that the test was reliable and valid My new made IQ test and another proven IQ test tested against one another 0 Construct Validity do the test scores produce theoretically expected results 0 ConvergentDiscriminant 0 Example Kids get smarter as they grow older IQ can relate to age schooling and job Discriminant Validity two variables are not related and that is okay Look for evidence that things do not relate 0 Example IQ and shoe size or Happiness and IQ 0 You know you are measuring two different things that are not correlated 0 Use factor analysis to measure The Big Five 0 Knowing a person s traits big ve allows you to better predict actions 0 High construct validity Likely to score the same on the Big Five in a couple decades 0 OCEAN o A comprehensive description of basic dimensions of variability in human psychological qualities that are implicated in consequential social behavior 0 These traits are on a bipolar continuum highlow Example I test high on conscientiousness but low on neuroticism Openness to experiences 0 Originalconventional o Imaginativedown to earth 0 Creativeuncreative o Broad interestsnarrow interests 0 Complexsimple o Curiousincurious Conscientiousness O O Conscientiousnegligent Ca refuIca reless Reliablenon reliable Wellorganizeddisorganized Selfdisciplinedweakwilled Preservingquitting Extraversion O O Sociableretiring Fun lovingsober Affectionatereserved Friendlyaloof Spontaneousinhibited Talkativequiet Agreeableness O 0 Good naturedirritable Soft heartedruthless Courteousrude Forgivingvengeful Sympatheticcallous Ag reeabIedisagreeable Neuroticism Worryingcalm Nervousat ease High strungrelaxed Insecuresecure Selfpityingself satis ed Vulnerable hardy Characteristic adaptationsl are contextualized facets of psychological individuality that speak to motivational cognitive and developmental concerns in personality Addresses questions like what do people want How do people seek what they desire and fear what they avoid How do people plan and cope The Big Five has been studied in correlation to longevity It was found that consciousness is the strongest predictor of living a longer life 0 Example these people are more likely to follow their doctors orders It is important to know more about Extroversion and Neuroticism than the other three because we focused on them more in class Still know some descriptions of all ve but focus on E and N Extroversion E 0 Individual scoring higher on E would 0 Talk more and sooner when they meet someone Engage in more eye contact with others Show little or no salivation increase in response to lemon juice Tend to be more sexually active Less sensitive to stimuli and pains Report greater levels of positive affect happiness More impulsive o Drawn to jobs that deal with people Relatively stable over time 0 Has biological bases 0 Reticular activation system Eysenck Example think introversion and extroversion like a thermometer Extroverts are low on the thermometer set low so they are constantly looking for stimulus to raise the temperature lntroverts are set really high on the thermometer and are always trying to lower stimuli o Behavioral approach system OOOOOO Neuroticism N 0 Individuals scoring higher on N would 0 More nervousness guilt and inhibition 0 Report more health complaints particularly males 0 More selfgenerated stressful events 0 More midlife crisis 0 More likely to be a criminal socially inadequate type 0 Dif culty adjusting in intimacy and disclosure to meet situational demands 0 High risk of psychopathy o More marriage dif culties o More highly internallyfocused oblivious to social cues too self occupied Very stable over time and situation 0 Biological bases 0 Hypothalamus an limbic system Eysenck o Behavioral inhibition system amygdala Four Ancient Personality Types h E oTinmrtattv 1 lil3939J39STJEBLE HEURTHEJI ll gnj Fulil P Hill Amimm Rigid Sober Feesimisiii Ums titile Quiet ijiglil 1 ml FileHili llg llmE lillfll all full El ful l Ei39ll E if IlJi iLl l l H JAM a I Mi lFI iii l39ii l Iquot UHHTR HE E EEEIEIZlIE litigantgal Tallitatitre Elites panslime will Earefree ll E ils Ell39SI lii Fl l 1 ii i ill l EJ llLl Ex ntl l ll lanai en nil rln all r l l L l 2 n T on H ril h an ea l ff Til HAL Elii Emuz L E39 r ltfk lH 1 ME lEyselt ic MW Fermimy m m u j urrmmmes F39iLifl39llJl39E39i FLIL IIEuI39HI39IE 3 55 Greek physician Galen codi ed the humoral theory of traits delineating four basic personality types that were each linked to characteristic bodily uids 0 Sanguine phlegmatic melancholic and choleric 0 These were later adapted by Eysneck into the diagram above Strategies High Extroversion more effective 0 Rational problem solving 0 Positive thinking 0 Restraint High Neuroticism less effective 0 Escapist fantasy 0 Hostile reaction 0 lndecisiveness Passivity Seda on Selfbla me Wishful thinking Withdrawal OOOOO Temperament Subset of personality variability that is o Biologically determined 0 Present at birth 0 Stablecoherent across the life span Refers to the quothowquot verse what of behavior behavior style 0 New York Longitudinal Study 0 Kids and temperament by Thomas Chess and Birch o 9 variables clustered into 3 main groups 0 Three groups of infants Easy Babies predominantly positive mood low intensity of emotional reaction regular eating and sleeping patterns Dif cult Babies consistent negative mood irregular eating and sleeping cycles intense emotional reaction Slow to Warm up Babies frequent negative moods low intensive reaction tendency to avoid new events 0 Example do not want to start school or change grade levels EASI Temperament Survey for kids Activity Emotionality develops into neuroticism for adults Sociability lmpulsivity TreatmentInterventions Selfselect environments 0 Goodness of t personenvironment Example tting the students personality to the teacher or the type of school CHAPTER REVIEWS CHAPTER FOUR PERSONALITY TRAITS FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND ISSUES People can be compared and contrasted by their traits Personality traits can be traced back to ancient texts Allport centered his entire discipline of personality psychology on the concept of trait which he de ned as neuropsychic structure responsible for consistencies in behavior over time and across situations More literal de nition and idea 0 Based upon two types of traits Common traits which many people could be compared Personal Dispositions characteristics that were unique to a given person Cattell developed a rigorously quantitative program for trait research combining life record and laboratory tests 0 Through factor analysis he derived 16 basic source traits that he believed accounted for the lion s share of variance in personality Hans Eysneck used factor analysis to develop a highly in uential theory that accounted for human individuality through extraversionintroversion neuroticism and psychoticism 0 Each trait is linked to individual differences in neurophysiology Today personality psychology is a combination of all three theorist the big ve 0 Most personality traits can be measured through selfreports Oldest personality inventory is the MMPI the most popular and welldesigned is the CPI CHAPTER FIVE FIVE BASIC TRAITS IN THE BRAIN AND IN BEHAVIOR Eysneck argued that individual differences in extroversion were the product of innate differences in the organization of the central nervous system c He suggested that by virtue of differences in the functioning of the brain s reticular activating system people differ with respect to characteristic levels of arousal and arousability o Extraverts seek out stimulation to raise arousal to an optimum level while introverts operate at a higher level of arousal and reach an optimal level more quickly CHAPTER SIX CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN TRAITS THE ROLES OF GENES ENVIRONMENTS AND TIME 0 Longitudinal studies show remarkable differential continuity in personality traits over much of the adult lifespan 0 Very stable CHAPTER 7 PARTIAL Unconscious the state of being outside of awareness For Freud the unconscious is a shadowy realm of the mind wherein reside repressed thoughts feelings memories con icts and the like 0 Id ego and superego
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'